https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS the Information Space Available to All
rNEWS the Information Space Available to All
Friday, 30th april 2021 | rNEWS

rNEWS is the information space, created within the blog that highlights, without veils or filters, the articles considered interesting referring to companies in the field of the circular economy, the environment, recycling, sustainability, renewable energy and the culture of sustainability. The articles will have an informative, non-commercial and will be chosen from those published online that adhere to the spirit of the portal so as to create independent content available to the customers. Subscribers to the platform can intervene in the life of this section by publishing an article, free of charge, in compliance with the rules of disclosure without commercial purposes. In the published article the sources and the author will always be cited, who will always remain the owner of the contents. The management reserves the right to accept, reduce or exclude articles if these are not or in line with the spirit of the portal. If you want to submit an article for publication click here . Happy reading!

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How To Make Cycle Paths With Self-locking Blocks in Recycled and Recyclable PVC
How To Make Cycle Paths With Self-locking Blocks in Recycled and Recyclable PVC
Tuesday, 13rd april 2021 | Circular economy

The problem of environmental protection is now a completely transversal topic in our life and, at every level of responsibility and competence, its protection and the reduction of the impact of man on the ecosystem is to be kept in evidence. Cities and the connecting areas between them are undergoing a transformation in the field of sustainable mobility, pushing decisively towards the use of bicycles. Precisely in the era of a pandemic there was a rediscovery of the pedal vehicle, an activity that takes on factors that are not only of a social, urban or environmental character, but also those principles of "slow life", that is a more natural and relaxed approach to life, where time is given the right value, not consumed but lived. The use of the bicycle has led to the rediscovery of a healthier mobility system, more participatory towards the environment crossed and a form of newfound familiarity and conviviality between people . To follow this new approach to sustainable mobility, it is necessary to create and improve routes that are expressly dedicated to bicycle traffic, through projects that take into consideration the principles of sustainability and the circular economy. For this reason, in the technical design phase, the use of materials that can contribute to the environment, waste reduction and recyclability of the elements at the end of their life. As for the road paving of cycle paths in urban areas or connecting one city to another, the tendency is not to use materials that have created an environmental impact already in their constitution before their use, such as asphalts or concrete blocks, whose raw materials derive from natural resources, but to use elements that derive from the recycling of plastic materials. One of these is the self-locking block made of recycled PVC, whose raw material consists of the waste from the processing of electrical cables, from which the copper and the plastic sheaths. These sheaths are recovered, selected, recycled and transformed into raw material to create driveways with monolithic interlocking suitable for road and cycle-walkable pavements. A flooring made with PVC recycled interlocking blocks fully embraces the principles of the circular economy, that is, the use of processed waste to replace natural raw materials for avoid the impoverishment of the planet. The flooring in self-locking blocks in recycled PVC has a long life, remains flexible in operation, does not create holes, does not undergo degradation due to road salts, it is light and with an economical do-it-yourself installation, it does not stain as it does not absorb oils or pollutants, it is washable, non-slip and paintable. In addition, the replacement of individual pieces of the flooring is very simple and economical, as the self-locking block is quickly replaced without creating an interruption in the road network for maintenance. Related articles: • Paintable Recycled PVC Flooring Self-locking • Certifications on Recycled PVC Blocks for Flooring Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled Plastic and Gamma Rays Increase Concrete Performance
Recycled Plastic and Gamma Rays Increase Concrete Performance
Saturday, 10th april 2021 | Technical information

There are several applications of recycled plastic, or non-recyclable plastic waste, which have been tested in the construction sector, with the aim of helping the system to dispose of the waste that we produce and, at the same time, improve the circularity of a sector that needs to integrate into the great common goal of producing and consuming the least amount of natural resources and having as little impact on the environment as possible. The use of recycled plastic is already present in many commonly used products in construction, as we will see later, but fewer successful projects have been in the use of non-recyclable plastics, such as for example polylaminates or waste from washing plants, a mix of heterogeneous plastics that cannot be separated mechanically. In the road asphalt sector, mixtures of bitumen and non-recyclable ground plastic have been successfully used as described in the article that you can read below. An interesting project concerns the use of ground plastic in cement mixtures, the result of various attempts, some unsuccessful, which allowed to find the key to having a cement mixture with improved performance compared to the traditional one, as Luisa Dalaro tells us. In fact, we don't want to talk about the concrete we all know, but about a particular concrete, “plastic concrete”. One might think of a cement with lower performance, poor quality at first glance, but instead it can be a valid alternative to the classic concrete, in a context of growing interest in the recycling of materials deriving from urban and industrial solid waste. This modus operandi represents an efficient solution to the depletion of natural resources and, at the same time, an effective method of waste disposal. Recycled materials are a valid alternative to typical building materials, as long as the transformation process requires a lower consumption of energy and raw materials than the production from scratch . Much of the waste is plastic, so plastic is a material that must be recycled or reused as much as possible. In construction, recycled plastic is widely used for the construction of floors, insulating panels, pipes, crawl spaces and window frames. More extreme experiments involve the use of plastic bottles in the concrete casting. In particular, the recycled plastic of used bottles could lead to the production of a more resistant and ecological concrete. More resistant eco concrete: experimentation And here is the result of a research by some scholars of the MIT (Massachusset Institute of Technology), whose proposal could be the solution capable of reducing the environmental impact of concrete production and find large-scale use of recycled plastic. MIT scholars had hypothesized that by mixing flakes of recycled plastic into the cement mixture, the physical properties of the latter could have been improved, but unfortunately the result it was disappointing. The scientists continuing their research on this path, found that by subjecting the plastic to gamma rays, using a cobalt-60 irradiator that emits gamma rays (usually used for decontaminate food), the recycled and then pulverized plastic flakes crystallized, becoming perfectly assimilable and “incorporated in a uniform manner” by the concrete. The powder thus obtained was combined with various cementitious compounds, which were then poured into cylindrical molds, and then subjected, once solidified, to tests of compression. Test results confirmed that plastic cement is about 15% stronger than traditional concrete. The new concrete mix has shown incredible properties: such as increased strength and flexibility. "We observed that within the parameters of our test program, the higher the irradiated dose, the higher the strength of the concrete, so more research is needed to customize the mix and optimize the process with irradiation to get even more results. best. The process we have developed has enormous potential both in terms of sustainability and resistance. " - Kupwade-Patil, MIT researcher.Related articles:Glass and Non-Recyclable Plastic: is there an Alternative to Landfill? Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Situation of PVC: 11th Consecutive Increase is Expected
Situation of PVC: 11th Consecutive Increase is Expected
Wednesday, 7th april 2021 | General News

A situation that has become frankly paradoxical, in which experts see the upward trend in PVC prices extending for the second quarter of the year. There is talk of the eleventh consecutive increase that is throwing in the panic producers of compounds, finished products and the components supply chain. The reasons that led to this situation are articulated and, at the same time, linked together as we have already been able to report in the articles that you can read at the bottom, on the world trend of raw materials. The problem is not only the unbearable level of prices for raw material converters, who are in difficulty in respecting the contracts made, but also the lack of continuous and sufficient supplies to sustain production. In the face of a sustained order backlog, some production plants are being stopped due to the impossibility of receiving the raw material on time. We must also consider that the approach of the milder season in Europe normally corresponds to a resumption of activities in the construction and agricultural sectors, in which the demand for PVC products becomes robust. To respond to the requests of customers who purchase PVC products, both the warehouse of finished products, set up in the months preceding spring, when the level of orders is usually lower than production, and the daily production are usually involved . This situation did not occur in the winter months, as producers' stocks are generally low or nil and daily production suffers from less than optimal inputs of raw materials. Some operators, especially in the pipe sector, have stated that they are considering whether to suspend the production of PVC pipes in favor of HDPE in order not to lose turnover in such an important moment. It should also be considered that not only the now chronic lack of raw material is negatively affecting the production of PVC products and compounds, but also that linked to the additives that are necessary for production. One of all is the plasticizer which, being scarce on the market just like the raw material to which it must be bound, prevents the smooth running of production activities.Related articles:THE RECORD IN THE PRICE OF RAW MATERIALS THREATENS CREDIT LINES AND COMPANIESHOW ARE PE IMPORTS MOVING IN CHINA?THE CHAOTIC SITUATION OF POLYPROPYLENE IN TURKEY: THE PERFECT STORM Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Ferrovie Nord Milano Launches a Transport Decarbonization Project
Ferrovie Nord Milano Launches a Transport Decarbonization Project
Tuesday, 6th april 2021 | Environment

What FNM is planning is the realization of an integrated plan for the decarbonisation of public transport in the Lombardy region. This will take place through a collaboration with ENI, both in terms of the use of hydrogen for railway networks and to reduce CO2 emissions from means of transport with thermal engines. In fact, FNM, the main integrated group in sustainable mobility in Lombardy, and Eni, confirming their respective commitment to decarbonisation, have signed a Letter of Intent with which they start a strategic collaboration aimed at speeding up the transition processes to new energy sources. The letter of intent, signed by the President of FNM, Andrea Gibelli, and by the General Manager of Energy Evolution, Giuseppe Ricci, provides for the definition of possible collaborations and initiatives in following areas: the introduction of fuels and energy carriers capable of reducing CO2 emissions for thermal engines of means of transport; the introduction of models for the capture, storage or use of CO2 generated in hydrogen production processes for use in means of transport; the introduction of hydrogen distribution points for private road mobility. The collaboration is also part of the H2iseO project of FNM and Trenord (a company owned by FNM), which aims to make Sebino and Valcamonica the first Italian "Hydrogen Valley" and aims to evaluate and implement a series of initiatives in the short and long term useful for achieving the decarbonisation targets of the transport sector set by the European strategy and the Integrated National Plan for Energy and Climate Italian. “The agreement with Eni - comments the President of FNM Andrea Gibelli - is fully part of the path towards zero environmental impact mobility, promoted by FNM . The new mission of the Group, sanctioned by the guidelines of the 2021-2025 Strategic Plan, sees us committed to developing an integrated platform of mobility services, built according to criteria of environmental and economic sustainability. In this context, an important role is played by the H2iseO project, which has a strong innovative charge and around which FNM is building a very important network of collaborations " . “The collaboration with FNM - declares Giuseppe Ricci, General Manager Energy Evolution of Eni - constitutes an important step in the path of decarbonisation of transport in Lombardy. Eni, leveraging its know-how and the range of technologies and energy products developed with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions, will support FNM in this ambitious program, contributing to the achievement of the decarbonisation targets of the sector. This agreement - concludes Giuseppe Ricci - demonstrates the importance of adopting a synergistic approach that promotes collaboration between various players in the sector and the use of decarbonised energy products for the development of sustainable mobility ". Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. ENI InfoRelated articles:THE FIRST HYDROGEN TRAINS IN ITALY WILL BE IN LOMBARDY

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How Are PE Imports Moving Into China?
How Are PE Imports Moving Into China?
Tuesday, 6th april 2021 | General News

Despite a very critical international situation in terms of polymer supply due to the scarcity of supply, the difficulty in finding containers and due to the now asphyxiating prices, the Chinese giant, whose economy in 2020 has grown despite the pandemic , continues to break records also in the field of imports of plastic polymers. In the analysis made by Pinar Polat, the Chinese PE market performed very well in terms of quantity, especially as regards LDPE. Indeed, Chinese PE imports hit a new record in January and February, according to data from the General Customs Administration. The customs office processed this data for the first two months of the year (2021) taking into account the distortions caused by the week-long Lunar New Year holiday, which this year was in mid-February. China was the only major economy that experienced growth for 2020, managing to expand by 2.3%. The country's success in controlling COVID-19, stimulus measures and low money rates following the lifting of the blockade in April have increased its share of global trade and investment. As a result, the country's cumulative PE imports hit a new record in the first two months of 2021, surpassing the volumes of 2019. Total imports of PE in the January-February period recorded an annual increase of 8.3%, exceeding 2.5 million tons, the highest figure in ChemOrbis import statistics dating back to 2001 . Although February PE volumes fell during the holiday season, January-February totals remain high. In fact, the slowdown in February was widely expected as commercial activities are normally reduced during the Chinese New Year celebrations. Millions of workers return to their hometown to spend the holidays in the traditional way, however, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, this year's holiday travel has been less hectic. On the other hand, cumulative imports of PE in the first two months of 2021 were still positive in an annual comparison. Among all PE products, Chinese imports of HDPE recorded a slight annual decline over this period, while imports of LDPE and LLDPE recorded increases. HDPE Total volumes of HDPE in the January-February period recorded a slight decrease of 3.3% compared to the same period last year, reaching 1,097,065 tons. During this period, Saudi Arabia was the leading supplier of HDPE in China with over 230,000 tons. Iran followed Saudi Arabia with 202,838 tons. LDPE Total imports of LDPE in the January-February period, on the other hand, increased by about 24% on an annual basis, reaching 544,676 tons. Iran remained China's leading LDPE supplier with nearly 125,000 tons. LLDPE As for LLDPE in the first two months of 2021, volumes increased by 17% compared to the same period last year, reaching 920,985 tons. During this period, Saudi Arabia was China's top supplier with over 200,000 tons, while Singapore was the second largest supplier with 174,046 tons. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled Concrete: A use still too Limited
Recycled Concrete: A use still too Limited
Thursday, 1st april 2021 | Circular economy

In industrial production the guidelines on the circular economy are coming into force and permanently in all companies. This is due to several factors: a new cultural approach of the population that is increasingly attentive to the environment, a political factor that fully embraces people's expectations, new financial-insurance rules that assess the risk level of companies based on their deviation from an average carbon footprint and, finally, on a real need for greater sustainability of consumption. In the construction field the share of materials that go to landfill remains extremely high with important environmental consequences, not only for the quantity of waste that is not put back into circulation as new raw materials, but also due to the continuous supply of new raw materials affecting the natural resources of the environment. Starting from the design, buildings should be designed to be built with the largest share of recycled materials and, once at the end of their life, demolition should follow an activity of recovery of all those materials that can be used again for new buildings. What are the advantages of recycling concrete? Unlike other materials to be recycled, such as plastics, the origin of the concrete waste includes the presence of aggregates whose natural origin is known. Therefore, the recycling of the material coming from the demolition of buildings can be easily managed and, the share that is obtained in the context of a demolition, is generally high . The reuse of recycled material leads to a number of advantages: • Lower cost of recycled aggregate compared to the natural one • Less material to be sent to landfill • Lower carbon footprint for a building made with recycled concrete compared to one made with natural aggregates • Lower transport costs and environmental impacts In the compositions of the concrete recipes with recycled elements we can include the following materials: • Shattered demolition, clean and uniform color • Brick crushed, clean and unpolluted • Shattered glass for post consumption • Fly ash expressed in light aggregates • Crushed in stone as ballast or retaining walls • Foundry sands only if clean and uniform But let's see what the behavior of a concrete made with recycled aggregates can be compared to one with natural aggregates: • The use of recycled aggregates up to a share of 20% has no effect on the compressive strength of the concrete, while a mixture of 100% recycled aggregates leads to a strength of about 20% of the compressive strength • Durability over time, with the same resistance, has no influence on the percentage of use of recycled aggregates compared to natural ones • The rigidity of the product with a use within 20% of recycled aggregates does not undergo substantial changes, while for a 100% use a reduction of the stiffness around 10% • As far as the workability of the mixture is concerned, no reductions in the mixture have been noted using recycled aggregates up to a share of 20%. • Using shares greater than 20% of recycled aggregates, the drop in workability of the cement paste can be substantial, the main consequence of which is the greater demand for water to make the dough is workable. This is due to the irregularity of the aggregates that increase their specific surface, the greater water absorption of the crushed aggregate and the presence of non-hydrated cement particles. In this case it is important to use plasticizer additives to reduce the use of water in the mix so as not to compromise the mechanical strength. As regards the environmental impact of natural aggregates, it must be considered that their excavation requires 20 MJ / t of combustion energy and 9 MJ / t of electrical energy , while their crushing requires, respectively, 120 MJ / t and 50 MJ / t. While the environmental impact of aggregates recycled from demolition waste can be estimated at 40 MJ / t of combustion energy and 15 MJ / t of electricity. Regarding the mechanical strength between a concrete made with recycled aggregates and one with natural aggregates, which we can see in the table at the bottom of the article, except for what has been said above the technical data are very similar. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Short Circuit of Packaging: 21-100-3 the Imperfect Formula
The Short Circuit of Packaging: 21-100-3 the Imperfect Formula
Wednesday, 31st march 2021 | Circular economy

No, it's not a magic formula, it's not even three numbers to play in the lotto, it's not even a chemical formula. 21-100-3 represents a banal food packaging that we find on store shelves and that we buy, without thinking too much, for our food needs. Micro portions of jam (to give an example), in small trays enclosed in a cardboard blister and wrapped in a transparent film, designed for hotles or for those who consume very small quantities of jam per meal, even if continuously during the month . 21 represents the weight in grams of the various packages that make up the salable package, 100 represents the jam content, divided into four packs of 25 gr. one and 3 are the different materials that must be disposed of. So, compared to 100 grams of net product, the packaging, by weight, represents more than 20% with the difficulty of having to divide a part in the paper , a part in the plastic and a part in the undifferentiated. It is definitely not an indictment against jam manufacturers, as they have only put into production an article requested by the market, but it is a fairly clear example how we can complicate our lives, from the point of view of the consumption of raw materials destined for packaging and how it is counterproductive, in order to reduce waste, to support this type of packaging. The market is nothing more than the meeting between supply and demand and, if in this case, as in many others, consumers require production facilities to packaging that are completely against the logic of reducing the production of unnecessary waste, we can only get angry with ourselves. The containment of waste also passes from the awareness that every consumer should have of the production chain and that of waste and recycling, thinking that each purchase corresponds to generation of a waste, which can be recycled with non-negligible costs, but which at times may not be possible to do so. Buying a product for daily consumption should follow a circular and environmental logic, which relates the general incidence of its refusal with the product to be consumed . You don't need to have a technical knowledge of production systems or recycling or the carbon footprint that each jar of jam creates once consumed, but we should have constant attention good rules on the choice of products and their packaging. This means favoring refillable packaging, regulating one's monthly consumption of a product with packages that are the most suitable not to replicate small but numerous packages, reducing the consumption of items whose packaging could be reused but in reality it becomes waste when its content is exhausted. If we are sensitive to the increase in non-recycled waste in the world, we too do our part. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - History of Women's Socks: from Silk to Nylon to Recycled PET
History of Women's Socks: from Silk to Nylon to Recycled PET
Tuesday, 30th march 2021 | History

1935 was an important date for women's fashion but it was also an important date for the research done on plastic polymers and especially in the field of polyamide. You may wonder what fashion has to do with plastic, actually it has a lot to do with it, as the stockings for well-off women were made of silk, a very expensive garment that was intended for a narrow market. Wallace Hume Carothers discovered naylon in 1935 and filed the patent in 1937, without perhaps imagining how successful this type of material could have in the following years. The name nylon, which derives from the word no-run, was well thought out by the DuPount company, which on 24 October 1939 began distribution on the market of a batch of 4,000 socks, with the intention of carrying out a test to see if the product was liked by women. The socks were sold in three hours then, on the strength of this success, on March 15, 1940, official distribution began throughout the United States of America. with a sales result of around 4 million pairs in the first four days of sales. After 1942, ie after the United States entered the Second World War, nylon took on a new role. Thanks to its resistance, it aroused the interest of the American armed forces, so much so that nylon was used almost exclusively for the production of socks, thus becoming a rare commodity, used on the black market as a bargaining chip. In Europe, during the Second World War, the socks were produced by a German company under the trade name of Perlon, but after the fall of the Third Reich, the Americans dismantled the IG Farben factories that produced the precious yarn. Since the end of the Second World War, in the United States, the fashion of nylon stockings has exploded, also following the progressive reduction in prices that increased the female audience who could afford such a refined garment, but also for the undoubted charm that women's legs, through nylon stockings, gave them. From a technical point of view, the thickness of the socks went from 70 denier to 40, and then further reduced in the 50s to 10 deniers. Around 1960 there was a double revolution, on the one hand the industrial sector produced machines that allowed the production of tubular socks, without therefore the unmistakable stitching and, from the point of view of chemical research, DuPont patented elastane under the name of Lycra. The main feature of this new fabric was the ability to stretch the garment up to four times its length. It can be said that, indirectly, there was a third revolution in women's underwear following the spread of lycra stockings, which was that of the disappearance of suspenders, up to that moment indispensable. From the seventies the importance of nylon stockings diminished due to the change in the costumes of women who moved towards more masculine clothing, through the use pants with which it was no longer important to show off the legs wrapped in nylon stockings. Today we are experiencing a return of the thin and snug fit, as an object of seduction and elegance, but at the same time we are looking for garments that have a limited environmental impact. Hence, the socks were created whose thread is made of recycled PET, making it possible to create a 50-denier black garment, fully compatible with the circular economy. The production of this recycled yarn reduces CO2 emissions by 45% and water consumption by 90% compared to production with virgin raw material. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: New Versalis Elastomers for Bridgestone: In Search of a More Sustainable Mobility
rNEWS: New Versalis Elastomers for Bridgestone: In Search of a More Sustainable Mobility
Tuesday, 30th march 2021 | rNEWS

Bridgestone's need to produce tires with an ever-increasing connotation of sustainability have led it to create an agreement with Versalis, a world leader in chemicals, with operating platforms for vanguard also in the chemical recycling sector. Versalis, in fact, Eni's chemical company, leader in the production and marketing of elastomers, and Bridgestone EMIA, leader in the field of advanced mobility solutions, have signed a joint development agreement for research, production and supply of synthetic rubber with advanced properties. The agreement is based on an Open Innovation model, i.e. a complementary activity between the Research and Development divisions of the two companies that will focus on the development of technologies and new grades of elastomers, including SBR - Styrene Butadiene Rubber, for the production of high performance tires. Versalis will leverage the expertise of the research centers in Ravenna and Ferrara, while Bridgestone will involve its European Technical Center near Rome. The elastomers produced by Versalis find application in the premium market segment, distinguishing themselves for properties that guarantee high performance of the tires in terms of handling handling on dry surfaces and wet grip. They are also distinguished by being less subject to abrasion, which guarantees greater durability, resulting in a more sustainable product capable of reducing the long-term consumption of raw materials. «With this agreement we combine our technological knowledge with those of Bridgestone, a world leader in the sector, to accelerate the development of grades and applications in tires in order to improve performance, starting from the raw material - commented Adriano Alfani, CEO of Versalis (Eni) - Having started a synergistic path with a partner of excellence in the supply chain will lead to a new innovative push in the sector and to the consolidation of a technical and high-value commercial ”. «At Bridgestone we are well aware that innovative revolutions and sustainable mobility are not achievable without a collaborative process - said Emilio Tiberio, Technical and Operations Director of Bridgestone EMIA - We are happy to consolidate our partnership with Versalis and we are certain that the technology we will be able to create together will make the difference for our future productions ». Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Info: ENI

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How Tech Companies Could Help Reduce Carbon Footprint
How Tech Companies Could Help Reduce Carbon Footprint
Monday, 29th march 2021 | Environment

Often companies with a strong technological footprint, which have entered the life of citizens in an indispensable way, are accused of little interest in the environment. Some of them, precisely due to the fact that they offer intangible services, would seem that they do not affect global pollution, while others, which use in their business a part of intangible services and a part of material ones, such as transport in logistics, it would seem that they do not feel called into question in the fight against climate change. In reality this is not the case as any service, material or intangible, consumes energy, whether electric or fossil, negatively affecting the carbon footprint if this energy is not derives from renewable sources. But, as Laszlo Varro and George Kamiya tell us, companies that make internet technology their direct or indirect business have become attentive to the problem of their footprint carbon dioxide as this is what customers and the market are asking for. In the analysis of the data, it was noted that two values have increased in parallel over the last decade: the value of large technology companies on international stock markets and the concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. But in reality there is little direct relationship between these two phenomena: the use of energy by major tech companies is relatively less than their economic footprint , financial and even social. However it is precisely because of that massive financial footprint, combined with their enormous cultural and scientific influence, that these companies have such a potentially huge role to play in 'face the climate challenge. The large tech companies have already committed themselves for the most part to achieving zero emissions from their operations. Given their role as often emulated trend setters, these goals set an important example for the rest of the economy. But it is their work in digitization, artificial intelligence and information systems that could potentially be revolutionary in creating the smarter and more flexible energy systems needed to achieve net zero emissions. The rise of the big tech companies is undeniably one of the most distinctive financial developments of the last decade. By the end of 2020, the top three tech giants had a market capitalization of $ 5.5 trillion, double that of all German and Brazilian companies listed in Frankfurt and Sao Paulo combined. The concentration of financial value in the top three tech companies is now twice that represented by Standard Oil, AT&T and US Steel in the era of the Rockefellers and Carnegies. Tech companies could play a huge role in addressing the climate challenge Big Tech's energy consumption and emissions are significant in absolute terms, but not in relation to the scale of their operations. For example, data centers account for about 1% of global electricity use, far less than industrial motors or air conditioning as the engine of global electricity demand. The energy and emissions profile of tech companies obviously varies greatly depending on their business model. Some big tech companies are almost completely digital and electrified. Others have supply chains for manufacturing carbon-intensive hardware or logistics and delivery systems around the world. Many of these manufacturing and logistics operations are often outsourced and reported in Scope 3 emissions. Scope 1 (direct) and 2 (electricity, market-based) emissions from the five big tech companies collectively represented about 13 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in the 2019, or about 0.04% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Including Scope 3 emissions - which include business travel, employee commuting, manufacturing and construction - the total reaches around 0.3% of emissions global. Therefore, decarbonising all of these companies' businesses and even their supply chains could have a relatively minor direct impact on global CO2 emissions. It is also likely that these direct impacts are dwarfed by the enormous potential created by digital solutions applied to energy systems. But these companies have adopted increasingly stringent and ambitious corporate policies to address emissions. In addition to general social and political concerns, these changes appear to be partly driven by HR considerations: there is intense competition for technically well-trained young professionals. skilled workers, who increasingly require their employers to take responsible positions on important social and environmental issues, including climate change. There have been notable examples of technology company employees publicly calling for stronger climate action from their employer, including avoiding the use of learning automatic to support the extraction of fossil fuels. These considerations focus on the big tech companies based in the United States because the big Chinese tech companies, despite their technical prowess, are sadly still lagging behind in their climate and energy strategies. The big tech companies have pioneered corporate energy purchase agreements (PPAs) for renewable energy, in fact, in 2020 they bought 7.2 gigawatts (GW) of renewable capacity, representing nearly 30% of all corporate renewable PPAs. Among large US-based tech companies, it has become standard to commit to getting the same amount of electricity from renewable sources as their annual consumption. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Bocconi University Launches a Project on the Circularity of Fashion
rNEWS: Bocconi University Launches a Project on the Circularity of Fashion
Friday, 26th march 2021 | rNEWS

Attention to the circular economy is no longer a concept shouted at in street demonstrations, but it is a reality now assimilated by states, politics, industry and especially finance, which evaluates as risky investments those granted to companies that operate outside the concept of circularity. Even the university sector has moved to analyze closely and in a scientific way, the supply chains, the companies and the consequences of industrial behavior on the circularity of the sectors, one of these is that of fashion as told by the Milanese university. The SDA Bocconi School of Management and Enel X launch the Monitor for Circular Fashion A cutting-edge project in Italy that will give life to the first Report on the circularity of the fashion sector . Monitor for Circular Fashion wishes to involve in the project a representative cross-section of the Italian fashion sector along the entire supply chain, in collaboration with the sustainability consultancy Eco -Age. Candiani Denim, Dedagroup Stealth, Intesa (IBM Group), Manteco, RadiciGroup, Save The Duck, Vibram, Vitale Barberis Canonico, Vivienne Westwood, YKK, are some of the protagonists of the sector who have already joined and actively contributed to the observatory. This community of companies chosen as front-runners of sustainability and circularity in the Italian fashion sector, has already started a virtuous path to discuss opportunities and challenges of circularity. In particular, the activities focused on sharing good practices to identify or develop new concrete and measurable solutions of circularity. One of the most important issues is that of the fundamental role of transparency and traceability of the supply chain as a tool to give substance to the claims of sustainability and circularity towards all stakeholders , including consumers. In September 2021 a Report will be published that will show the macro-trends of the sector; will measure the ability of fashion companies to apply the principles of the Circular Economy throughout the supply chain; it will highlight best practices and gaps, and finally propose an ambitious plan on how to integrate circularity in one of the major Italian export sectors. The Report will be based on an innovative methodology for evaluating circularity, developed by Enel X with the know-how of the research team of the SDA Bocconi School Sustainability Lab of Management for the identification of circularity indicators in the fashion sector. A circular approach allows you to radically change the take-make-waste paradigm, thanks to the application of five circular business models (Sustainable input, Life extension , Recycling and Reuse, Product as a Service, Sharing Platforms) to ensure that products and materials are kept in use for as long as possible, redesigning the production, logistics, distribution and consumption methods with the aim of making the most efficient use of resources as possible. The move to a circular system will continue to accelerate the movement of the global economy towards a sustainable future. The Monitor for Circular Fashion will adhere to the calls to action for circularity at a global level, in particular by supporting key initiatives such as the UNECE project "Enhancing Transparency and Traceability of Sustainable Value Chains in Garment and Footwear sector" and the European Union action plan for the "Circular Economy Action Plan". “The scientific approach is essential to enhance and grow the numerous pilot projects in circular fashion. With the Monitor for Circular Fashion we want to support companies in measuring circularity performance, identifying the main KPIs for each circular fashion business model. In the open dialogue with Institutions and Policy Makers, the Circular Fashion Manifesto will give voice to the best practices of the Italian fashion system ", says Francesca Romana Rinaldi, Coordinator of the Monitor for Circular Fashion at SDA Bocconi School of Management Sustainability Lab. "The Circular Economy is at the heart of Enel X's strategy" - added Nicola Tagliafierro, Head of global sustainability at Enel X - "Thanks to the opportunities for sustainable businesses that it is able to generate, and which have allowed the Enel Group to position itself as a leader in public services in the Dow Jones sustainability index. For this reason we have decided to make our experience and know-how available to support one of the most important and strategic Italian industries, with the goal of making the sector increasingly circular and an example for the global market. " I am very excited that Eco-Age is playing a strategic role in this revolutionary project and in involving new stakeholders in this alliance between SDA Bocconi and Enel X, to place Italy at the center of the global debate on sustainable fashion ”, concluded Livia Firth, co-founder and creative director of Eco-Age. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Which Film Quality Can Be Obtained with the Use of Recycled LDPE?
Which Film Quality Can Be Obtained with the Use of Recycled LDPE?
Friday, 26th march 2021 | Technical information

Never as today the quality of a recycled LDPE granule is important for the production of a film, as the expectations of the market, which is shifting from virgin raw materials to those recycled, they are very high. It is not always easy to convey to the customer, who wants to produce with a recycled LDPE, the need to know the genesis of recycling in order not to make mistakes to buy the product based, perhaps, only on the economic convenience of the recycled raw material compared to the virgin one offered. Let's say, in principle, that even in the field of recycled LDPE there are product families through which some articles can be produced and, consequently, others cannot be produced if you always want to obtain a good technical and aesthetic result on the finished article to be placed on the market. Macro families can be divided into three areas: • Post consumer recycled LDPE • Post industrial consumer recycled LDPE • Recycled LDPE from industrial post The post-consumer LDPE granule is produced through the recycling process of the waste from separate collection, which is separated, ground, washed, densified and extruded into granules . The first thing to consider about the products of this family is the degree of contamination to which the processed film is subjected during its life, in fact, separate collection involves mixing pollutants in the bags of domestic collection, such as food remains, oils, fats, polylaminates of food packaging and many other products which, during the collection phases, solidify with the film to be recycled, creating a quality problem downstream of the process. Furthermore, during mechanical separation, it may happen that parts of other plastics remain within the LDPE stream to be recycled, creating another stream of contamination in the process of granule production. Mechanical recycling systems contemplate washing the selected material but, often, this is not enough to reduce the presence of plastics other than LDPE and the melting and the detachment of non-plastic parts present on the product to be washed. These contaminations can create various problems in the production of the film: • Pungent odors in the finished product • Fragility to cut due to the presence of polypropylene • Unfused lumps in the extrusion phase with consequent pitting of the film • Irregularity of the film surface due to the degradation of impurities in the extrusion phase • Inconsistency of the film due to the excessive presence of gas inside the granule caused by the degradation of the extruded material • Difficulty in creating a regular bubble as a result of the possible degradation of the polymer in the blowing phase due to the presence of the problems listed above. The use that is normally made of the post-consumer granule from separate collection is reserved for garbage bags with a thickness of not less than 100-120 microns, of dark colors, in which the possible odor, the pitting of the film and the possible fragility to the cut are tolerated by the customers at a competitive price. Another application are the provisional cover sheets, normally black, with thicknesses from 140 to 300 microns in which the impurities present in the granules are diluted in generous thicknesses of the film. The industrial post-consumer granule is a product very close to the post-industrial category that we see later, as the input of the material does not come from separate collection but exclusively from the collection of industrial packaging, supermarkets and the trade sector, whose packaging films are in no way contaminated by harmful substances for recycling. Once these films have been collected, they are divided by color, ground, washed, densified and extruded into granules suitable for the production of films. What are the advantages of this flow: • Material not contaminated by organic waste or industrial liquids • Selected by color • Selected by type of plastic • Normally subject to the first recycle • Does not contain polylaminates from food packaging The production of films with this type of material allows the creation of very thin thicknesses, starting from 20 microns, using 100% recycled granule. The film remains elastic, the seams do not open as the negative influence of the presence of PP is not realized as in post consumption, it does not have unpleasant odors, transparent films can be made, even if starting from a non-transparent granule, or colored films by adding the master. There is also a version suitable for the production of black film, mainly dedicated to garbage bags with thicknesses from 20 to 100 microns or to cover sheets for the construction in which a good degree of tear resistance is required. The neutral post industrial granule normally comes from processing waste of neutral films that are collected and divided by color, ground and extruded again into granules for production. Another type of post-industrial LDPE is characterized by the use of waste from the polymer processing of the petrochemical industries, which are compacted into blocks or bars, and then be ground or pulverized and reused as raw material in the granule extrusion phase. This type of recycled LDPE is very similar to a virgin polymer, both for mechanical characteristics and transparency in the production of the film. It has no odors, no color changes, can be mixed with the virgin raw material if required and retains excellent mechanical and quality characteristics on the surface. Related articles:POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED LDPE: 60 TYPES OF ODORS HINDER SALEPOST-CONSUMER LDPE. HOW TO REDUCE IMPERFECTIONS. EBOOKAutomatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian

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https://www.arezio.it/ - CDP Equity Invests with Eni in the Production of Electricity from Renewable Sources
CDP Equity Invests with Eni in the Production of Electricity from Renewable Sources
Thursday, 25th march 2021 | Renewable energies

Cassa Depositi e Prestiti, the operational and financial arm of the Italian state, has decided to invest in the new company called GreenIT with a partner with great experience in the energy world such as ENI. The focus of the new company is to produce clean energy through the wind and solar sector to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, through an investment of 800 million euros in the next 5 years, creating an installed capacity target of 1,000 MW. According to information from Eni, the company with CDP Equity have set up GreenIT, a new joint venture for the development, construction and management of production plants of electricity from renewable sources in Italy. GreenIT, 51% owned by Eni and 49% by CDP Equity, aims to produce energy mainly from photovoltaic and wind power plants with the aim of reach an installed capacity of approximately 1,000 MW by 2025, with cumulative investments in the five-year period of over € 800 million. The resources will be used on various areas of intervention that include the development and construction of greenfield plants, also through the enhancement of the real estate assets of the CDP Group and the Public Administration, the repowering of plants at the end of their useful life and the construction of authorized projects. The establishment of GreenIT is part of the strategy aimed at supporting the country's energy transition, increasing the production of renewable energy, in line with the objectives set by the Integrated National Plan for Energy and Climate 2030. The CEO of CDP Equity and Chief Investment Officer of CDP, Pierpaolo Di Stefano, commented: “The birth of GreenIT is the realization of a further project envisaged by the Industrial Plan of Cassa Depositi e Prestiti to promote the energy transition and combat climate change, contributing to the achievement of the sustainable development goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. The collaboration with Eni will make it possible to work - from a system perspective - on the development of projects with positive impacts on the territories for the production of energy from renewable sources, in order to build a model increasingly oriented towards sustainability and support the country in achieving the targets defined by the National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan. " Giuseppe Ricci, General Manager of Energy Evolution of Eni, declared: “This new joint venture is part of Eni's strategy for the energy transition and contributes to acceleration of our transformation path towards green energy and renewables. With this in mind, thanks to the partnership with Cassa Depositi e Prestiti, our commitment to decarbonisation becomes increasingly concrete: to achieve the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for United Nations it is essential to create a system at the country level and to pool investment opportunities and know-how ”. Eni and CDP Equity are related parties. Both companies have applied their own internal procedure in this matter. Who is ENI? Eni is an energy company present in 66 countries around the world that employs about 32,000 people. The company operates in the exploration, development and production of oil and gas, refining & marketing, trading and shipping, chemicals, renewable energy and innovative solutions in the circular economy. Eni's mission is inspired by the United Nations 2030 Agenda and these values are reflected in its business model, in turn based on three long-standing pillars term: carbon neutrality, operational excellence and the creation of alliances for local development. Decarbonisation is an integral part of the strategy and objectives of the company which sets itself as a leader in the energy transition with the goal of achieving zero net emissions by 2050. Who is CDP Equity? CDP Equity is a holding company of the Cassa Deposits Group and loans, which has the objective of investing risk capital in companies of significant national interest and in companies in economic, financial and equity balance, with adequate prospects of profitability and development, capable of generating value for investors. CDP Equity also owns majority and minority stakes in some asset management companies specialized in various fields. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Large Diameter Corrugated Pipes for Sewerage in HDPE and PP
Large Diameter Corrugated Pipes for Sewerage in HDPE and PP
Wednesday, 24th march 2021 | Technical information

The sewer lines are designed according to the workload that the inhabited centers place on the drainage system and, based on other technical-design parameters, the characteristics of the pipes for transporting waste liquids. Non-pressure pipes composed of plastic material, especially those made of high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, are widely used for decades due to the advantages that are inherent in the raw materials that make up the pipes themselves.Recycled or virgin HDPE granules can be used that have an MFI 0.4-0.7 at 190 ° / 5 Kg., Or in PP with MFI 1.5-2 at 230 ° / 2.16 Kg. With a correct thermal stability and the right amount of carbon black. The characteristics normally required in the design phase are: • Resistance to external loads • Resistance to chemical and electrochemical aggressions • Bidirectional sealing of the joints • Hydraulic characteristics constant over time • Reduced adhesion to encrustations • Easy assembly and installation • Reduced cost of installation and maintenance HDPE and PP pipes can be corrugated, ie have a reinforcement corrugation on the outside of the structure and a smooth finish on the inside. In the presence of large pipes it is possible to interpose a metal structure in the intrados of the corrugation in order to increase the resistance of the product to the phenomenon called "creep" , which is configured in a visco-elastic behavior of the material, with the consequent temporary deformability of the tube. We mentioned the presence of the two layers of the tube, the outer corrugated one and the smooth inner one, elements that therefore have two distinct functions. The internal smooth layer, in direct contact with the transported fluids, must have a correct chemical and mechanical resistance to the transported liquids and a low flow resistance . The external corrugated layer has the function of counteracting the compression forces acting on the laid pipe, ensuring its durability and the absence of breakages. In the case of reinforced pipes, produced in Japan in the 90s of the last century and subsequently widely used also in the United States, the characteristics of plastics such as resistance to abrasion, lightness, minimum roughness coefficient, inertia to chemical substances and ease of installation, to the characteristics of steel which, for example, has a much higher modulus of elasticity than polyethylene. The use of PP instead of HDPE occurs due to small differences in materials: • Elastic modulus slightly higher • Better behavior at high temperatures (lower, however, at low temperatures) • Lower density and specific weight Among the three characteristics listed, surely the difference of the elastic modulus is that more important, as the modulus influences the stiffness of the pipe and therefore the resistance to compressive loads. Therefore, with the same thickness, a higher elastic modulus corresponds to a greater resistance to loads and, in the case of HDPE, the instantaneous elastic modulus is normally> 800 MPa, while in PP it is> 1250 MPa. As we said, the pipes made of HDPE and PP have excellent hydraulic characteristics both as regards the roughness of the walls in contact with the fluids, but also as regards it concerns the resistance to abrasion, guaranteeing a constant hydraulic flow and a great durability of the sewer line. Among the competitors of PP and HDPE pipes, such as concrete, coated concrete, fiberglass, stoneware and PVC pipes, it occurred, through laboratory tests, that the resistance to internal abrasion is lower among the competitors, therefore, these are subject to greater mechanical wear. Among these products, those composed with PVC, gave results close to PP and HDPE pipes. To get an idea of what is meant by large-diameter sewer pipes, we can say that on the market there are pipes with an external diameter of up to 2500 mm. and internal of 2400 mm. about. When laying HDPE, PP and PVC pipes in trenches, the role of the substrate on which the line will be laid is fundamental, as these artifacts are subject to the behavior mechanical of visco-elastic type, therefore subject to constant deformation over time defined as "creep". In the case of substrates that are not extremely compact or subject to small movements, the use of corrugated pipes with metal reinforcement in the intrados of the corrugation can help to contain this phenomenon . As regards the chemical characteristics of HDPE and PP pipes, we can say that the constituent materials have in themselves characteristics of resistance to electrochemical corrosion or to galvanic coupling, as they are not in themselves electrically conductive. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Why are some Recycled Polymers Preferred to Virgin Ones?
Why are some Recycled Polymers Preferred to Virgin Ones?
Tuesday, 23rd march 2021 | Technical information

It is no longer a taboo now that some high-quality recycled polymers can be more sought after than virgin ones, that they can cost the same or more than the same ones and that have general qualities quite similar to oil-derived polymers. Furthermore, the most important thing is that they are the technological evolution of a processing waste, or even from post-consumption in the case of rPET, in full compliance with the principles of the circular economy. Consumers, companies that manage important brands and politics, now have a clear idea of the road we have to walk on, a painstakingly built (and unfinished) road of sustainable materials, recycling, renewable energy and reduced environmental impact on fumes, waste and liquid or solid process waste. With this in mind, the world of recycled polymers is building an important reputation, gaining the trust of producers and consumers who strongly want products with the least possible impact on the environment. There are five families, among the most used products in the world of plastics, which are HDPE, PP, LDPE, PET and PVC which, alone, cover a percentage of articles on the market so important that they leave little space for other types, in terms of quantities produced and used. Let's take a closer look: Recycled HDPE, in order to compete with virgin materials in the non-food sectors, must have a series of peculiar characteristics such as the absence of pungent odor, the neutrality of the base color, a DSC that certifies the 100% HDPE composition and comparable technical characteristics in the machine. These characteristics lead to the production of articles with surfaces without defects, neutral to the smell of recycling, with homogeneous and bright colors and mechanical characteristics suitable for the use for which the product is intended. Recycled PP has an infinite number of uses and its limitation to massive use was linked, also in this case, to the presence of odors and to the difficulty of having a recipe that included only PP inside . In fact, the fractions of PE incorporated could create aesthetic problems on the products during the molding phase. Today there are recipes that have solved these problems and, starting from a neutral base, therefore without residues of previous dyes, it is possible to obtain excellent colored surfaces of the product. From the mechanical point of view it is possible to obtain good results and, the similarity with the virgin raw material allows their mixing. Recycled LDPE is a widely used product in the extrusion, molding and filming phase but has always been relegated to the creation of non-aesthetic or coarse quality products. With the neutral product from post industrial waste it is possible to make 20 micron transparent or colored films, to make tubes of thin thickness as the material does not have any contamination or solid residues inside which could cause holes in the tube. It is also possible to use it in the molding sector where important aesthetic finishes are required. Among the five products on display, the recycled LDPE granule is the one in which the risk of unpleasant odor is the highest, a problem that does not arise in these post-industrial recipes. The recycled PVC powder has a white base, micronized to increase its quality, has characteristics that are completely comparable to a virgin K67 from a technical and aesthetic point of view. A mixture of post-industrial waste from the window profile sector guarantees production quality in the field of aesthetic profiles and extrusion of pipes. Recycled PET, certified for food, is the only product presented that comes from post-consumer rather than post-industrial origin. The particular mechanical recycling, certified by bodies responsible for authorizing the use of recycled polymer in the food sector, allows it to be used in a field where the demand for recycled polymer is very high, such as that of the soft drinks and mineral water sector. . A perfect synthesis of the circular economy, rPET for food is the polymer that most embodies the spirit of a friendly plastic in which everything that becomes waste is reused for a new product.Related articles:Why does recycled plastic have to cost more than virgin plastic? Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - World Water Day Reminds us of a Never Resolved Crisis
World Water Day Reminds us of a Never Resolved Crisis
Monday, 22nd march 2021 | Environment

The merciless data that the United Nations tells us about the difficulty of having a sufficient quantity of water for every person in the world, a quality that is correct and does not create diseases and a balance of consumption of environmental resources, make us think a lot. Indeed, globally, over 3 billion people are at risk of disease because the water quality of their rivers, lakes and groundwater is insecure , due to a lack of accurate controls. Meanwhile, one fifth of the world's catchment areas are experiencing dramatic fluctuations in water availability and 2.3 billion people live in countries classified as "water stressed", including 721 million in areas where the water situation is "critical", according to recent research conducted by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and its partners. “Our planet is facing a triple crisis of climate change, which consists of biodiversity loss, pollution and waste. These crises are putting a strain on the oceans, rivers, seas and lakes, ”said Inger Andersen, Executive Director of UNEP. "The collection of regular, complete and up-to-date data is essential to manage our water resources in a more sustainable way and ensure access to safe water for all ". Historically there have always been few data and few studies on the global state of freshwater ecosystems. To bridge the gap, UNEP has used Earth observation technologies to monitor, over long periods of time, the history through which freshwater ecosystems are changing. Researchers surveyed more than 75,000 water bodies in 89 countries and found that over 40% were severely polluted. The numbers, presented on March 18 at a high-level meeting of the United Nations on the Agenda 2030 water goals, suggest that the world is in delay on the roadmap for the supply of safe drinking water to all humanity. UNEP data indicates that the world is not on track to achieve sustainable water management by 2030, in fact, efforts should double over the next nine years to reach Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, which requires "the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". Coordinated by UN-Water, UNEP, together with seven other United Nations agencies, is part of the Integrated Monitoring Initiative, a global program designed to support countries by monitoring and verifying progress towards SDG 6 goals. UNEP is responsible for three of the 11 indicators: environmental water quality, integrated management of water resources and freshwater ecosystems. The data collected by UNEP is analyzed to monitor how environmental pressures, such as climate change, urbanization and land use changes, among others affect the world's freshwater resources. Andersen said the information would help foster environmental decision-making at the highest level. What should be done to speed up the process? To speed up the necessary interventions, Sustainable Development Goal 6 Global Acceleration Framework was launched in 2020, which aims to mobilize action among governments, civil society, the private sector and the United Nations to align efforts, optimize funding and improve the capacity and governance to manage water resources. Every year, the United Nations celebrates March 22 as World Water Day, to raise awareness of the fundamental role of water in food security, in the production of energy, industry and other aspects of human, economic and social development. This year, the theme of the day is "enhancing water". Effective and equitable water management is recognized to have catalytic effects across the 2030 Agenda.Related articles:Water Recycling to Reduce Water Stress Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: New Plant for the Treatment of Biomass in Gela in Sicily
rNEWS: New Plant for the Treatment of Biomass in Gela in Sicily
Friday, 19th march 2021 | rNEWS

In Gela in Sicily, an interesting project has started to transform an oil refinery into a biorefinery that will deal with the treatment of biomass, creating a sustainable industrial activity perfectly integrated into a circular chain of the economy, as can be seen from Eni's indications. 18 months after the inauguration of the biorefinery, the new BTU plant is in operation, which will allow to use up to 100% waste raw materials for the production of biofuels The new BTU plant, Biomass Treatment Unit, has been started and tested, which will allow the Eni biorefinery in Gela to use up to 100% biomass that is not in competition with the food supply chain, from used edible oils to fats from fish and meat products produced in Sicily, with the aim of creating a zero-kilometer circular economy model for the production of biodiesel, bionafta, biogpl and bio-jet. The Gela biorefinery will also be able to be powered by castor oil, thanks to the experimental project for the cultivation of castor plants on semi-desert soils in Tunisia, thus completely replacing palm oil which from 2023 will no longer be used in Eni's production processes. Construction of the plant began in early 2020 and despite the slowdowns caused by the management of activities during the pandemic, it was basically completed on schedule. 1.3 million hours were worked, achieving the goal of zero accidents, both for Eni people and for the workers of contracted companies. With the launch of the BTU, the second phase of the transformation of the industrial site is completed, which qualifies as a site exclusively dedicated to sustainable production processes and concretizes the process of decarbonization and energy transition that characterizes Eni's strategy, committed to achieving total decarbonization of products and processes by 2050. Among the main points of the 2021-2024 plan is in fact the doubling of the production capacity of Eni's biorefineries to about 2 million tons by 2024, the increase to 5/6 million tons by 2050. The BTU is added to the already built Ecofining ™ plants, Eni-UOP technology for the production of biofuels from raw materials of biological origin, Steam Reforming for production of hydrogen and the Waste to Fuel pilot plant, built by Eni Rewind, which transforms the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into bio-oil and bio-methane. The transformation of the former petrochemical plant in Gela is an example of a regenerative circular economy, which has allowed the conversion of production cycles based on fossil sources and which goes hand in hand step with a plan for the demolition of plants no longer functional for the production of biofuels and for environmental remediation. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The UK Recycles Less Waste Than It Burns
The UK Recycles Less Waste Than It Burns
Thursday, 18th march 2021 | Circular economy

The whole of Europe is striving to raise the recycling rates of its nations, with a competition for excellence expressed in the quantity of waste selected and re-released on the market in the form of material before. Italy is the first country in Europe in terms of quantities recycled with 79.3%, according to the Symbola Foundation's GreenItaly report, followed by France at 55.8%, with a European average at 39.2%. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, there are inconsistencies, according to local observers, both in terms of counting systems for recycled percentages and disposal systems some waste. Indeed, a survey by Channel 4's Dispatches program in the United Kingdom reveals that 11% of British household waste, collected for recycling, is sent to incineration plants instead of being reused or recycled. Total carbon emissions from incineration have now exceeded those from coal. Up until the mid-1990s the UK sent 90 per cent of its waste to landfill, which is an easy and cheap way to dispose of waste. The UK government then introduced a landfill tax making disposal through this channel much more expensive, so the market found an alternative. The solution was "energy from waste", where waste is burned to produce electricity. In 2008 the UK government set the goal of recycling 50% of household waste by 2020, but in the last five years the recycling rate has stopped at 45%. One of the UK's foremost recycling experts, Professor Karl Williams, Director of Waste Management at the University of Central Lancashire, also expressed serious doubts. on this figure: "It is not a real figure, because when we talk about recycling rates we are only talking about collection rates. So the way we count the recycling data, at the moment, is expressed through the amount of material we collect from the families, this is then measured and weighed, transforming this value as data on recycling". Studies show that more than 50% of what people put in their waste could be recycled or composted if proper sorting was done. What they are burning are precious resources Proponents of incineration say this is a sustainable solution to the waste problem, preventing millions of tons from going to landfills. The justification for them is "that we do not currently have sufficient facilities to recycle all plastic". “According to them, we have a lot of waste that we cannot manage, apart from landfilling. Therefore, it makes sense to burn them for energy instead of burning other types of fossil fuels, ”says Professor Williams. But Georgia Elliott-Smith, an environmental engineer, believes more could be done to stop the burning of recyclable materials: “The reality is that around 60 percent of what goes into these waste incinerators in the UK may be recyclable. It is therefore essential to understand that what they are burning are precious resources that should remain in the economy, be recycled, reused and not and burned. At the moment, the recycling targets assigned to each local waste authority are not achieved, but, at the same time, there are no penalties for failure to achieve of the objectives assigned ". The growth of waste-to-energy plants has created a swirling input market, which must ensure fuel to burn to plants with the need to continuously generate waste. Total carbon emissions from incineration have exceeded those of coal Carbon emissions, C02, are one of the main drivers of climate change, which is why there has been a shift away from energy created with coal, however, more incinerators that generate energy mean a constant increase in C02. Data for 2019 shows that the UK's 48 incinerators emitted a total of around 12.6 million tonnes of CO2. By comparison, the declining coal sector produced 11.7 million tons of CO2. All energy producers have to publish their total carbon dioxide emissions, but the incineration industry only needs to take C02 from burning fossil waste such as plastics into account. So they don't have to report emissions from sources like food and garden waste, known as biogenic CO2. Environmental activists claim this is "creative carbon accounting". “At the moment waste incinerators are completely excluded from any type of carbon tax. They pay no tax on the fuel they receive, which is waste, and they pay no tax on the emissions they create, so they have this double economic benefit that makes them profitable, affordable and profitable, ”says environmental engineer Georgia Elliott-Smith. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Sources wmw

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Globalization of the Recycled Plastic Market: The Die is Stretched (Alea iacta est)
Globalization of the Recycled Plastic Market: The Die is Stretched (Alea iacta est)
Wednesday, 17th march 2021 | Circular economy

Was there a need to bother Julius Caesar to give the idea that there is no more propitious time like this to act? Maybe yes. It is not only the Plastic Tax that pushes Europe to reconsider recycled polymers, but a series of movements from low in which consumers, worried by the environmental conditions of the planet, require more sustainable productions also in the world of plastics. Many other countries, outside the European border, are also adopting restrictive policies to discourage the use of virgin plastic in mass production, with the aim of increasing recycling and decrease plastic waste. The company S&P Global Platts Analytics expects that recycled plastic, produced through the mechanical recycling system, will replace over 1.7 million tons of virgin plastic polymers by 2030, compared to 688,000 tons in 2020. How to replace virgin plastic with globally recycled plastic There is still a lot of mistrust on recycled plastic polymers , especially in less industrialized countries, where too often the purchase of this material first it is seen as an economic business, aimed at reducing the cost of production. This request to make an important price difference, compared to the virgin one, becomes for some buyers the only yardstick for the use of a recycled polymer. But as we saw in the article published in the Arezio portal, year after year the price of recycled polymers will move towards the price of the virgin ones and, in many cases they will exceed it, this for economic, environmental and industrial reasons. The globalization of the market of recycled polymers must move towards a standardization of production processes, in which the transformation chain offers all customers and in all continents of plastic waste treatment processes comparable from a qualitative point of view. Today, in many parts of the world, the production of recycled polymers is a localized activity where quality values are not always expressed, but mainly the need more or less compelling than the reuse of incoming waste. It is necessary to acquire the awareness that the use of recycled polymers must be a priority over virgin ones, regardless of their cost, as saving the planet's resources and the reduction of waste that is produced daily is by far the main factor. The pressure of governments As we have seen, many states are applying legislation that disincentives the use of virgin plastic, through a series of taxes or impositions for use in mixes of percentages variables of recycled plastic. In Great Britain, for example, the production of an article that does not contain 30% recycled plastic, for products covered by in some categories, it incurs a fee of GBP 200 / Ton, making the final cost of the product made only with virgin plastic less advantageous. These regulations must, on the one hand discourage the non-deferrable purchase of virgin plastic but, at the same time, must aim, not only to increase the production quota of recycled polymers worldwide, in order to compensate for the decrease in the use of virgin, but they must also lead to a more uniform production chain to create similarities in exportable recycled polymers. These legislative activities are increasing the demand for recycled plastic which often, as in Europe, does not correspond to the increase in volumes offered. Principle of standardization of recycled polymers When purchasing a virgin polymer with a specific characteristic from a supplier it is possible, if market conditions make it necessary, to purchase a very similar one. produced by another supplier, without having major differences in technical or color values. In the field of recycled polymers, this alternation does not always exist, as there may be differences that could make one element different from another. Let's see how: • Different sources of supply • Different life cycle of the product to be recycled • Different substances contained in the product if it is a packaging • Different techniques and methods of recycling in the supply chain • Different machines used • Different quality of the recycling chain • Different mix of inputs for creating recipes • Different techniques for the quality control of polymers These are just some alternatives that may imply to a recycled polymer of be different from a similar one. Standardization is not always easy , as the incoming material can have characteristics, at times, closer to rejection than to raw material, but the common effort to better characterize the final polymers will allow a greater diffusion of the same. In the European market the standardization work of some polymers such as rPET or PVC has brought good results, giving these two families rules qualitative, within which the product is regulated and easier to spread in the world, being able to repeat the same values, lot by lot. Recycled rPET in the United States is also becoming more uniform and shows reductions in contaminant levels. This push is led by California, where a minimum content of recycled plastic in PET bottles will apply from 2022, starting at 15%. But rPET California clear ground productions are largely dominated by materials with a PVC contaminant level of up to 100 ppm, this means that the US rPET industry is leaning towards lower quality end markets, such as the fiber and textile markets. The major international soft drink brands are installing rPET production in countries where they find abundant and ongoing sources of supply, creating a push for polymer standardization around the world. The global pollution caused by abandoned plastic due to man's nefarious behavior can be solved, giving value to the product to be recycled all the way Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Carbon Balancing and Forestry in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Carbon Balancing and Forestry in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Tuesday, 16th march 2021 | Environment

For many decades, starting from the era of slavery up to modern times, Africa was too often seen as an ATM from which one could withdraw at will and without expenses, the labor force, the raw materials of the subsoil, the products of the forests and the trade of animals. Furthermore, non-disposable or little waste was left in the country cheap prices of the most advanced countries, opaque trade in arms and polluting industrial production no longer accepted in other countries. Today, even in Africa, some steps are being taken towards a different consideration of the continent, without however deluding ourselves that the problems related to money and, therefore, and its distortions continues. From an environmental point of view, Total tells us about a forestation initiative in the Democratic Republic of Congo which aims to offset the carbon footprint that its mining activities they impress on the continent's environment. Indeed, Total and Forêt Ressources Management have signed a partnership agreement with the Republic of Congo to plant a 40,000-hectare forest on the Batéké plateau. The new forest will create a carbon sink that will sequester over 10 million tons of CO2 in 20 years, to be certified in accordance with Verified Carbon Standards ( VCS) and Climate, Community & Biodiversity (CCB). The project, funded by Total, includes agroforestry practices developed with local communities for agricultural production and sustainable wood energy. By 2040, responsible management through selective logging will promote the natural regeneration of local species and supply timber and plywood to Brazzaville and Kinshasa. “With this project in the Batéké highlands, Total is engaging in the development of natural carbon sinks in Africa. These activities build on the Group's priority initiatives to avoid and reduce emissions, in line with its ambition to achieve full carbon offset by 2050. They will also help show the natural potential of the Congo and extend our long-term partnership with the country, where we have been present for fifty years, "he said. Nicolas Terraz, Total Senior Vice President Africa, Exploration & Production. "We want to develop these projects with recognized partners, such as FRM, who have a lot to teach us, focusing on relevant regions to develop our long-term commitment and contribute to local development, ”added Adrien Henry, Vice President of Nature-Based Solutions at Total. The project is designed to produce multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Planting Acacia mangium and auriculiformis trees on sandy plateaus exposed to recurring fires will create a forest environment that will ultimately help expand ecosystem biodiversity. The project will create job opportunities, with a positive impact on several thousand people. In addition, a local development fund will support health, nutritional and educational initiatives for the benefit of neighboring villages. "The more than 10 million hectares of reserves on the Batéké plateaus in Congo offer a fantastic way to combat climate change globally and a unique opportunity to sustainable socio-economic development in the isolated regions of the country ", noted Bernard Cassagne, President and CEO of Forêt Ressources Management. "This ambitious and exemplary project is part of PRONAR, the national afforestation / reforestation program launched in 2011 to expand the country's forest cover and increase the capacity to carbon storage, create new wood-based businesses to diversify the national economy and foster the emergence of a green economy in the Republic of Congo ”, concluded Rosalie Matondo, Minister of Forest Economy of the Republic of Congo. Information on forest resource management The Forêt Ressources Management Group (FRM) is a major player in the wood, forestry and agroforestry plantation sector in Africa. FRM has more than 30 years of experience in forestry, tropical forests and consultancy services for the timber industry. The CEO and his engineering team have forged strong ties with the companies forestry, forest products and wood industries, local authorities, civil society and international credit institutions in numerous countries with major forestry challenges to manage existing resources or develop new resources through tree planting programs. About Total Nature Based Solutions In line with its ambition to reach zero emissions by 2050 and in parallel with its initiatives to avoid and reduce emissions, Total announced the creation of its new Nature Based Solutions (NBS) unit in June 2019 to develop natural carbon sinks to intercept the remaining tons of CO 2 from its industrial activities. Backed by an annual budget of $ 100 million, Total's goal is to participate in the development of a capture seizure capacity of at least 5 million tons of CO2 per year starting from 2030, contributing to the time spent on the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable development of local communities. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Info Total

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https://www.arezio.it/ - PVC Pipes: what can be Produced with Recycled Granules
PVC Pipes: what can be Produced with Recycled Granules
Monday, 15th march 2021 | Technical information

In the world of tubes for the transport of liquids, with or without pressure, the market is crowded with many raw materials that compete for market shares and clash with no holds barred, showing the advantages in the duration of the materials produced, in the ease of installation, in the weldability of the elements or in the correct accessories for the connection, in the economy, in the sustainability and in compliance with regulations. If we examine the pressureless pipes sector we see that in the past the use of cement and metal, in some situations, was the consequence of a step forward in the industrialization of transport products and the drainage of the water with respect to the pipes that were made of baked clay. The spread of concrete pipes, which seemed eternal, collided with the birth of plastic polymers which represented a technical and economic improvement compared to canalization systems traditional. Civil construction has begun to use PVC in household drains making the installation of liquid transport networks extremely simple and economical, and then extended to many other applications such as the irrigation, electrical and gardening sectors. The PVC pipe has assumed a role of absolute importance also for its intrinsic qualities such as: • The duration of more than 100 years based on pressure and aging tests • Good resistance to chemical and oxidative corrosion • The reduction of service disruptions • Anti-static • Water repellency • The resistance to internal and external pressure • The resistance to abrasion • Recyclability For many years virgin raw materials have been used for the production of all types of rigid and flexible pipes, until the sector began to collect waste and to reuse them according to the rules of the circular economy. Today the production of PVC pipes, except for particular specifications, is largely made through the processing of recycled materials. How is waste recycling done? In the first place, the scraps may derive from the collection of used tubes or from the coupling sleeves but, according to the recipes required by the market, the raw material can be mixed to other PVC that comes from different supply chains. For example in the rigid PVC sector, window profiles can dynamically enrich the recipe, thus the waste of the shutters or credit cards or profiles for the electricity sector, they attribute improving technical characteristics based on the percentage used. In the Soft PVC sector, the sheaths of electric cable covers, gaskets, water containment sheaths and industrial processing waste make up the menu to make the right recipes. However, these mixes must be precisely checked in the laboratory before the production of the recycled granule, in order to exactly match the technical characteristics required by the customer. But to reach the verification in the laboratory you have to go through the recycling phases of the scraps that normally include: • The selection of elements by type of application and by color • Grinding of waste and deferization • The micronization if required • Granulation of the ground with the addition of the correct additives What are the applications that can be realized through the use of Recycled PVC for pipes? There are many sectors that the use of recycled raw material allows to reach, guaranteeing the customer the production of reliable, economical and long-lasting elements. Let's see some: • Rigid pipes suitable for the discharge of non-pressurized water in civil construction with variable thicknesses and diameters • Non-pressure field irrigation pipes with different sizes and diameters based on length and flow rate • Tubular elements in the horticultural sector suitable for plant support • Small flexible tubes suitable for tying plants • Small diameter flexible corrugated pipes suitable for containing electrical cables • Support tubes, called cores, of rolls of industrial materials such as plastic films, fabrics or other materials that are wound on reels. • Solid bars suitable for industrial production for turning • Flexible irrigation hoses for the garden • Corrugated or smooth tubes to protect telecommunication cables • Soil drainage pipes There are obviously many other applications of pipes made with recycled PVC, as there are many other applications of recycled granule in the production of commonly used products of which we will have the opportunity to talk about later. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Chaotic Situation of Polypropylene in Turkey: the Perfect Storm
The Chaotic Situation of Polypropylene in Turkey: the Perfect Storm
Monday, 15th march 2021 | General News

A period like this will be remembered for a long time, not only by the Turkish industrial system that uses polypropylene but, cascading, also the buyers of the finished products that Turkish factories supply and the financial system that is under pressure. The disproportionate increases in polypropylene in Turkey are the consequence of a series of exceptional situations that have occurred on world commodity markets virgins, manifesting as a perfect storm. And like all sudden storms, the situation also took Turkish buyers by surprise, creating a series of difficulties on the supply of raw materials, on the levels of unsustainable prices and on company budgets. The concatenation of events hit on forecast analyzes of regular PP availability, albeit with a forecast of a price increase that seemed sustainable and cyclical. Expectations of a gradual rise hinged on the consideration of an extremely long period of below-average prices, a hypothesis of international recovery and the approach of the Chinese New Year which would have released more availability on the market. In reality these theses have been found to be wrong about the exceptional nature of the events that have occurred: • The meteorological problems in the USA with a collapse of PP production • The shifting of parts of the global inventories of producers to more profitable markets such as the US and Europe • The shortage of circulation of containers that has soared prices • The linking of production shutdowns to plants, partly already planned, such as Total, Ineos, LyondellBasell, ExxonMobil, Borealis and Unipetrol. Stocks also reduced in the Middle East, an area of normal supply for Turkey • The reduction of the Chinese New Year holidays due to Covid with a recovery in the consumption of polymers earlier than expected • The slowdown in customs operations causes Covid. These linked events have brought a very high price level to Turkey, with a shortage of availability that has put local producers in crisis. Operators declare increases for PPH of $ 350-500 per ton, from week to week and buyers do not know how to constructively convey to the commercial sector increases in product costs. Price growth as a percentage reached 49% for PP Raffia and 32% for PPBC by injection, compared to February 2021, creating chaos above all in companies that work with supply contracts for customers who assemble semi-finished products produced in Turkey. It is not only the contribution margins on orders that no longer match, but also the impossibility of producing due to the lack, even at any price, of the raw material . Not even the increase of the Turkish lira against the dollar has been of help in this paradoxical situation, which is bringing the plastics sector to its knees by having a weight in the country of crucial importance. There are questions about when this situation can be resolved, but analysts are prudent in establishing dates, as the phenomenon is complex and the resolution of the problems passes from 'positive evolution of all the factors described above. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Non-recyclable Plastic in Cemente Ovens: are we Safe?
Non-recyclable Plastic in Cemente Ovens: are we Safe?
Friday, 12nd march 2021 | Environment

If the Thermovalorizers are created to use the End of Waste correctly, the cements leave many doubts. From a circular economy perspective, the waste of plastic recycling products, which by its chemical composition cannot be used, has a thermal value as fuel. But if the End of Waste cannot be recycled it is because it is composed of a mix of plastic waste that, if burned in the ovens, result in the emission of toxic substances that should not be fed into the atmosphere. That’s why the thermovalorizers were born. The heat-tray systems are designed, built and intended for the combustion of the End of Waste, taking into account the chemical process of processing the various plastics under the effect of heat.  This process involves the production of fumes in which substances that are dangerous to humans and the environment are contained, which, a plant born for this work, manages correctly, with the aim of reducing harmful substances. It is a common practice, however, to allocate part of the End of Waste also to cement production plants, which uses it as a combustible for their ovens at low prices, but through plants that have not been designed specifically for waste disposal. But what is the End of Waste? In the correct urban waste management policies there are two categories of waste that are collected and treated differently and with different purposes:  Organic waste, which we produce daily in the household, which is delivered in differentiated waste collection centres. These products are treated for the production of biogas, fertilizer, carbon dioxide for food and electricity use. Urban waste,in the form of mixed plastics, which are selected by type of plastic and started for recycling turning them into scales, densified and polymers. In the context of the selection of plastic fractions, some families emerge, the characteristics of which do not lend themselves to a mechanical selection such as, for example, the paired poles, plastics formed by families of polymers different and incompatible. When a plastic, at the end of its cycle  is not recoverable mechanically, it can assume an important thermal value by creating a combustible material, of decidedly appreciable caloric characteristics, which helps, through its use, to continue the path of the circular economy.  In fact, in addition to not dumping this fraction of mixed plastics, which in terms of annual volume is very important, we can save the use of natural resources derived from oil. The End of Waste now mainly powers power plants and cement plants. The use of this waste in power plants has also reduced dependence on coal, a fossil fuel with a very high level of pollution and responsible for health problems of citizens living near power plants. The production of electricity, through the End of Waste, has allowed to calibrate the design of the plants with respect to the product that serves as fuel, creating a high ecological efficiency compared to other systems. In northern Europe, the production of energy through the burning of non-recyclable plastic waste is a good compromise between technical and environmental results. The second area of fuel use derived from the End of Waste concerns the use in cements, which use it to power the furnaces for the production of clinkers. According to a study done  Augustine of Ciaula , the plants for the production of clinker/cement would not be adequate, from the health point, to use this type of plastic waste.  According to this research, the use of the End of Waste in cement mills, in place of variable percentages of fossil fuels, causes the production and emission of heavy metals, which are toxic to the environment and harmful to human health. These substances, when emitted into the environment, are able to determine an increase in health risk for residents due to their non-biodegradability (persistence in the environment), the ability to move with the food chain and to accumulate progressively in biological tissues (plant, animal, human). It has been shown that,  for some heavy metals (especially those with increased volatility), the transfer factor of these substances from waste fuel to plant emissions is far greater in the case of cement mills when compared with classical incinerators.  This value is significantly higher than that detectable as a result of the use of End of Waste in plants designed for this purpose (Thermovalorizers) and, in the same cement plants, to a greater extent than the use of fossil fuels alone. This use can increase emissions into the environment of  dioxins, PCBs and other persistent chlorinated toxic compounds with negative consequences on human health.  Significantly higher transfer factors for cement mills are also evident in the case of  cadmium, a substance recognised as a certain carcinogen (percentage emissions 3.7 times higher in the case of cement mills) and lead (percentage transfer factor 203 times higher in the case of cement mills).  Despite the technological measures to limit emissions taken by cement plants, given the high volume of fumes emitted by these plants, the total amount of Hg that will reach the environment will, however, significantly increase the health risk of residents in neighbouring territories.  Limiting the analysis to mercury alone, it has been calculated that more than two million children with mercury levels are born in Europe each year above the limit considered “safe” by the WHO. While ignoring the increased health risk from the emission of heavy carcinogenic metals present in the End of Waste (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel), equally significant problems arise from the presence, granted in the waste itself, of significant amounts of lead.  The lead transfer factor, from the End of Waste to emissions, is about 203 times greater in cement mills than in traditional incinerators, and emissive values are made, in the case of cement mills, even more problematic by an average volume of fumes emitted, about five times greater in conventional cements than in classical incinerators.  Even for lead, as for other heavy metals, compliance with legal limits is not able to adequately protect the paediatric age. Exposure to lead, in fact, like that of mercury, begins during fetal life (in utero) and involves a progressive and irreversible accumulation in the body. In order to limit lead intake through  drinking water, according to the World Health Organization, water intake with lead concentrations of only 5g/L results in a total lead intake ranging from 3.8g per day in paediatric age to 10g/day for an adult.  Another problem encountered is dioxin emissions, wherees where the number of chlorogens and other toxic chlorinated compounds is still considered to be at high risk for the formation and consequent emission into the atmosphere of dioxins (of which chlorine is a precursor) and other chlorinated toxic compounds by cement plants that use end-of-waste co-combustion to replace fossil fuels. The high temperatures present in some places in the production cycle of these plants facilitate the dioxeation. However, scientific evidence clearly shows that, although  dioxin molecules have a breaking point of their bond at temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius, during cooling phases, (at the end of the production cycle the temperature drops to about 300 degrees Celsius) they regroup and reform, appearing accordingly in emissions. SINTEF reports and international scientific publications document the production  of polychlorinated dioxins and moths by cement plants with co-combustion practices and, a recent study, demonstrated considerable amounts of dioxins in the household dust of homes located in neighboring territories to cements with co-combustion of waste. The Stockholm Convention calls for the implementation of all possible measures to reduce or eliminate the release of chlorinated organic compounds (POPs) into the environment and, co-combustion cement plants, waste are explicitly mentioned in it.  In addition, even when dioxin emissions are quantitatively low, the use of fuel derived from plastic waste can generate the production and emission of large amounts of PCBs (thousands of times higher concentrations), compounds similar to dioxins in terms of environmental and health hazard.  Dioxins are non-biodegradable compounds, persistent in the environment with a long half-life (which for some congeners reaches the century), transmissible with the food chain and, above all, bio-accumulatible.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently recalculated the daily level of dioxin exposure considered not at risk to the human body, which is 0.7pg (0.0007ng) of dioxins per kg of body weight.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Circular Economy: does the Refusal of Refusal go “to Ash”?
Circular Economy: does the Refusal of Refusal go “to Ash”?
Wednesday, 10th march 2021 | Circular economy

Nothing is thrown away in modern waste-to-energy plants. After the production of electricity and heat for heating, ash also has its place The ash that is produced through the incineration of waste in waste-to-energy plants, can have a place in the circular economy, based on how the refusal of the ovens is identified and on the basis of the national environmental legislation in force and the reuse of the material. The waste-to-energy treatment of non-recyclable waste is never to be seen as an option to the waste separation and recycling system, but rather an additional system to mechanical recycling that intercepts and manages that part of the waste that is no longer reusable. The incineration of this waste normally generates electricity and heat for the heating of our homes, as well as being engaged in other industrial areas as an alternative fuel to fossil sources. What are defined as ” Bottom Ashes ” in the international arena, concern the residual ash of the waste combustion process, which is represented by the unburnt waste of the masses placed in the ovens. The composition of the unburnt ash includes residues of glass, minerals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals and ceramics , in the measure of 20-25% for each ton placed in the oven, according to the indications of the ISWA (International Solid Waste Organization) which deals with to promote and develop sustainable and professional waste management worldwide. The residual ashes are extracted from the ovens through a process in which water is used to cool them and to prevent the creation of potentially harmful dusts , therefore their removal from the plants takes place in the form of wet and compact agglomerates. Until a few years ago, generally, the extracted ashes did not have a different location from that of the landfill, but with the advent of the circular economy processes, consideration was given to the possibility of reusing them. Considering that the chemical compounds contained in the ashes are on average composed of Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron, Calcium and Silicon , we can say that the prevalence of the components is normally constituted by silicon, calcium and iron. With regard to the average chemical analyzes that each plant provides, many countries have adopted legislation to classify these ashes and have recommended their treatments and uses. Let’s see what indications come from some countries:  In Italy , according to the decree n ° 22 of 5 February 1997, the ashes coming from the incineration plants can be reused, if they do not contain harmful substances, such as inert cement, but only after having been properly treated. In reality, their use in the country still remains limited compared to production.  The Netherlands regulates the management of the ashes within the national waste management plan (LAP) which includes, among others, some indications regarding the use of the waste material where it is widely used as part of the embankments.  In Denmark , already in 1987, the government had allowed the use of ash produced by incineration plants as an inert material for the construction of roads, with the aim of finding employment for at least 85% of the waste produced. Furthermore, it also allowed its use in residential civil construction only following the environmental opinion of the Environmental Protecion Act.  France has decided to classify the residual ash through analyzes that can identify three distinct categories: V, M and S, attributing to these three categories the percentage of ash (50%, 30% and 20%) admitted within the compounds usable.  In Spain most of the ashes are still sent to landfills even if an inert use for road construction is being promoted.  In Finland, the use of incinerators is not a priority for the government which prefers to follow the path of waste disposal through gasifiers, therefore, it directs the low quantities of ash produced in landfills.  Since 2006, Germany has allowed the use of ash in road construction, provided that chemical analyzes do not identify elements that are potentially harmful to the environment. Together with Holland, Denmark and France, Germany is the country that most reuses this waste. The use of the ashes coming from the waste incineration plants, where possible, constitutes the full circularity of the raw materials, fully utilizing every part of the waste through the processes of recycling, energy production and reuse of the final waste.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Commodity Price Record Threatens Credit Lines and Businesses
Commodity Price Record Threatens Credit Lines and Businesses
Tuesday, 9th march 2021 | General News

The international situation of plastic raw materials which is leading to incredible price increases, in a continuous run-up to records due to a huge shortage of supply, is putting a strain on the companies' procurement capacity. One of the decisive reasons concerns the company credit lines, which were calibrated on a financial trend where raw materials had lower prices and, which now do not give companies the willingness to finance their purchases of raw materials according to the new market prices. In addition, some financial institutions are working against the trend, with the aim of reducing liquid assets for companies in the short term due to the fear of the consequences on fluctuations. violent commodity prices. This thesis is supported by the idea that such a high price level can depress company profitability and negatively affect balance sheets, considering that at this moment customers have two alternatives: stop production due to lack of raw material or produce by making a loss on contracts already acquired. But the question that is constantly circulating among the operators of the sector is when will it return to a normal situation. A fairly shared response sees the return to a calmer situation on the markets when the United States were to resume production of raw materials on a regular basis. A regularity that has been lacking due to the pandemic, the winter storms that have paralyzed a part of the country and due to the sea logistics crisis. The timing for the return to normal, however, remains uncertain pending some essential elements: • The improvement of the Covid situation in the United States which, following the massive vaccination campaign, will allow a complete return to work. • The season of storms must definitely pass • The return of a fair distribution of empty containers around the world so as to allow the resumption of trade routes again. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Online Products and Greenwashing: How to Defend Against a Rising Phenomenon
Online Products and Greenwashing: How to Defend Against a Rising Phenomenon
Monday, 8th march 2021 | General News

Online commerce is advancing overwhelmingly in consumer habits, thanks to some peculiarities that help the phenomenon. Speed of delivery, ease of purchase, very large catalogs, low prices and convenience compared to buying in a physical store, especially in times like these where there are restrictions on mobility. An online sales race is also made by producers of articles who until recently did not use this channel and, therefore, the supply basin is became really huge. Among thousands of offers for similar items, marketers have refined customer persuasion techniques by knowing what consumers expect to find in a product. The European Commission and national consumer protection authorities have investigated the offers of some products in the online market and have noticed a massive display of misleading, exaggerated messages and sometimes false about greenwashing. Since the consumers who use the online shopping service are also customers who generally require more sustainable products, information on the products for sale by manufacturers or the advertising on the article, are often imbued with statements that recall the sustainability and recyclability of the same. Terms such as recycled, green, green economy, ecological, organic, zero impact, and many others are often found on packaging but, in reality, do not always reflect the production chain of the article, giving the customer incorrect information and without supporting the claims with evidence. A study by the European Community evaluated 344 "apparently dubious" sustainability statements made online by companies, most of them in the clothing and textile sectors , cosmetics, personal care and household appliances. In 42% of cases, the national control authorities found that the statements printed on the packaging were false, misleading or potentially misleading for consumers, therefore to be considered as an unfair practice under European Union law. This information that the consumer finds on the packaging is not sufficient to allow a correct choice of the product and, in 37% of cases, deliberately vague terms are used without data clear and certified support. European Commissioner for Justice Didier Reynders, said that while some companies strive to produce truly eco-friendly products, others take a shorter route and at no cost, through the use of vague, false or exaggerated claims. To talk about a sector in which the phenomenon is there for all to see, we can mention the sector of production and refining of fossil fuels, whose companies are spending huge economic resources to create a greener reputation. But it is also interesting to note, for example, the information that consumers can find on a bottle of detergent, in which we often read the phrase: Recyclable Product. There is no doubt that it is a correct statement, an HDPE bottle made with virgin polymer is recyclable, but it is misleading, if also combined with acronyms or drawings that make you imagine the nature and care of the ecosystem, inducing the consumer to buy a bottle that does not follow the principles of the circular economy. In fact, in order to respect the rules of the circularity of raw materials, the bottle must be made of recycled plastic and, on the label, there must be a sentence similar to : bottle made with recycled material that can be recycled again. The European Commission has sent member states a warning of attention to these unfair practices with the exhortation to monitor and punish those who transgress the rules. It is always important for the consumer to inquire before making a purchase, trying to get a clear picture of what is recycled, recyclable or falsely recycled, comparing more products and information that manufacturers distribute to the market. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Will Electric Cars Start the Automotive?
Will Electric Cars Start the Automotive?
Monday, 8th march 2021 | Renewable energies

Elettric cars, which to choose: Full Eletric, Plug-in Hybrid, Full Hybrid or Mild Hybrid.While the car industry has probably experienced the worst two-month period in its history, there is a lot of curiosity among operators, at the reopening, to see if the consumer will continue to prefer an electric vehicle over a traditional motorization. The Aristotelian catharsis that we are experiencing as a result of the Corona virus and the consequent globalized lockdown, has probably allowed us to take stock of the great themes that plague our world and be able to participate, through our daily actions, in the creation of a more effective environmental sustainability. The world of mobility,according to data released in mid-2019 by the independent international organization Transport&Environment,predicted for the two years 2020-2021, a definitive turning point in the electric car market. Automakers had finally turned to the electric mobility channel by committing, not only to the design and conversion of factories, but also to the purchase or joint venture with companies specializing in the production of modern batteries, and also in the mining supply chain for the extraction of raw materials. If we look at the substantial supply of electric models that arrived on the market between 2018 and 2020, we can see what importance car manufacturers are giving to the industry. In fact, if in 2018 there were about 60 models in production in Europe, the forecast for 2020 is to go to 176, in 2021 to 214 and in 2025 to 333. But will consumer support for electric mobility be confirmed after lockdown? It is assumed that the sector has taken an irreversible path, from which there is no intention and possibility to backtrack, also because consumers are increasingly concerned with reducing air pollution in their cities and using more environmentally friendly means of transport for medium-haul travel, those between 200 and 700 km. The role of the machine, to be used on the average journeys,no longer enjoys the appeal it had before, not only because of the question of the ratio of pollutants emitted by cars per km. compared to the train, but also for a new liveability during the journey, in which the user, on the train, can rest or work as if it were in the office. The electric car, within the 1-200 km range. it is likely to remain the least polluting mode of transport in relation to the freedom of individual movement. But how to choose the new car among the market proposals: Full Eletric, Full Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid or Mild Hybrid ? Let’s look at the differences between the various engines: Full Eletric: is a car whose traction is done exclusively through an electric motor powered by a battery rechargeable via an external source, home, wallbox or via a road column. They do not emit CO2, need very limited maintenance and do not use fossil fuel under any circumstances. Full Hybrid:these are vehicles that have a good trade-off between environmental impact, high mileage and fuel consumption. They are characterized by the installation of two engines, one electric and one thermal (diesel or gasoline), which coexist during the use of the car. When the machine is in gear, the batteries are recharged through the thermal engine and the decelerations of the vehicle. It is normally used in electric mode during low-rise journeys, such as city circuits or manually in other circumstances. Hybrid Plug-ins:they are cars of similar design to Full Hybrids but that have the advantage of being able to be recharged using an external energy source through a cable. Mild Hybrid: they are vehicles equipped with an electric motor of reduced power compared to the other three categories that we have seen, which only comes into operation in certain circumstances, such as ignition or low-speed gear. Although it falls into the category of hybrid engines and is a cheaper solution than other types of traction, it is the one that has less efficiency in terms of consumption and sustainability.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Lucart Expands in Great Britain Acquiring ESP Ltd
rNEWS: Lucart Expands in Great Britain Acquiring ESP Ltd
Friday, 5th march 2021 | rNEWS

In the paper product packaging sector, the Italian company Lucart has acquired control of the English company ESP, a transformer of professional paper products.Lucart has acquired 100% of the share capital of ESP Ltd (Essential Supply Products Ltd.). It is Britain's leading independent processor of professional hygiene products. The Group is thus continuing its internationalization plan, despite the uncertainties arising from Brexit and the pandemic. The investment will contribute to decisively strengthen Lucart's leadership in the European market for Away from Home hygiene products. Massimo Pasquini, CEO of Lucart, commented on the important milestone as follows: "This operation is of strategic importance for the entire Group, as it allows us to consolidate our presence in Great Britain, which represents the second largest market in Europe for tissue paper products. Our financial strength and the will to pursue the Group's strategic objectives, together with the awareness that the difficulties linked to the historical moment we are experiencing should not make us lose our long-term vision - continues Pasquini - have allowed us to overcome the uncertainties generated by Brexit and the Covid-19 pandemic. We have completed an important further step for the future development of the entire Group ”. Essential Supply Products Ltd Founded in 1990, Essential Supply Products Ltd today records a turnover of approximately 30 million euros per year. The company, with headquarters and production plant in Malvern, employs 85 people on 5 different converting lines. The production plants are spread over an area of 77,000 square meters, of which 15,000 are covered. By position, market and type of production, these will allow to activate important synergies with the other factories of the Group. Founder Carl Theakston will collaborate personally to facilitate the handover. His words reflect the awareness of having found in Lucart the ideal buyer for the future of the Company: "Over the years we have carried out numerous operations to allow ESP to continue to compete at the highest levels. Over time, however, I realized that the investment standard necessary to make my ambitions for this company concrete required an investor who shared the values of the ESP family and that he had the vision and desire to grow the company sustainably and to its full potential. Lucart - concludes Theakston - is a family-run multinational group that has been operating for 68 years. Its history, vision and commitment to sustainable development models make it the ideal investor so that the ESP adventure can continue in the best possible way ". Info from Lucart Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Milliken-Zebra-chem Agreement on Peroxide Masterbach
rNEWS: Milliken-Zebra-chem Agreement on Peroxide Masterbach
Friday, 5th march 2021 | rNEWS

The recycled plastic sector is increasingly interesting also for chemical groups that have an international and multi-sector vision for their products. Acquisitions and synergies are found with a certain continuity in these periods, with the aim of improving the general business more quickly, taking advantage of technical and market introductions of the companies being acquired. With this in mind, the acquisition that the American chemical company Milliken made on the German company Zebra-chem develops. Peroxide masterbatches are essential in the production of recycled plastics. The American chemical company Milliken, a manufacturer of plastic additives and dyes, strengthens its positions in this field by acquiring the German Zebra-chem. This company based in Bad Bentheim, on the German-Dutch border, is a specialist in organic peroxide masterbatches and blowing agents for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyolefins and technical thermoplastics. "As more and more companies and governments around the world set goals to increase the use of recycled materials, the leadership position of Zebra-chem in Europe will allow Milliken to leverage its platforms. The strength of innovation, its global presence and its commercial experience will be the engines to accelerate its presence in the market with solutions that improve and increase production based on recycled plastic, the group said in a press release. In addition, the transaction allows him to enter the German market with a broad view of Europe. Founded in 1865 and still owned by the Milliken family, the chemical group of the same name, active in specialty chemicals, floor coverings and protective fabrics, employs approximately 7,000 people and has 40 factories around the world. Machine translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Which Systems to Use for the Calculation of Moisture in Polymers?
Which Systems to Use for the Calculation of Moisture in Polymers?
Tuesday, 2nd march 2021 | Technical information

The drastic reduction of humidity in the plastic materials that must be used for the molding process of items intended for sale, is a very important operation, more important than is normally believed . In fact, even those who normally apply a moisture reduction treatment must ensure that the levels themselves are low enough so as not to create defects on the final product , process variations and breakdowns of press components. As we have discussed in other articles concerning hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic plastics, the importance of dehumidification of the material, especially for those families of polymers that easily absorb moisture , like PC, PA and PET, is to preserve the polymer chains which, in the presence of an excessive amount of water, are subject to degradation through hydrolysis. In fact, in some plastic materials, the mere presence of humidity of 200 ppm will negatively affect the polymer chains, short or cut, with the degradation of the molecular weight of the polymer. But to realize the measurement magnitude of a quantity of humidity of 200 ppm we consider that this value corresponds in percentage to 0.0200, therefore about 9.1 grams of water for 45.360 grams of material. A high humidity concentration in the polymer can be easily noticed during the molding of articles following the formation of bubbles on the surfaces of the products, increased vaporization in the machine and all the negative consequences on the quality of the product from a mechanical and aesthetic point of view. But a small amount of moisture, which still interacts with the polymer chains, creating aesthetic and structural damage, is not normally detected during the molding phases but will be assessable on the characteristics of the final product. It is important to analyze the plastic resin before the molding operations, dry it completely and not fall into the temptation to mix parts of dry resin with wet parts, because the qualitative characteristics of the dry parts will be negatively affected by the wet parts. But what are the methods for controlling humidity? Weight difference method: the sample is taken from the packaging or from the hopper and placed in a container for its heating during the analysis phase. Before the granules are heated, a weigh is made and, subsequently, the material is heated to a temperature suitable for the resin family being analyzed. Once the ideal temperature has been reached, the moisture fraction will come out of the granules and, with it, all the other volatile parts that are represented by release agents, stabilizers, antistats or others chemicals that were found in the polymer. At the end of the process the granule is weighed and compared with the previous weight which represented the wet granule. For simplicity we would tend to consider the difference in weight as the expression of the amount of moisture present in the material to be used. In reality this is not the case, as it is not possible to know exactly how much moisture and how many volatilized chemical agents are the expression of the weight difference. Method of the analysis of the specific humidity: the initial analysis operation is comparable with the previous system, based on the weight difference, but the process is carried out in an atmosphere of dry nitrogen, in which humidity and volatiles will be expelled as in the previous analysis, but the machine will calculate exactly the part of humidity present in the raw material without taking care of the volatile parts as it is able to separate the different chemical compounds. In this case we will talk about specific humidity, as we will precisely evaluate the weight of the same net of the ejected birds.Related articles:THE IMPORTANCE OF DEHUMIDIFICATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC POLYMERSMOISTURE ABSORPTION IN POLYMERS HDPE RECYCLED BOTTLES: HOW TO MANAGE SURFACE DEFECTSAutomatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How to Recycle Label Backing in the Packaging Industry
How to Recycle Label Backing in the Packaging Industry
Tuesday, 2nd march 2021 | Circular economy

Recovering and recycling does not only mean taking care of the product at the end of its life that has been purchased by the consumer, taken for example home, used its contents and then thrown away. This is the traditional concept of a product that must be sent for recycling, but consumers do not see other types of waste that are generated to produce that packaging. For example, the supports of the labels that are applied to products continuously generate waste that we can define as non-consumer but production waste. As Tiziano Polito tells us about an initiative carried out by the American company Avery Dennison, which will recover waste from adhesive materials that it places on the market in eight European countries in first half of 2021. 470,000 tons: This is the volume of label media produced in Europe in 2019 according to the consultancy AWA. Only a third of this amount is recycled. The backs - called by some "liner" or "protector" are used to convey the label, called "front", then become waste once the label is applied to the product. For several years the producers of adhesive materials have been proposing to recover them in the context of programs that respond to a circular economy approach. Avery Dennison is one of them. The American manufacturer launches, with AD Circular, a new recovery and recycling project for European countries. With an expected start in the first half of 2021 in France, Spain, Belgium, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the UK, the program will involve other European countries in the second half of the year. The project concerns the recovery and recycling of the paper support and the plastic film. To carry out the project, Avery Dennison uses a simple system: companies have a Web application to plan their waste collection. It also provides them with useful data in the form of analyzes and certificates, quantities of recycled materials, quantities of CO2 emissions avoided, etc. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: PreZero Acquires Suez Sweden Business
rNEWS: PreZero Acquires Suez Sweden Business
Monday, 1st march 2021 | rNEWS

PreZero's industrial activities are flooding Europe through agreements and acquisitions of companies specializing in recycling and waste treatment. As Danne Toto reports, the company took over the activities of Suez Sweden and changed its name. Suez in Sweden changed the brand to PreZero Recycling AB following the acquisition of these businesses by PreZero in December 2020. PreZero Recycling AB has 50 locations and 1,100 employees. As the environmental division of the Schwarz Group, which also includes retailers Kaufland and Lidl, PreZero Stiftung & Co. KG based in Germany will enjoy all possible synergies between companies and individual skills. With the acquisition of Suez in Sweden, PreZero will have a total of approximately 4,800 employees in Germany, Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Italy and United States. In September last year, PreZero announced its plans to acquire Suez's recycling and recovery business based in Paris, the Netherlands, in Luxembourg, Germany and Poland. The agreement excluded Suez's plastic recycling and hazardous waste treatment activities. But in the same period, the companies had declared the preparation of a memorandum of understanding to explore the possibilities of developing strategic partnerships and promoting innovative waste management. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Situation of Metal Waste in the Chinese Market in 2021
The Situation of Metal Waste in the Chinese Market in 2021
Monday, 1st march 2021 | Circular economy

The upward trend in the prices of raw materials to be recycled also finds full compliance in the field of ferrous and non-ferrous waste. China had foreseen strict import restrictions on raw materials to be recycled in 2018-2020, and then became more elastic due to the growing demand for waste to be processed from the domestic market as Brayan Tailor tells us. The People's Republic of China produces more steel, aluminum and copper than any other nation on Earth, so if the percentage of scrap consumption should increase in 2021, ripple effects are likely to occur. An online presentation in late February by Ian Roper and Joyce Li of Shanghai Metals Market (SMM) addressed the evolution of the basic scrap metal market in China , along with other trends affecting the production and use of steel, stainless steel, aluminum and copper in the country. Over the past two years, the Chinese government had imposed import barriers, including on ferrous and non-ferrous scrap, as well as other recycled materials, with the hypothesis of an absolute import ban for all types of scrap on 1 January this year. Li noted that China is far from self-sufficient in copper, with its "self-sufficiency rate" falling from 40% in 2010 to 22% in 2019. Restrictions on imported scrap in 2019 and 2020 therefore led to an increase in copper cathode and aluminum ingot imports in 2020. Although scrap import volumes rebounded in November and December across the board, Roper noted that imports to China dropped by around 300,000 tons in 2020 . It also stated that SMM expects an increase in general scrap imports in 2021, although prices could rise significantly globally. In the ferrous metals market, Chinese steelmakers appear to be moving towards electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and other technologies designed to reduce emissions and consume more scrap. Although Chinese producers will import around 1 million tons of scrap in 2021, Roper said this is a quantity that will impact price levels. raw material, in a region where factories in neighboring countries, such as Vietnam, are bidding on the same product. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The 7 Sustainable Projects Launched by the 'Coalition for the Energy of the Future'
The 7 Sustainable Projects Launched by the 'Coalition for the Energy of the Future'
Friday, 26th february 2021 | Renewable energies

A coalition of 14 companies involved in transportation, raw materials, certifications, finance, electricity, to name a few, has launched an ambitious 7 point plan for 2021 , with the aim of starting the study and experimentation of more sustainable forms of mobility and reducing the climatic impact of transport and logistics, as M. Duvelleroy tells us. Launched at the end of 2019, the "Coalition for the Energy of the Future" aims to accelerate the development of future energy and technologies to support new green mobility models and reduce the impact of transport and logistics on climate change, announcing the first goals to be achieved this year. 2021 will be a pivotal year for the Coalition and its intersectoral working groups with 7 projects to develop: Green hydrogen: capitalizes on the Carrefour Cathyope and H2Haul projects to test, for the first time in Europe, hydrogen trucks powered by fuel cells with zero long-term emissions mileage, proposing a consolidated order book for the transport of goods on French and European roads.Biofuels: propose and test the first bio-crude oil dedicated to maritime needs to increase the use of biofuels along the supply chain and develop the use of 3 biofuels ° generation.Zero Impact Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): charting a path for bioLNG towards carbon neutrality, highlighting the key issues to be addressed.Green electricity: identify and convert, along the global supply chain, key elements (depots, terminals and warehouses ...) into self-sufficient green entities to accelerate electrical conversion in the transport chain.Zero-emission vehicles for road, air and sea transport: share by the end of the first quarter of 2021 a common vision and a roadmap to develop projects innovative research and development around new energies such as hydrogen or ammonia.Digital Ecocalculator of the transport chain: create a supercomputer that can analyze the emissions of individual means of transport with the aim of proposing solutions with lower carbon impacts.Intermodal green hubs: propose a plan to support the conversion of ports into new green multimodal hubs, using low-impact routes with greener energy by the end of 2021 . The 14 companies will continue to work closely in the coming months to develop new concrete projects that go in the direction of the fight against climate change. Airbus, Bureau Veritas and PSA International join the "Coalition for the Energy of the Future" 2021 also marks the entry into the Coalition of three international companies, recognized worldwide for their involvement in the study and implementation of technological innovations: Airbus, international reference in the aerospace sector and pioneer of sustainable aviation Bureau Veritas, world leader in testing, inspection and certification, PSA International, a maritime transport group, world leader and trusted partner for freight activities. Join AWS, Carrefour, CMA CGM Group, Cluster Maritime Français, Crédit Agricole CIB, ENGIE, Faurecia, Michelin, Schneider Electric, Total and Wärtsilä in the Coalition . Together, they will bring additional resources and talents to the group to meet the challenge of tomorrow's sustainable transport and logistics. "Airbus has a leading role to play in achieving sustainable aviation," said Jean-Brice Dumont, Executive Vice President Engineering, Airbus. "We are convinced of the advantages that joint initiatives can bring in the search for innovative solutions to reduce C02 emissions in our sector, because we know that this challenge requires a collective effort. We believe this coalition will promote the development of creative projects with effective results that will pave the way for new mobility models across the industry. " According to Matthieu de Tugny, President of Bureau Veritas Marine and Offshore, “Innovative projects and joint development programs will certainly be vital to make sure we are ready for the future. The diverse stakeholders and experience of this coalition certainly give real power to the shipping industry and supply lines to develop the innovative solutions we need. This is a collective approach and all our efforts must absolutely be linked to support new green transport models ". Mr TAN Chong Meng, CEO of PSA International, states: “PSA is proud to be part of the Coalition, which is in line with our mission to enable more ecological logistical choices for everyone, working with qualified partners. We are excited to help develop future energies and technologies and to do our part to collectively create a more sustainable future for transport and trade " . With these additional members, the Coalition continues to gather key market leaders in different sectors and pursues its mission to accelerate the development of energy and new technologies, supporting new low-carbon models to achieve the goal of zero emissions in transport and logistics. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Eni's New Investment in Photovoltaics in Spain
rNEWS: Eni's New Investment in Photovoltaics in Spain
Friday, 26th february 2021 | rNEWS

The industrial diversification of companies that have always lived on the extraction, refining and distribution of petroleum derivatives, is running fast, almost perhaps a competition. We have closely followed Total's investments in the field of renewable energy worldwide, of Enel in various countries, while today we see Eni's new initiatives in Spain in the photovoltaic sector. Indeed, Eni has reported through a press release that it has signed an agreement with X-Elio for the acquisition of three photovoltaic projects in southern Spain for a total capacity of 140 MW. Eni and X-Elio have also started discussions for a strategic collaboration between the two companies for the development of green energy projects in Spain, where Eni aims to growth of 1 GW over the next 5 years, contributing to the achievement of the 5GW installed capacity target from renewables by 2025. X-Elio is among the leaders in the field of renewable energy projects globally with an important presence in Spain, where it has developed and built projects for over 1 GW. The company currently has 250 MW projects under construction in the country, a long-term electricity purchase agreement (PPA) of over 650 MW, and over 1.5 GW under development. Based on the agreement, the transfer of the projects will be subject to the usual authorizations, starting from the second half of 2021. Eni will be responsible for the construction of the plants and marketing of electricity. Claudio Descalzi, CEO of Eni, declared: “This initiative significantly strengthens Eni's presence in the Spanish market with a large investment in the field of energy renewables and integrates the company's existing businesses in the region. The development of photovoltaic projects is in line with our strategy to support the energy transition and is a key element of the company's commitment to reducing CO2 emissions. This acquisition will also make it possible to exploit future synergies with the retail electricity & gas business “. This agreement is added to the one recently signed by Eni gas e luce, a company wholly owned by Eni, with Grupo Pitma for the acquisition of 100% of Aldro Energía Y Soluciones SL, active in Spain and Portugal in the market for the sale of electricity, gas and services to residential customers and large, small and medium-sized enterprises. Eni is also about to finalize the agreements relating to the amicable resolution of disputes relating to Union Fenosa Gas, following which Eni will directly enter into the natural gas sales activities in Spain to customers in the industrial sector, wholesalers and thermoelectric, strengthening its presence in the European gas market. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Sustainable Road Paving with Recycled PVC Blocks
Sustainable Road Paving with Recycled PVC Blocks
Thursday, 25th february 2021 | Technical information

Road pavements are a flexible construction system made up of different load-bearing, draining and finishing elements, which make up the vehicular and parking system for circulating vehicles. Depending on the geographical position of the roads, the prevailing meteorology and the construction habit, three construction systems are mainly used that can perform the task of accommodating the traffic of heavy and light vehicles: • Asphalt pavements • Concrete floors • Solid wood flooring Of the three constituent elements, the asphalt one, from the point of view of the kilometers of roads built, is certainly the most used in the world, probably due to its ease of laying, even if the maintenance of a covering with bitumen presents many critical issues due to the temperatures, the salt to melt the ice and the abrasion of the final mat. The concrete flooring, which is also simple to lay, involves the creation of regular expansion joints, their maintenance, and greater noise in the rolling of the wheel compared to asphalt, the problems of durability in the cycles of freezing and thawing imposed by the climate and by the laying of salt to avoid the formation of ice. Furthermore, the stiffness of the road covering is in contrast with the elasticity of the underlying supporting structure. The self-locking concrete block is a construction system that can have numerous advantages compared to the previous two, in particular it is possible to create an elastic flooring, durable to direct abrasion of vehicular traffic, draining as water percolation is possible between the joints, easy to maintain. Although it has a number of advantages, there are also some negative characteristics to consider, such as greater noise compared to asphalt roofing, a higher installation cost and a poor resistance to salt in winter. From the point of view of sustainability, the two construction systems in which concrete is used are certainly not among the best flooring solutions, in view of a circular economy, while that characterized with asphalt could be included in those sustainable structures, if compounds were used in which they include the waste of recycled tires and the waste of previously milled road surfaces. There is also another sustainable flooring solution, consisting of self-locking blocks in recycled PVC, consisting of the waste of the sheaths of electrical cables, which allows to respond to many problems expressed by the three floors mentioned above. Let's see the advantages: • Maintaining a roadway or elastic parking • Allows water drainage • Easy to lay as it has an interlocking shape • It does not have problems with the durability of the element given by road salt • During maintenance we only intervene on individual pieces • Greater dynamic range compared to a self-locking concrete and longer life • Ecological as it is made 100% with waste coming from cable recycling • Creates an electrically insulated surface as PVC is an insulating material • Resistant to oils and acids • It washes and degreases easily with jets of water and detergent • Non-slip and can be colored with acrylic paints for plastics • Suitable for heavy traffic As we have seen, the self-locking block in recycled PVC is suitable for both parking areas, even in the presence of heavy vehicles, that on the roads where it can be seen how the element made of PVC solves, especially in areas with cold climates, the age-old problem of the durability of road surfaces when the salt must be spread. Furthermore, being made with recycled material and, being able to be recyclable when it was decided to replace the structure, the road construction intervention can be considered as sustainable in area of the circular economy. The solid recycled PVC enjoys a series of product certifications listed below: • Abrasion resistance • Flexural strength • Compressive strength with reduction of thickness • Penetration value of the artefact at different times • Slipperiness with BCRA method • Dimensional stability • Remaining footprint • Apparent thermal conductivity • Electrical resistance: surface insulation • Electrical resistance: insulation through the thickness of the material • Resistance to cigarette burn • Reaction to fire • Eluate analysis Installation of self-locking blocks in recycled PVC The operation of element flooring is based on the concept of "meshing" which we can define as the impossibility of movement of an element with respect to the adjacent ones, the goal to be achieved with the design of the block itself and the installation is therefore the hindrance of the laid solid wood to perform three movements: vertical, horizontal and rotational.Vertical meshing is achieved by transferring the shear load to the surrounding blocks through the sand in the connecting joints. The rotational locking is delegated to the thickness while the locking with respect to the horizontal forces takes place through the correct use of assembly schemes, which disperse the forces due to the braking and acceleration of the vehicles and the tangential forces of the tires when cornering.As regards the laying, we begin with the compaction of the sub-base soil by means of suitable means, particular attention must be paid in the areas adjacent to the edges, wells, drains in the filling areas of the excavations of pipes and systems.If the minimum guaranteed in the design phase is not respected, the soil must be replaced with more suitable materials.The slope of the laying surface must be verified, since it must be considered that it is not possible to derive the slopes from the base layers or from the bedding one.To facilitate the flow of water and avoid premature subsidence of the pavement, they must never be built with a slope of less than 1.5%.It is advisable to use suitable geosynthetics during the laying of the flooring, these perform the function of separation between the layers and distribution of loads.The bedding layer must maintain a constant thickness considering a reduction in thickness between 20% and 30% in the settling phase, also due to compaction, depending on the particle size used.Scoring can be done in two ways:• Pre-compaction• Classic methodThe first is carried out in several steps: after having spread the sand with a suitable thickness, it is vibrocompacted with a vibrating plate, a new thickness of about 1.5cm is spread and leveled.With this method it is possible to guarantee lower settlements in pavements that have to bear high loads, moreover it is possible in this way to better control the final settlement of the pavement.In the classic method The sand is spread and leveled, the compaction takes place in the next phase after installing the screeds using suitable equipment.It is important not to disturb the laying surface after smoothing, if this is damaged even in small portions it is necessary to arrange it before finishing with the blocks, it is also important never to perform these operations in case of temperatures below 1 ° C to avoid the formation of ice.At this point, the recycled PVC blocks can be laid, making the edge of one element coincide with another, without leaving room for sand joints.At the end of this operation, a vibrated rolling of putto will be carried out on the laid floor and a painting of the preferred color can be pre-arranged through the use of specific acrylic paints for plastic. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Radici Novacips has been Awarded by Stihl
rNEWS: Radici Novacips has been Awarded by Stihl
Thursday, 25th february 2021 | rNEWS

An important award that recognizes the quality of the technopolymers produced by the Radici group that are purchased by Stihl to produce chainsaws, brush cutters, lawnmowers and garden blowers. Despite Covid, the award as "Supplier of the Year 2019" was made with a video conference. Radici Novacips Spa, a company based in Italy (Chignolo d'Isola - Bergamo) and belonging to the RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers Business Area, has received the prestigious "Supplier of the Year 2019 award "promoted by STIHL, a well-known manufacturer of chainsaws and other outdoor tools including brush cutters, lawn mowers, blowers. This is not the first time that STIHL has expressed its gratitude towards RadiciGroup: in fact, already in 2016, High Performance Polymers had been awarded by the top management of the German company as a strategic partner in the supply of quality polymeric materials. «I thank RadiciGroup for the excellent collaboration demonstrated in these ten years of working side by side - said Marc Moser Senior Vice President Purchasing of Stihl - The consolidated experience in the field of technopolymers and the ability to grasp Stihl's needs make RadiciGroup a trusted supplier for us, able to offer us technology, innovation, service and cost optimization ». Unlike the other editions and due to the anti Covid restrictions, this time the award ceremony was “virtual” with a video message sent to RadiciGroup by Marc Moser , Senior Vice President Purchasing of Stihl and Martin Schwarz, Executive Board Member Manufactuing and Materials. We are honored by Stihl's award and esteem for us - he said Cesare Clausi Global Sales Director of RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers - We are ready to face new challenges and look forward to strengthening our collaboration on a global scale. With the usual team work I am sure that we will be able to reach, together, increasingly ambitious goals ". Info from Radici Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - History of Footwear and Materials: from Papyrus to Recycled Plastic
History of Footwear and Materials: from Papyrus to Recycled Plastic
Wednesday, 24th february 2021 | History

In the History section of the Arezio portal we dealt with the genesis of some raw materials, the life and discoveries of some brilliant characters in the chemical and research field, the history of recycling and separate waste collection and some products, sometimes born by chance, which are now in common use and widespread. Among these products we like to make a step back in time and retrace the history of footwear, of the materials that made them up and of the fashions that over time have determined the birth, development and decline of some models and materials. It is interesting to see how from prehistoric times to the advent of the era of manufacturing in the last century, the materials have been slowly modified, to take on a explosion of recipes and types with the introduction of plastic polymers. Establishing exactly which was the first shoe made by man and its type is complicated, as the easy perishable nature of the organic material that was initially used by prehistoric populations, having in the footwear the only means of protection of the feet, it has not made it possible to reach us of ancient remains of that historical period. Undoubtedly in the prehistoric era, when we talk about shoes, we refer to untanned leathers and secured to the foot by the use of a system of laces of the same material. Vegetable fiber soles were also produced intertwined and stopped at the foot with the same system. But a very precious find, perhaps the only one left, was found in 2010: the oldest shoe in the world, dating back to around 3,500 BC, during an archaeological excavation in a cave in Armenia. A discovery that is incredible given the excellent state of conservation, consisting of a single piece of cowhide, fastened both in the front and in the back with a leather cord. We are also sure that the use of footwear dates back to many years earlier, in fact, the rock carvings of about 15,000 years ago depicted men with shoes already on their feet . In the Egyptian period most of the population moved barefoot and shoes were intended only for higher-ranking social figures, even if there was an honorific office, for servants of the pharaohs and nobles, who was called "sandal bearers". The Egyptians had introduced the tanning of leathers for their sandals, through the use of vegetable oils, worked on looms and softened with fatty matter of animal origin. The soles were made of papyrus, wood, leather or palm leaves intertwined according to the use that the shoe was intended for. Between 3500 BC and 2000 BC the Sumerians, a people who lived in southern Mesopotamia, developed new formulas for tanning the hides, alongside the traditional tanning fat, inserting mineral tanning with alum and vegetable tanning with tannin. Between 2000 BC and 1100 BC the Hittites, who lived in the current mountainous region of Anatolia, had developed a type of footwear with high resistance characteristics, precisely in order to be able to move easily in inaccessible territories and difficult bottoms. Even the Assyrians, who thrived between 2000 BC. and 612 BC, they were probably the first to create knee-high boots, suitable for riding and comfortable in handling war chariots. Furthermore, in addition to the practicality of some footwear in the most difficult phases of daily life, the Assyrians established different colors of the footwear according to the social class to which they belong: red for the nobles and yellow for the middle class who could afford shoes. In ancient Greece, between 2000 BC and 146 BC, various forms of sandals developed consisting of a leather or cork sole that were fastened to the feet with strips of leather. They also introduced a half-leg ankle boot always laced with traditional or red leather strips. The ancient Romans, between 750 BC. and 476 AD, by virtue of mixing with other cultures, such as the Gauls, the Etruscans and the Greeks, they learned the technique of tanning leather and developed footwear for the army and for social life. In fact, citizens of a high social rank, used a type of sandal called Calcei which consisted of a flat sole and leather uppers that wrapped the foot. The Romans introduced the black color of footwear for senators while the red color was intended for high civilian offices who, on the occasion of public ceremonies of particular importance, wore sandals with a rise in the sole to raise the stature of the wearer. The imposing Roman army was equipped with shoes with thick and resistant soles, suitable for long marches, in which tacks were spiked. Between the third century AD. and the ninth century AD a type of shoe with a toe as long as about half the length of the shoe developed among the Franks, an ancient Germanic people. Initially born for the nobles, it later developed in the other strata of the population with different tip lengths so as to differentiate the social class. Around the 12th century, the Venetian shoemakers, divided into distinct categories between the "Solarii", who produced soles and hosiery, and the "Patitari" who produced leather clogs with high soles, developed a craftsmanship of great value. But it was between the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in France, that footwear models increased in a surprising way to give vent to the requests for novelty expressed by nobles. Knee or thigh boots, slippers or shoes with leather and silk decorated with gold or silver threads expressed with artistic embroidery. The fashion for heels was also born, especially in red, an expression of the high nobility. The famous Louis XV heel, carved and decorated and the ladies' shoes of the Italian masters, were the protagonists of the 18th century, in which France and Italy imposed fashion in Europe. Another period of strong attention in fashion to footwear is found in the 20th century, where shoes with elongated toes inspired by art noveau fashion are made and the Luigi heel, inspired by Rococo fashion. In the period following the Second World War the two countries that dictated the rule of fashion were always France and Italy with Coco Chanel on one side and Salvatore Ferragamo on the other. Between the 60s and 90s of the last century the production of shoes was largely influenced by the new plastic raw materials that entered the industrial market. While fashion takes its own path as an element of artistic expression, the production of footwear for ordinary citizens experiments with new materials, simpler to produce in a continuous cycle and cheaper to sell. Raw materials such as PVC, Polyurethane and synthetic rubbers took over the leather, creating cheap, robust, flexible and waterproof shoes. Through the use of plastic materials we move from an artisanal production, in which the dexterity and the genius of man created particular and refined models, to a production where the machines increased the number of models produced per day worked, allowing a wider market . Finally, recycled plastic materials became part of the basic raw materials for the footwear industry, especially for waterproof soles or boots, also including in this sector the principles of the circularity of materials. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Urban Forestry Could Improve Depressive Phenomena
Urban Forestry Could Improve Depressive Phenomena
Wednesday, 24th february 2021 | Environment

Until the period prior to the industrial revolution, which can be placed in England in the second half of the 18th century and, even more, in the second industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century, with the arrival of chemical discoveries, the relationship that man had with nature was one of complicity and symbiosis. Man exploited the earth for his own sustenance but did not cause such serious damage as not to allow the environment to regenerate itself independently, creating a balance between anthropogenic actions and natural consistency. Nowadays, very little is left of that relationship because very little is left of the natural environment and man has become accustomed to living in environments that have very little naturalness. Cemented cities, with few green areas, where there are no flowers, perfumes and animals that could make us remember where we come from. Some cities are getting bigger and more populated, where people live in dormitory agglomerations, where they try to survive through job opportunities than in external areas they do not allow to do so. But even in cities defined as rich, of the first world, wealth is divided in a completely "antisocial" way, creating groups of people who survive and others who have had more luck or opportunity. Life in these areas, especially in those with a higher population density and with very unequal incomes, creates tensions, fears, anxieties, insecurity which often results in in more or less severe forms of depression. In Leipzig, Germany, they studied the phenomenon of urban depression in relation to the presence of greenery, therefore the planting density of inhabited areas. In a study, done on 9751 citizens, we tried to understand if there was a connection between the presence of trees and the quantity of psychotropic drugs used for the treatment depression compared to other areas where forestation was absent or less. It has been seen, crossing the statistics of the prescriptions of anxiolytics and antidepressants to the inhabitants taken into consideration, that the presence of tall trees and foliage along the roads and close to homes, it coincided with less use of mental health drugs in that area. Coincidence? Maybe, but there is another data that could refute this thesis, in fact, by controlling other risk factors for mental health such as job loss, sexual problems, weight and economic age, it has been seen that the areas with more or less presence of trees did not influence these factors. It was also discovered that different tree species did not benefit the phenomenon in any way, so it was impossible to raise one plant better than the other for this purpose. Obviously it is not a scientific study, also because many depressed people do not take drugs, so they escape the statistics, but it certainly shows that the intense vegetation in the cities and the presence of birds, improves the mood of the inhabitants. We also remember that trees in the city reduce the heat that buildings can store when exposed to the sun, helping to make the environment cooler, absorb the carbon dioxide in the air and reduce dust. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - USA: PE Exports in 2020 a Record. Let's See Where
USA: PE Exports in 2020 a Record. Let's See Where
Tuesday, 23rd february 2021 | General News

The year 2020, for the United States, was characterized by an important series of health and climate problems, linked to hurricanes, which suggested that the industry of the production and export of virgin polymers could suffer a sharp slowdown. Furthermore, the internal political uncertainty and the persistent weakness of the world economy, as well as the always tense relations with China following the trade war between the two countries supported by the republican presidency, they did not favor the detente that is needed for exports. But, as Esra Ersöz, the US production of PE, tells us, despite the many difficulties faced in the last quarter of 2020 due to the devastating hurricane season which caused several shutdowns on industrial plants, numerous requests for force majeure and the shortage of containers in the maritime sector, had an excellent year. PE exports exceeded 10 million tons Regardless of all these production and logistics obstacles that occurred in the fourth quarter, exports from the United States for three PE products, namely LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE reached record levels in 2020, exceeding 10 million tons for the first time. The United States has become an exporter of PE with great potential, as new production plants have been set up on the American territory that meet internal needs, also giving support to exports that have grown steadily and substantially in recent years, especially after 2017. In 2020, the various issues related to climate and logistics made us think that the pace of growth could stop, but in reality, despite everything, the increase of exports was around 11%. Had it not been for all these problems, the annual increase in exports might have been greater. Exports to China have doubled The main destination for US PE exports was Mexico, closely followed by China. More than 20% of the total exports of PE were made in these two countries. More interestingly, China's PE exports doubled in 2020 compared to 2019 in line with the end of the trade war. Normal neighboring destinations in the Americas, including Mexico, Canada and Colombia, have seen a relatively moderate increase, while exports to Turkey and Malaysia have increased significantly. significant by over 20% as a result of more profitable netbacks. Meanwhile, exports of PE to Belgium and Vietnam have dropped significantly, particularly in the latter. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - PVC Prices: What Expectations for the Second and Third Quarter 2021?
PVC Prices: What Expectations for the Second and Third Quarter 2021?
Tuesday, 23rd february 2021 | General News

The trend towards a sustained increase in PVC prices was clearly noted in the fourth quarter of 2020, due to a series of concatenating factors, which led to an average differential with respect to the ethylene of 243.5 € / ton in north-western Europe. If we consider the spot prices of PVC we can see a cost spike around week 6 of 2021 never recorded by ICIS data since 2003. Real trading has shown prices, on the Turkish market for example, around 1600 $ / ton towards the last week of January 2021, with average values of international exports, considering the placement of FOB goods, which has undergone an increase of 69%, equal to approximately $ 900 / ton, compared to the five-year period 2015-2020. What are the reasons for these price increases? In Europe and the United States there have been a series of declarations of plant shutdowns due to force majeure, with the concomitant recovery of the construction sector in global level. In addition, there was a decrease in the quantities of plasticizers available, necessary for the production of the PVC recipes. In Europe, the stoppages due to force majeure involved approximately 3 million tons of production capacity, in addition to the US producers Westlake and Formosa. What will happen in the second and third quarters of 2021? The expectations of maintaining current prices are supported by the fact that new production reductions are coming, for example by KEM ONE, Vynova and INOVYN, the which suggest price stability at the levels of the first quarter of 2021. The demand for PVC in the construction sector should increase further as a result of the new energy saving pressures on which many governments are focusing. Pushes that will translate into an efficiency, for example, of homes through a greater use of new fixtures with greater thermal values. It is assumed that in 2021 the global demand of the construction sector should grow by 3.5% compared to 2020, also driven by a new lifestyle imposed by the pandemic , where people live more indoors and, consequently, will invest more in building maintenance of their homes by taking advantage of state incentives. Expectations for the third quarter of 2021 would see a slight decline in PVC prices, due to a global adjustment in supplies, stocks and orders, while remaining prices significantly higher than in 2020. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The PP and PE Market in Africa and the Price Trend
The PP and PE Market in Africa and the Price Trend
Tuesday, 23rd february 2021 | General News

The market for plastic polymers in the African continent in the first quarter of 2021 partially reflected the world situation, with a generalized increase in prices but, at the same time, a fairly contained demand. The main reason for the moderation of requests for raw materials strongly depends on the pandemic situation in all countries and the scarce availability of the raw material that can be purchased. The balance between supply and demand has led to price increases at Nigerian producer Eleme of $ 105 / ton for PE and $ 289 / ton for PE. the PP. Nigeria is a strategic market for all producers of raw materials in the world who want to get the polymer in Africa, so much so that end users, in the face of increases , are monitoring the price trends of Middle Eastern producers. Kenya, another important market for plastics, certainly the largest in East Africa, saw significant increases in LDPE and PPH, among more decisive since 2015. HDPE for film increased by $ 60-70 / ton while LDPE, again for film, increased by $ 80/90 / ton , with final prices per ton between $ 1230-1250 / mt for film and injection HDPE and $ 1520-1550 / mt for LDPE film material. As for the PPH raffia and injection, they have increased between 90 and 100 $ / ton, with final prices at 1420-1440 $ / ton for PPH from raffia and $ 1430-1440 / mt for PPH from injection all CFR Mombasa. Even in Kenya the health situation following COVID 19 has slowed down negotiations and purchases for production. Algeria, which is a very important market in terms of consumption in North Africa, has seen an increase in LDPE and HDPE between 20 and 40 $ / ton for polymers from Saudi Arabia, while for PPH the price increases compared to January were between $ 70 and $ 100 / ton. The major concerns that are found among Algerian industrial operators who use plastic polymers is the scarcity of supply compared to the production needs of the factories. The South African market, the most important in the southern area of the continent, is in a sort of balance between supply and demand, both weak. As regards the PE arriving from the main Saudi supplier, increases between 70 and 80 $ / ton are seen for HDPE and LLDPE for film (1250-1280 $ / ton), while between 90 and 100 $ / ton Ton for the LDPE film (1530-1560 $ / ton). Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. 

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Large Diameter HDPE Pipes: Policonductos SA and Battenfeld-Cincinnati
Large Diameter HDPE Pipes: Policonductos SA and Battenfeld-Cincinnati
Monday, 22nd february 2021 | rNEWS

The market for HDPE pipes is expanding the possibility of using the product compared to other types of materials such as concrete, metal or PVC. Thanks to the durability of the material, the ease of construction, cutting and ease of welding, HDPE offers the market of water discharge and transport, an additional weapon in the construction of water and sewage networks. Today, as PT tells us, it is possible to produce and install HDPE pipes with a diameter up to 1600 mm with a completely simplified and highly effective production system. The manufacturer of HDPE pipes, Policonductos SA, has purchased a complete line from Battenfeld-Cincinnati whose head allows the production of pipes of different sizes without the need for special modifications of the machine. With this industrial plant, the company specializing in the production of HDPE pipes, is making pipes with diameters up to 1,600 mm. The key element of this large diameter tube line is the head, which has the largest adjustable distance ever produced allowing the production of tubes in a wide range of sizes without the need for line modifications. The recently delivered machine allows an improvement of the maximum production extensions, which until now were only offered for tubes with diameters between 160 and 250 mm, 200-355 mm and 400-630 mm. The new head has taken the first step towards a completely new size range for pipes up to 1,600 mm in diameter. The adjustment system is particularly simple when you want to produce tubes of different sizes on the line and respond flexibly and quickly to market demands. The head adjusts to a new tube size with the push of a button. Another great advantage is the handling in the car. Especially with large pipes, a nozzle change would be required in a conventional line, which is not only a huge waste of time, but also a safety risk due to the size. With this line for large diameter tubes, which in addition to being equipped with the new head for the tube, also includes a latest generation extruder, in addition to all components before and after the extrusion process itself, reaching a growing production rate of 2 t / h. HDPE pipes with a colored stripe are produced for water supply, wastewater and mining applications, in a size range from 406 x 12 , 5 mm to 1,651 x 97.1 mm. “We are absolutely thrilled with the possibilities that the new line offers us. Not only has it allowed us to expand our product range to include large diameter pipes, but we can now also implement without customers' individual demands in terms of pipe size, "said Homero Garza, general manager of Polyconducts.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Decomposition Times of Waste in Landfill Make us Think
The Decomposition Times of Waste in Landfill Make us Think
Friday, 19th february 2021 | Environment

For centuries, until we started talking about the circular economy, waste was burned or piled in landfills. We talked about it in several articles in the history section of the portal. But if on the one hand we were and, sometimes still today, found a hasty means to get rid of what was no longer needed, on the other hand we have never seriously posed the problem of the evolution of waste in the landfill. Although today recycling activities are at the center of the attention of the political class and public opinion, it screeches in an annoying way as the percentage of the mass of waste that we recycle reaches about 10-12 percent, worldwide, of the products we discard each year. The reasons for such a low share are of an economic, cultural, managerial and sometimes even criminal nature, with excellence in some countries reaching 70-80% of collected recycled materials, up to positions where separate collection is not in the vocabulary of everyday life. But it is perhaps important to know what happens to the waste that ends up in landfills or rivers, which then flows into the sea, to realize that that enormous mass of waste it could be a propellant to reduce the carbon footprint and save natural resources, if only the recycling rate were higher. The permanence in terms of time of buried waste is different from those that remain exposed to atmospheric agents or those that end up in the seas, this is because the sun, the water and temperatures act on them over time. So an exposure or not to atmospheric agents changes the average decomposition times of the materials. But if we consider only the waste that ends up in a non-selective landfill, we can sketch some data that can make us think: Plastic The plastic waste that ends up in landfills today is among the most varied, especially in those countries where separate collection is not applied. Their disintegration, non-biodegradability, as we have seen, depends in an important way on atmospheric agents, their composition and construction thickness, but we can say that the times for self-destruction of a plastic product can be counted on average in hundreds of years. Disposable Diapers When we talk about this product we must consider that the volumes it generates as waste every day are really important. About 3.3 million tons of disposable nappies were collected in the United States in 2018 and, due to their composition of mixed plastics, their permanence in landfill ranges between 250 and 500 years before they decompose. Aluminum The packaging industry makes extensive use of aluminum packaging to contain liquids and foods, in fact the recycling data of these packaging in America in 2019 touched the 42.7 billion cans. Impressive volumes that give us hope, but still many aluminum cans end up in American landfills at a rate of about 10 billion a year in 2018. The decomposition time of a can is on average 80-100 years. Glass Glass is the natural element par excellence whose recycling is really simple but, despite this, the quantity of glass and ceramic objects that end up in landfills is very high. On the other hand, the decomposition times of the products are among the highest and we can consider it in several hundreds of years, but according to some it is an element that does not decompose at all. The Charter Although one might think that paper has a short decomposition cycle due to the components that characterize it, today we find, especially paper for food packaging, waste composed of paper and plastic, which, when solidified, lengthen the decomposition times in an extremely long way. Paper is one of the most important products of separate collection and its recycling has a direct impact on the environment because the use of recycled cellulose reduces the procurement of the virgin and consequently the felling of trees. The decomposition times of an uncoupled paper product range from 2 to 6 weeks depending on the degree of humidity that affects the product but passes to tens of years if the product includes plastic couplings. For ease of understanding we list some articles found in landfills and their decomposition times: Cigarette butt: 10-12 years Single filament fishing line: 600 years Rubber soles of boots: 50-80 years Foam plastic cups: 50 years Leather shoes: 25-40 years Milk cartons: 5 years Compensated: 1-3 years Cotton gloves: 3 months Cardboard: 2 months Polystyrene: It does not biodegrade Nylon fabric:  30-40 years Can: 80 years  Ropes: 3-14 months Aluminum cans. 80-100 years Isn't there really an alternative to landfill? Yes, there is. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Plastic Polymers in the Footwear Sector: Materials and Uses
Plastic Polymers in the Footwear Sector: Materials and Uses
Friday, 19th february 2021 | Technical information

The plastic industry has created an important space for itself in the field of soles and footwear which until a few decades ago were exclusive to leather and other minor materials. The creation of new recipes, the chemical and technological progress on the systems, has allowed plastic polymers to create a valid alternative to traditional soles to be used in footwear subjected to heavy wear, with a protective value for the foot, thermal insulation, flexibility and impermeability. In addition to the growth of new formulations made with virgin polymers, the recycled polymer market is offering different alternatives through sustainable products especially in the field of PVC and ABS. The plastic materials that are mostly used in the footwear sector are: Thermoplastics: ABS, PVC, TR and TPU Bi-component polyurethanes: PUR based on polyether, PUR based on polyester Copolymers such as rubber and EVA Let's see in detail the features and applications: ABS Although ABS is not a commonly used polymer in footwear, it is often used in safety footwear, as a protective element for the toe of the shoe. The tip, in fact, is often made of recycled ABS, from post industrial waste, whose recipe is adapted to give the tip strength to shocks and flexibility. TR or Thermoplastic Rubber With this material it is possible to manufacture soles to be applied or inserted into the shoe by direct injection. Thermoplastic rubbers are compounds whose fundamental component is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) added with oils, polystyrene, mineral fillers, pigments, antioxidants, etc. . Through a correct formulation of the recipe of the material, the soles do not have problems with resistance to cold and can maintain excellent flexibility at temperatures much lower than 0 ° C. PVC, Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride PVC is one of the most popular plastic materials in the world, not only in the footwear sector, but is also used for the creation of doormats, carpets, wires, pipes , water reeds and many other products. In the waterproof footwear sector, such as boots, soles, sandals, slippers and accessories, PVC has found a wide use as a material in continuous technological development, having reached a good level of environmental efficiency today and ensuring good safety in all phases of its life cycle. In fact, in the footwear market, there are important volumes of products made of recycled PVC that allow the construction of sustainable soles and footwear, therefore recycled and recyclable. TPU, Thermoplastic Polyurethane TPU is a chemical compound made up of polyurethane elastomers treated with the techniques of thermoplastic materials. Its realization goes through the isocyanate addition process, in a certain temperature range, recreating the elastic characteristics of the rubber. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are used for different types of soles intended for certain segments of footwear such as sport, work and leisure. The formulas that characterize the materials for TPU soles change according to the type of use of the same and consequently of the shoe. PUR, Bi-Component Polyurethane Polyol and Isocyanate, in liquid form, which are part of the Polyethers and Polyesters families, are two chemical elements that characterize the formation of Bicomponent Polyurethane . The difference between these two classes is based on the structure of the foam that will be created, in fact, using the polyether a compact surface skin is created and, inside, the sole will have open cells, while using polyester a structure with closed cells will be created. Eva, Ethyl vinyl Acetate Ethylene and Vinyl Acetate are the two main components of the polymer called EVA, a polymer used for the construction of soft and resistant soles. The sole, however, is not constituted only by the two components that form the main polymer but, through the correct calibration of these elements and of crosslinkers, fillers, expanding agents, and more, the performance characteristics of the final product are determined. The main characteristics are lightness, flexibility, elasticity and a good propensity to keep the original shape. Composite Materials The evolution of fashion, technical needs and the general costs of the finished product have allowed the creation of materials composed of different but similar polymers. Polyurethane materials, rubber and EVA are the main polymers that are used with the aim of creating different combinations in terms of aesthetic appearance, costs and of technical use, surprisingly widening the offer on the market. Characteristics of finished products The study and realization of new polymer recipes, for the creation of new commercial opportunities, must not make us forget that the footwear and the soles themselves must respond to well-defined characteristics for the end customer. There are specific regulations that must be respected in the construction of a product for the footwear sector, in which it is requested that the articles be subjected to behavior tests. Let's see the main ones: Resistance to bending Resistance to abrasion Resistance to delamination Slip resistance Dimensional stability Resistance to aging Compressive strength Bonding capability Tensile strength Resistance to water penetration Holding capacity of the stitch Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Electronic Waste: a Supply Chain with Many Unknowns and Speculations
Electronic Waste: a Supply Chain with Many Unknowns and Speculations
Thursday, 18th february 2021 | Circular economy

Electronic waste is that mass of commonly used products such as household appliances, mobile phones, televisions, computers and many other objects that reach, more or less quickly , a condition of obsolescence, desired by producers or by fashion or due to technical breakages, in an increasingly rapid time. Unlike plastic, glass, made of metal, paper or fabrics, electronic waste is an articulated complex of components of various nature and origin which makes it, in itself, a complicated object for recycling. Furthermore, an electronic object contains many dangerous chemicals and which, if not treated correctly, cause serious damage to the ecosystem and to the man. There are many reasons to push on the industry of legal recycling of electronic equipment, among which we can include respect for the environment, the toxicity of some components that there are inside the equipment, which must be managed correctly and responsibly, but also the growing demand for noble materials by manufacturers for the construction of new devices. Indeed, many rare minerals that are necessary for modern technologies come from countries that do not respect human rights. To avoid unwittingly supporting armed conflicts and human rights violations, MEPs have adopted rules that impose on European importers of precious materials to carry out checks on the work cycle to ensure that there are no phenomena of exploitation of workers, pollution of the lands and reputation of suppliers. For this reason too, the growth of the legal recycling market in this sector is of particular importance. If we wanted to make a ranking of which are the most common electronic waste we can say that large household appliances , such as washing machines and stoves electricity, are among the most collected and account for more than half of all electrical and electronic waste. This is followed by IT and telecommunication equipment (laptops, printers), consumer equipment (cameras, fluorescent lamps) and photovoltaic panels as well as small household appliances (vacuum cleaners , toaster). All other categories, such as power tools and medical devices, account for 7.2% of all electronic and electrical waste collected. The recycling of electronic waste , although there are precious substances inside them such as copper, tin, gold, titanium, silver, aluminum remains completely insufficient in terms of recycled volumes, than the annual production of new equipment. In 2017 alone, the UN estimated the mass of electronic waste at 50 million tons worldwide, of which 80% ended up in landfills. What are the reasons why we recycle so little? First of all the complexity of the luminaires, made up of many different elements from each other and the high quality standard, which requires the use of chemically complex raw materials, which would require the disassembly of the devices for a correct separation into constituent elements. In reality, many appliances are not disassembled, especially the smaller ones, but ground and subsequently divided with the loss of many materials and the partial pollution of the recyclable elements. We can say that only some manufacturers have started the withdrawal of their used products at the end of their life, like Apple for example, creating a completely clean waste stream from which it extracts the most precious materials including gold. In addition, the pace of production and sale of devices, such as mobile phones, sees a change cycle of around 25% of the population every year. homes would have accumulated 500 million unusable appliances which account for the share of global electronic waste. Recycling systems The recovery of electronic device components takes place mainly through the processes of shredding and separation of the resulting ground, according to its nature. Glass, plastic, metals and other minor products are separated by mechanical systems and by density, creating homogeneous families of waste that they can become new raw materials. Unfortunately, within an electronic device, a considerable amount of materials cannot be separated and recycled due to the complexity of the chemical recipes required during their production. Due to these difficulties and the high recycling costs, currently between 60 and 80% of end-of-life electronic waste is sent to countries in the process of development, sometimes in a non-transparent way, where appliances are separated manually, with systems that entail enormous health and environmental problems in which the work takes place. Many of the products that are sent for recycling or landfill are still valid and recent tools, but currently their constitution, structural and process for their operation, makes their repair difficult or uneconomical, at times deliberately impossible for producers , so as to create a driving force for new purchases and consequently an exponential increase in waste. In a general perspective, this unbridled consumerism in which the life of the product is programmed to last as short as possible, creating a new purchase need, goes against all logic sustainability which the competent bodies must put a stop to.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled Plastics: How to Use Ion Mobility Gas Chromatography
Recycled Plastics: How to Use Ion Mobility Gas Chromatography
Monday, 15th february 2021 | Technical information

As we have extensively described in other articles, whose links you will find in the final part of this article, the world of recycled or recycled plastics, especially those that come from separate collection, defined by post-consumption, they have the problem of managing the odorous component that is established inside the recycled raw material. Odors that come from the heterogeneous composition of the plastic in the collection phase, from the fermentation processes of the organic residues incorporated in the plastics to be recycled, from the washing water not managed in correct manner, from the degradation, during the extrusion phase of the granules, of plastics mixed with the main ones and of chemical substances absorbed by the containers during their packaging function, such as surfactants for example. The production of recycled granules made without the chemical control of the incoming material, water control and extruded materials for sale, is like driving in the night with headlights off. The commitment of company resources to purchase the raw material to be recycled, processing costs, logistics and sales costs, could be put at risk by '' impossibility of producing a raw material in recycled plastic that meets the expectations of the final customer in terms of odors. The analytical control of odors in the input materials allows us to select suppliers, divide them by categories and draw up production recipes that take into account the odor footprint of the products inbound. The same analytical control will be used to check the correct production process and formulation of recipes, not only from a technical aesthetic point of view, but also from an odoriferous one, to giving the final customer an extra quality that is increasingly sought after by the market. And, finally, the commercial can calmly propose a granule that has a license for the smell, not questionable or questionable through other noses, especially from those who are employees in the purchase of the granule produced, but through a certainty provided by a chemical analysis of the odorous components present in the product. How does this laboratory technology work? Dr. Rossini explains it to us: The technology underlying the instrumentation we are talking about is the GC IMS (Gas Chromatography with ionic mobility). This technology applies to volatile organic substances originating from a static headspace generated under standardized conditions. A chromatographic gas column allows the preliminary fractionation of the volatile substances introduced before entering the heart of the instrument. The heart of the instrument is made up of a 9.8 cm metal tube inside which an electric field of 5,000 Volts is created; the volatile substances from the chromatographic column are ionized by a source containing tritium (a low intensity radioactive substance). The ionization process takes place at ambient pressure and is based on the interaction between the water present in traces in the nitrogen gas which acts as a "carrier": The chemical-physical process of ionization is such that volatile organic substances such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, aromatic compounds, amines, thiols, halogenated compounds , etc, are electrically charged and therefore made detectable by the Faraday plate placed at the end of the flight tube. The aforementioned substances are those responsible for the "odors" that are perceived by the human sense of smell: the "extreme sensitivity" of the detection system that reaches the level parts per billion (ppb). The electronic nose is therefore made up of a GC IMS detector, coupled with an autosampler that has the task of heating the 20 ml glass bottles in which they are located the substances (liquid or solid) that develop the volatile substances. The way to perform the analyzes is extremely simple, since there is no preparation of the product to be analyzed. In the sector of recycled or recycled plastics it is really easy to prepare the samples and get the tests. The analytical result consists of a three-dimensional diagram like a geographical map of the mountains: the "geographical map" indicates the elution time from the chromatographic column, the flight time and signal strength of each individual volatile organic substance. This instrumentation therefore allows you to compare in an "objective" way the recycled plastics that emit volatile organic substances perceptible to the smell. Useful Links: POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED PLASTIC GRANULE WITH ODOR CERTIFICATION POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED PLASTIC GRANULE WITH ODOR CERTIFICATION ANALYTICAL ODOR CONTROL IN THE RECYCLING SECTOR ODORS IN RECYCLED POLYMERS: HOW TO COPE WITH THE PROBLEM? ODORS IN PLASTIC: CHECK THE SUPPLY CHAIN TO AVOID COMPLAINTSABOUT THE MACHINE Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Neutral Post Consumer HDPE: Origin and Use
Neutral Post Consumer HDPE: Origin and Use
Monday, 15th february 2021 | Technical information

The materials that come from post consumer, whether they are in HDPE or LDPE or PP or PET, to name only the most common, are produced, expressed in the form of packaging, which are collected from our homes as waste, in which a rough separation is made between other packaging such as paper, glass and metal. The fraction of plastic waste is put into the bags creating a mix of plastics of various types, from PET bottles, to PP wrappers, to food trays in polylaminates, to HDPE detergent bottles, to caps, to polystyrene packaging. With them, we can also find inside them residues of the products they contained, from food to chemical ones such as detergents. This complex of plastic products is sent to mechanical recycling, through which the types of plastic are separated by families of chemical products, which will then be ground, washed for can then be extruded and create new raw material. However, mechanical recycling has limits in the separation of the incoming elements as it uses very high speed optical reading machines that read the density of materials, but that they can do little, for example, in products composed of coupled plastics, while still retaining a certain percentage of error, which could be reduced if the waste entered were more selected at source. Furthermore, the washing of selected and ground plastics is not always managed effectively to further separate plastic fractions with different densities and to clean it from residues of products that the packaging contained. The limits, therefore, can be organizational, technical or managerial, generating qualitative deficiencies on the final granule that is dedicated to the blowing or extrusion of products. The main problems for a recycled HDPE by blow molding and extrusion are: • Presence of a fraction of PP normally determined by the presence of caps on the packaging • Small diameter impurities that could create holes in the blowing of bottles or surface irregularities in extruded products • Difficulty in creating bright colors as the origin from colored packaging creates a certain opacity in subsequent colors • Persistent odors in the final raw material especially due to the degradation of organic elements or the presence of surfactants in a porous material such as HDPE. • Degradation of the plastic mixture in the extrusion phase due to the presence of plastics other than HDPE. For some non-aesthetic applications the problems described above can be reduced by optimizing the production control phases of the waste and the final granule. But in productions that require a bright color, the absence of odor and a high aesthetic quality of the product, such as the bottles of some types of packaging sectors, it is important to choose a post-consumer product that comes from a separate supply chain at the origin, in which the bottles must be in neutral HDPE, therefore without colors and that do not contain surfactant residues or organic waste. The recycling of the single product creates a supply chain capable of generating a neutral granule, without odors, suitable for the highest uses in terms of structure, color, absence of odors, allowing the semi-transparency of the bottles. This type of granule can be easily used, thanks to its brilliance and color fidelity, also in the extrusion of profiles, plates and tubes of colored RAL. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Fashion Embraces the Environment and Recycling
Fashion Embraces the Environment and Recycling
Sunday, 14th february 2021 | Circular economy

Productions of recycled yarns and towards zero-impact fashion Fashion could not help but offer new aesthetic innovations and new fabrics for all women who have an innate inclination to the environment and nature. This is how garments made with eco-friendly yarns are born. The first designers Who had proposed fabrics from the processing of used fabrics had not been identified as precursors of the environmental movement in the fashion industry, but more as the expression of a whim of creators and artistic innovators. In reality, these ideas had not turned into more in-depth research or even into elements that constitute fashion collections or industrial productions for garments of a more popular level. Today, where all companies are aiming for zero impact, they have really and concretely designed a solution for the reuse of production waste suitable for the creation of new clothing. For example, GoldenLady,a well-known underwear manufacturer, which has an industrial cycle ranging from yarn production to underwear packaging, aims for zero impact through new recycled and homemade yarns. We are talking about polymers in PA 6 and 66, which come from the mechanical recycling of waste materials from the production of the company’s factories, which maintain characteristics quite similar to the virgin polymers normally used. The idea of the company is not only that of self-consumption, but is also under study a project to sell on the market the production of recycled wire produced internally. The company is also studying yarns that come from biomass, through the use of corn, beet, sugarcane and wheat plants, which would maintain the technical qualities of the thread needed to create the garments. There are other entrepreneurial companies on the market that follow a totally natural path to create textile fibers, in particular a Start Up called Orange Fiber, through a university collaboration with the Polytechnic of Milan, have studied a fiber from the waste of the agricultural orange supply chain. Considering that the citrus processing industry, in Italy alone, produces about 700,000 tons of by-product per year, creating considerable disposal costs, the company has therefore thought about how to use this raw material for the textile industry. The principle of fabric production from the scraps of oranges takes advantage of the transformation of the skins into cellulose that can then be spun, and then produce bow or thread for the garments.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Energy Transition: from Coal to Biomass-Coal
Energy Transition: from Coal to Biomass-Coal
Saturday, 13rd february 2021 | Renewable energies

The CO2 reduction targets, in the face of the increase in energy demand, require the re-modulation of production through an energy transition.Although there has been talk of decarbonisation for years, the world’s production of electricity, through the use of coal-fired power plants,still plays a key role. In fact, until 2017 there were no disposals of plants, indeed, there was an increase in energy production of more than 250 TWh. The consequence of this behaviour can be seen from the increase in CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, which, globally, was 1.4 and the fraction of the competence of coal-fired power plants in the production of electricity is around 45. Despite the advancement of renewables, it is estimated that electricity generation from coal will see only a slight decline from 2021, a decline that alone does not give any appreciable environmental advantage. The largest users of coal for energy production are: In Asia: China and India In Europe: Germany, Poland, Turkey, Greece and the United Kingdom In America: The United States To reverse the trend and reducing the air pollution that citizens breathe in and to re-enter the commitments made to the Paris climate conference in 2015,in which renewable energy development paths such as biomass, solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and marine power, have been set, action must be taken on reducing the use of coal in power plants that are still in operation. Among the aforementioned sources, biomass can have an industrial affinity with coal to create electricity production, through co-combustion between the compound fraction of coal and the natural one, with the aim of maintaining production efficiency and the reduction of pollutants in the atmosphere. Through co-combustion, greater production efficiencies than the use of biomass at 100, a lower cost of reconversion of coal-fired power stations than building new biomass-only plants and extending the life of coal-fired power stations, as long as the energy transition can put a stop to this type of activity. From an economic point of view, co-combustion does not save money compared to traditional coal-only production and it is not always easy to combine the heterogeneity of biomass during the production phase with lignite, but certainly, from an environmental point of view, there are undoubted advantages. But in order to make the conversion of coal-fired power stations attractive, states need to create economic incentives to lower the cost of energy produced without making traditional production regret. There are countries that are producing regularly through the co-combustion process and which, at the same time, have structured funds for the economic sustainability of production, such as Denmark, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. On the other hand, there are other countries, such as Germany, Italy, France and Finland,where there are similar plants, where this form of energy production does not receive incentive plans preferring to invest the resources available in totally renewable sources. There are countries, especially in eastern Europe, such as The Czech Republic, Poland and Bulgaria, but also Kosovo and Greece where electricity is mainly produced through lignite and a first conversion to a co-combustion activity, waiting for renewable energies to be established, would create a important environmental improvement for the population. In non-European countries, the biggest consumer of coal for energy production is certainly China,which has embarked on a massive conversion of production by inserting biomass into its coal-fired power stations with the aim of combating the appalling problem of environmental pollution. Finally, in the United States, Australia and South Africa,despite having abundant sources of biomass (United States) and coal (Australia and South Africa) this type of technology has not developed due to the lack of state incentives. It should also be taken into account that the process of using coal in power plants leads to the production of waste, in the form of ash,which constitutes a solid waste to be disposed of. At present, about 50 of the waste ash ends up in landfills and this is becoming a problem as international regulations push for the disincentive of the use of landfills. Projects have therefore been created that use the waste dusts of coal-fired power plants, such as the creation of zeolites, microporosiic minerals of three-dimensional conformation, which, by virtue of their branched and encompassing structure, are used in the reclamation of soils and contaminated water. Another application we can find in the area of the tiles, especially in the porcelain,where the coal powder is used in the mixture saving natural raw material.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: The Largest BioGas filling Station Opens in France
rNEWS: The Largest BioGas filling Station Opens in France
Friday, 12nd february 2021 | rNEWS

The problem of pollution produced by light vehicular traffic and even more by heavy traffic is always very topical for those with political responsibilities to find effective solutions to reduce harmful emissions and ensure civil and commercial mobility. Diesel fuel has risen on the dock which, despite the recent interception of the particulate emitted in the mufflers and the new less polluting engines, continues to cause much concern. With the advent of biogas a new scenario on green mobility has opened, with a double advantage that consists in the reduction of emissions into the environment and the use of wet residues from household waste. Total inaugurated the largest French filling station dedicated exclusively to natural gas for vehicles (NGV) and bioNGV, with the presence on site of Jean-Baptiste Djebbari, minister delegate for French transport. Located in the heart of the logistics platform of Gennevilliers, the second largest river port in Europe, this station is now open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to professionals (B2B) and B2C customers. It will be managed by Total for the next 10 years. This concession was awarded to Total by Sigeif Mobilités (a semi-published company founded by Sigeif and the Caisse des Dépôts) through race. It will support the development of new mobilities in the Île-de-France region and become a strategic location for the supply of NGV and bioNGV for the Grand Paris area (which includes the city of Paris and its 130 surrounding cities) and beyond. This Total branded station will distribute NGV as compressed natural gas (CNG) and will be supplied to the site by GRTgaz, for the first time in France through its network of high pressure gas supply. The station will be able to distribute up to 100% bioNGV, as users have the ability to choose and adjust, directly at the pump and contractually for B2B customers, between different biomethane incorporation rates. "This opening of France's largest NGV and bioNGV filling station is a source of pride for our teams", says Guillaume Larroque, President of Total Marketing France. “Our ambition is clear: to become a leader in the distribution of NGV and bioNGV in Europe, with 450 stations managed Total by 2025, including 110 in France. This station is also a model for our future developments in Europe, where Total is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 or sooner, for products used by our customers. Our goal of a 50% biomethane incorporation rate will directly contribute to it. " Jean-Jacques Guillet, president of Sem Sigeif Mobilités, is delighted with the launch of this station, a new brick in the NGV / bioNGV filling station network that Sigeif started and started in 2014. "This station within the port of Gennevilliers is an essential infrastructure, which fit into the ongoing plan to improve air quality in the region of Île-de-France. Port-based companies now have the option of using clean fuel for their urban deliveries to Paris and nearby western cities, all covered by one zone low emissions currently being implemented ". Jean-Baptiste Djebbari, Minister Delegate for Transport, declares: “I welcome the opening of the largest NGV and bioNGV truck filling station in France. Companies engaged in road transport of goods and people are constantly looking for alternative solutions to diesel for their energy mix. Beyond the strong reduction of CO2 emissions, the advantage of NGV and bioNGV technologies is their immediate availability, widespread in all segments. We have renewed the support policies for these vehicles until the end of 2024 in order to provide companies with visibility and allow them to engage in this transition. " Valérie Pécresse, President of the Île-de-France Region, President of Île-de-France Mobilités, declares: "The reduction of pollution caused by traffic road is a public health problem for the protection of the environment and the climate. I am proud that the Ile-de-France region has made it one of its priorities and contributed to the creation of the Total - Sigeif Mobilités petrol station in the port of Gennevilliers, the largest ever built in France. Its connection to the gas network and its proximity both to its customers in the logistics business and to the future methanisation unit of organic waste - which we support - ne makes an exemplary case of circular economy. The regional government accelerates the development of the use of NGV and bioNGV for trucks and commercial vehicles in Île-de-France, through its participation in Sem Sigeif Mobilités , but also through an ambitious policy of subsidies to support the acquisition of methane-compatible vehicles by small and medium-sized enterprises. However, the region is also a leader with the energy transition of the Île-de-France Mobilités bus fleet. " The development of this station and its opening to the public already using NGV will complement the existing Total network in France and enable an increasing number of transport professionals and of the logistics of the Greater Paris area to convert to GNV in optimized conditions. Total will then help them change their vehicle fleets (heavy trucks, buses, garbage trucks, commercial vehicles ...) to NGV and bioNGV. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian Total info

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https://www.arezio.it/ - REACH, RoHS, TSCA, SDWTA: the Legislation of Chemical Products
REACH, RoHS, TSCA, SDWTA: the Legislation of Chemical Products
Wednesday, 10th february 2021 | Technical information

Each object that we buy, use and then throw away at the end of its life is a compound of chemical substances which, linked together, offer the aesthetic, physical and use characteristics that we require. The chemical content of the product is the sum of a long chain of activities, which arrives upstream through the production chain. The manufacture of an object can involve many elements, from a few common chemicals, up to hundreds of synthetic chemicals. Take for example a typical household cleaning product that may contain a dozen different chemicals, or an electronic gadget that could be the result of several hundred substances used in its manufacture. Some chemical compounds end up in the final product while others serve as intermediates in the production chain. Most likely some toxic chemicals could be part of the mixture needed for its production, in fact, chemicals with special attributes are used to obtain some properties of the product such as durability, texture, color or fragrances, etc. It is no coincidence that chemicals with toxic properties can be abundant among these special chemicals, for example, the effort to create "durable" properties (such as water-repellent fabrics) tends to favor chemicals that are more difficult to recognize and to break down for biological and living systems, in fact, they can resist to dissolution and can reach high harmful levels in nature. So it can be assumed that toxic substances may also be part of some products that we could use. Let's see some families of chemicals: Plastic Plastics are a large group of polymer-based materials. Commonly used polymers are polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyurethane (PU or PUR). However, the list of polymers is much longer and new recipes and additives are constantly associated. The mixing of different polymers (such as multilayer materials) is also a normal process that serves to improve the functioning of plastics. The choice of the polymer to be used in production depends on the desired function. Almost all polymers are produced from petroleum-derived fossil raw material. Bio-based polymers, such as PLA made from agricultural raw materials, are increasingly used although they still have a very marginal market share. Some limitations of their development depend on a not negligible ecological impact in their production. Most plastics contain numerous additives (functional chemicals) to improve performance. The amount of additives applied can vary from 0 to 95% depending on the polymer and the type of product. Many of the negative properties of plastics often come from additives rather than the polymers themselves. Plasticizers These are normally used to soften plastics. In fact, while some polymers are inherently "soft", other polymers require significant amounts of plasticizers to become flexible. PVC is the typical polymer where an important use of plasticizers is made. Phthalates are a common group of plasticizers that are used in large quantities, often around 30-60% of the total composition of plastic. Several phthalates have dangerous properties, as we have seen in a recent article . Since phthalates are not chemically bound to the plastic material and can escape from the product, it is likely that end users will be exposed to them during its use or even through food chain, as phthalates can be absorbed into the environment. Flame retardants Flame retardants are used to make a product less flammable and, based on the technical characteristics of the product to be made, the commitment of these additives may be required . Examples of such uses can be found, for example, in protective clothing, curtains and fabrics used in furniture, to name but a few. Some flame retardants currently used, particularly halogenated compounds, have been shown to have hazardous properties, and some are subject to international and / or national regulations. Historically, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been widely used, proving to be toxic as they bio-accumulate and persist in the environment. The regulation of chemicals in products is a relatively recent achievement, in fact it has not always been this way. For decades, chemicals have been little or no regulated, with some specific exemptions, while the vast majority of chemicals could be used without the need to provide evidence of their safety. If a substance had been identified as a serious toxic pollutant, it was discovered more by coincidence rather than on the basis of systematic examination. No general testing of chemicals for harmful properties was normally required. This has changed slightly in the last few years. The EU has enforced REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), a comprehensive legal framework covering all chemicals in use, requiring companies that market chemicals to submit a set of test data . The US equivalent, TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act), sets out some basic requirements but has a much more limited scope. What is REACH In 2007 the European Union introduced a comprehensive framework legislation for chemicals called Reach. This requires companies, which manufacture or import chemicals, to register them with a central agency (ECHA, based in Finland). With registration, companies must also report the basic properties of the chemical and, if produced / imported in larger volumes, also information indicating whether substance is dangerous. The aim is to make producers and importers responsible for the products they put on the market and to improve knowledge of the chemicals used. The REACH regulation also contains a system for the "authorized use only" of chemicals that are highly hazardous to health and the environment. What is the TSCA The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a US regulation that covers the manufacture, processing, distribution, use and disposal of commercial chemicals and industrial. Introduced in 1976, it mainly focuses on new substances introduced after TSCA recognition. What is RoHS RoHS is a European Union directive introduced in 2006 to limit the use of certain hazardous chemicals in the manufacture of electronic and electrical equipment. Currently prohibits or restricts ten substances / groups of substances; 4 heavy metals, 4 phthalates and 2 groups of brominated flame retardants. What is California “Proposition 65”. In 1986, the State of California introduced the "Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act", but more often referred to as "Proposition 65". Requires the state to publish a list of known chemicals that can cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm. The list is updated frequently and currently includes around 800 chemicals. The law requires companies to notify Californians of significant quantities of chemicals in products they buy, in their homes or workplaces, or that are released in 'environment. Proposition 65 also prohibits Californian companies from knowingly discharging significant quantities of listed chemicals in the presence of drinking water strata.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Sources chemsec

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Odors in Plastic: Check the Supply Chain to Avoid Complaints
Odors in Plastic: Check the Supply Chain to Avoid Complaints
Wednesday, 10th february 2021 | Technical information

If it is known that in the waste coming from separate collection and therefore from post-consumption, the presence of odors can consistently persist, once transformed into granules, the expectations on the production of raw material from post industrial waste or from post industrial + post consumer compounds, from the point of view of odors, are definitely higher. So high, that you expects not to have to face the problem of delivering to the customer plastic granules suitable for producing items that until a few years ago were made with virgin raw material, which contain an unpleasant odor gradient. The qualitative ambitions of these customers who buy the recycled plastic raw material remain high (as if they were still buying a virgin raw material), so as to be able to boast of green productions , but at the same time not having to risk losing their final customers due to an issue linked to unpleasant odors. A couple of requests that are really difficult to sustain, where the producer of recycled plastic raw material must find certain solutions to control its production chain, with the aim of avoiding to purchase scrap and manage processes that could increase the problem. But what tools do we have today to be able to create a control strategy that warns us when an incoming plastic waste can cause odors in the final granule, with the consequent possible dispute of the customer who buys it, or what tools do we have to understand if the extrusion of the raw material creates degradation processes that could generate odors? First we can say that the tool for odor control in all stages of production exists, it gives us a chemical photograph of our processes and shows us where there may be the error that will cause the dispute. This laboratory machine, the size of a desktop printer, is a gas chromatograph combined with an ion mobility spectrometer which, through a quick analysis and without preparation of the particular samples, it tells us what is, chemically, the origin of the fragrances that the human nose intercepts but which does not know how to separate them and understand their origin. If you think it will only be useful to give a scent license to the plastic granule you produce, you are only one third of the way, as the help that this type analysis can give the company not only the final control of the raw material, but also identify the critical stages of production in order to prevent odors from forming. The areas of use of the technology can be summarized here: Purchase of plastic waste for production Whether they are post consumer or post industrial, a company that produces recycled granules has several suppliers of plastic waste and, not all of them work in the same way: washing with different efficacy, waste selection with different systems and methods, risks of contamination of waste with other plastics and many other similar situations. So it is necessary to build a qualitative database of suppliers, as regards the odors of waste, so that you can, chemically, have a photograph of what it is waste it can contain and how this waste could behave in its transformation into plastic granule. The chemical analysis of the incoming flows makes us understand which supplier, by raw material, we can use to create our granule recipes, without generating unpleasant odor problems in the production phase. The flow analyzes create a database through which you can attribute a specific waste of a particular supplier to a specific recipe. If the chemical photograph of a flow of plastic waste contemplates the presence of a series of chemical compounds in a certain quantity, we can know with certainty which odorous imprint the our final granule. Granulation of plastic waste In this phase it may happen that, without a chemical photograph of the input entering the extruder, the waste can be used for the production of granules, without we can intercept a particular odor disturbance, thus trusting to produce a good quality granule, perhaps comforted by the fact that the laboratory analyzes that are normally done, such as density, DSC, ashes and fluidity, tell us that the material can be eligible. But during production there may be very small fractions, in terms of quantity, of materials unrelated to the main raw material, which can degrade creating important odor signals that could have the material contested. The chemical photograph gives us indications that are expressed in values so small that the chemical compounds entering the extruder and those that can be generated during processing, are precisely intercepted and analytically defined. So even the control of the extrusion phase of recycled plastics gives us a precise, non-empirical picture of odors, on which we can work for a possible adjustment of the recipes . Quality control in sales and after sales How can you define a smell of a recycled polymer? Seen by the manufacturer in one way, seen by a buyer perhaps in another. This difference in evaluation creates the greatest number of disputes and commercial embarrassments which, at times, ends with a surrender of the producer for lack of certain proof. This yield almost always turns into economic damage to be recognized to the customer by the polymer manufacturer but, in most of the times, there is also a commercial uncertainty between customer and supplier managed in a completely empirical way through the nose test. The customer has his men who smell the smell of the granule they receive and give an evaluation, while the supplier provides his team. In both cases, the human nose, however sophisticated, can interpret the smell in a different way. To resolve the uncertainty, possible disputes and possible loss of trust on the part of the customer, providing them with a chemical photograph of what you are selling is the best way to demonstrate that the product is made up of chemical elements that can generate odor gradients within the limits that the customer has previously accepted, not through a questionable nose but through chemistry. In fact, customer and supplier can create, in a certain and analytical way, an agreement that limits certain chemical substances that generate odors to values accepted by both parties. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Packaging Market in Europe: Germany, Italy and France the Protagonists
The Packaging Market in Europe: Germany, Italy and France the Protagonists
Tuesday, 9th february 2021 | General News

How much does the packaging industry represent in Europe? A lot, the numbers are really consistent if we consider that in 2019 the European Union had a turnover of 139 billion of euro and that in the lead we find Germany, followed by Italy and in third position France. As Tiziano Polito, tells us, the French packaging market is one of the most important in Europe. According to INSEE, which publishes these data, France is the third European producer behind Germany and Italy.  18.3 billion euros: this is the turnover represented by the packaging industry in France in 2019 according to an INSEE report. The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies has measured the invoicing of products manufactured on the French territory, coming from 1,460 units connected to this sector of activity and representing the 3.8% of sales in the manufacturing industry. As you might expect, plastic and cardboard have the largest share. In detail, sales generated by plastic packaging amounted to 6.9 billion euros, or 38% of the total, while paper-cardboard represented 5.3 billion (29%) and metal, glass and wood 2 billion each (11%). The employment data refer to the financial year 2017. INSEE had 79,450 employees in the sector, or 4.7% of jobs in industry non-food manufacturing. Normandy and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté are the regions with the highest number of jobs in the packaging sector, with 7.9% and 7.6% of the total. Small companies in the wood and plastic sector The structure of the companies is rather fragmented. In the wood sector, 70% of the factories have fewer than 20 employees. In plastic and paper-cardboard packaging, this ratio rises to 39% and 37%. Conversely, in glass and metal, where the processes are characterized by greater capital intensity, companies with less than 20 employees represent only 25% and 5% of the total. France ranks third in Europe for packaging production. The turnover of the sector was 138.1 billion euros in the European Union in 2019, France contributes 13% to this total behind Germany (20%) and Italy (15%). France holds the first European place in the production of wooden packaging with 20% of the turnover and the second for plastic packaging (15%). His contribution for paper-cardboard packaging is more modest: 10%, that is half less than Germany with 21%. In this case, if at a national level plastic dominates, elsewhere in Europe paper-cardboard packaging represents the largest share of turnover: 55.5 billion euros, or 40% of the sector's sales. On the international trade front, the trade balance showed a deficit of 1.7 billion euros in 2019. French imports amounted to 7.3 billion of Euro. 82% of them come from EU countries. With 603 million euros in imports, China is the fourth largest supplier. Elsewhere in Europe, paper-cardboard packaging accounts for the largest share of invoices: 55.5 billion euros, or 40% of the branch's sales. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rMIX: Ineos and Polystyvert Collaborate for the Recycling of Polystyrene
rMIX: Ineos and Polystyvert Collaborate for the Recycling of Polystyrene
Tuesday, 9th february 2021 | rNEWS

Even polystyrene has found a technically and economically advantageous solution for its recycling. Through the technology of dissolution and separation of pollutants it is possible to recreate a clean and efficient raw material to reproduce polystyrene again. this is the result of the collaboration between Ineos Styrolution and Polystyvert. INEOS Styrolution and Polystyvert establish a joint development agreement aimed at promoting a circular economy for polystyrene An advanced and patented patented recycling technology offers a unique approach to obtaining high quality recycled polystyrene. INEOS Styrolution, global leader in styrene, and Polystyvert, innovative leader in dissolving technology, are collaborating to convert polystyrene post-consumer plastic into a new resin of high quality polystyrene (PS) raw material. Polystyvert uses patented dissolution technology to transform polystyrene waste into high quality recycled polystyrene. The method of dissolving the products to be recycled takes the plastic waste in its solid form and decomposes it with a solvent. Once dissolved, the process can mechanically and chemically separate contaminants and additives, before finally separating the original polymer from the solvent. The final product is then a clean polymer that can be used again as a new raw material resin. Polystyvert purification technology offers the possibility to treat all types of raw materials, from industrial waste to post-consumer flows. The technology can eliminate a wide range of difficult-to-remove contaminants such as pigments and brominated flame retardants. The recycled polystyrene granules can then be used to produce various categories of polystyrene products, including food applications. INEOS Styrolution has strong sustainability objectives to improve and increase the recovery of post-consumer polystyrene waste. This joint development agreement strengthens the commitment to work on the most advanced recycling technologies. "The purification capability of Polystyvert's technology is unique," says Ricardo Cuetos, Vice President, INEOS Styrolution Americas, Standard Products. Cuetos continues: "The high quality of the final recycled polystyrene resin is essential to achieve a truly circular economy in key markets such as food service packaging ". Solenne Brouard, CEO of Polystyvert, says: "Dissolution is an efficient low-energy technology that offers an effective solution for recycling polystyrene in a closed loop" . Using this method, “recycled polystyrene is produced at a competitive price. This is how the strength of a circular economy is expressed ". Ms. Brouard continues: "We are delighted to be working with INEOS Styrolution to create a truly circular economy for polystyrene. Our common goal is to recycle as much polystyrene possible and a partnership as such will make a difference. " About Polystyvert Founded in 2011, Polystyvert is a clean technology startup that has developed an innovative, low carbon process to recycle polystyrene based on dissolution technology. By creating a short circuit for recycling polystyrene, the strength of its technology lies in its versatility and thorough purification capabilities. Effective on all types of polystyrene, Polystyvert's technology includes a purification process that removes all contaminants. The result, a high purity recycled raw material that can be reused for recycled polystyrene products, including food applications. Based in Montreal, Canada, Polystyvert distributes its technology around the world to give everyone access to sustainable polystyrene and opens the door to a wider market for recycling technologies. by IneosAutomatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Off Shore Wind: New 1.5 GW Project in the UK
Off Shore Wind: New 1.5 GW Project in the UK
Monday, 8th february 2021 | Renewable energies

The sector of electricity production through the use of wind farms is increasingly taking into consideration the environmental impact that these wind farms can give to the territory. The demands of communities that prefer to move these necessary green energy production plants to places that have less impact on the landscape are increasingly being considered. This is why Off Shore wind farms are growing, therefore in the open sea like the one that will be built by Total and Cig in the United Kingdom. A 50/50 joint venture between Macquarie's Green Investment Group (GIG) and Total managed to secure the rights to a lease of the seabed in the eastern regions of the country. The project, which will be located off the UK's east coast, could provide up to 1.5 gigawatts (GW) of renewable electricity and represents a significant initial investment in the UK offshore wind sector for both companies. What are the goals? Support meaningful employment opportunities and play a vital role in helping the UK achieve its ambitious zero emissions target. To allow the two partners to expand into the UK, which is the most mature European market for offshore wind and offer constant growth prospects and a clear direction towards the market. Both GIG and Total are global renewable energy developers and investors and bring significant expertise, technical capabilities and a proven track record in energy development to the project. success. GIG is providing nearly 50% of the UK's offshore wind capacity currently in use, while Total continues to build a strong position in offshore wind after its involvement in the 1.1 GW Seagreen project off the east coast of Scotland and in Erebus, a 96 MW floating offshore wind project in the Celtic Sea, leveraging its long-standing industrial activity in the UK. GIG and Total are currently collaborating in South Korea to co-develop a major portfolio of floating offshore wind projects. “Total is delighted to have received 1.5 GW as part of the fourth round of offshore wind leases from The Crown Estate with our partner GIG. We continue to support the UK's energy transition goals. This project is our largest renewable energy development in Europe to date and an important step towards our zero-emissions ambition for 2050, "said Julien Pouget, Total Senior Vice President Renewables. " This success builds on our historical experience in the UK offshore and is paving the way for the expansion of our renewable energy offering in the country in line with our strategy of becoming a broad-based company. " Mark Dooley, Global Head of Green Investment Group, said: “With this investment, we continue our pioneering role in the UK energy transition and help establish offshore wind as the backbone of its new low-carbon energy system. Based on our track record as one of the country's largest offshore wind lenders, this contract represents a significant increase in our industry engagement in the UK. This adds to our growing portfolio of renewable energy projects in Europe and grows our global positioning in the offshore wind sector to over 13 GW. " Total and GIG have secured this lease with an annual option fee of £ 83k per MW / year, during the development phase. There will now be a regulatory assessment (HRA) of the possible impact of the project on the sites relevant natural areas in the assigned area. After the successful conclusion of this process, the final lease agreements will be signed in 2022.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.by Total

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: AMB Leader in Packaging Change Ownership
rNEWS: AMB Leader in Packaging Change Ownership
Monday, 8th february 2021 | rNEWS

AMB is a leading company in Italy in the packaging sector which, despite the difficult national and international situation, has continued on its path in growth so as to become interesting for the American fund Peack Rock Capital which acquired the controlling stake. Amb Spa changes flag. The controlling share of the Italian company, based in San Daniele del Friuli, leader in the food packaging sector, was acquired by the American fund Peak Rock Capital. A partnership that Amb itself defines strategic and that at the moment does not change the composition of the board made up of Bruno Marin (CEO), Giles Peacock (COO), Paolo Cescutti (CPO) and Rolf Liebfried (CFO). Founded in 1969, with 5 offices in Europe and over 430 employees, AMB is the undisputed market leader. It closed 2020 with a turnover of 180 million euros, with an Ebitda of 16 million, with 4 production sites in Europe and 430 employees. It is proposed as a single interlocutor, able to manage the processes of food packaging at 360 °: from design, to prototyping, to mold development, to production of flexible and rigid high barrier and printed films. «This agreement - says CEO Bruno Marin - represents a further step forward in our growth plans, probably the most important in our history. In over 50 years, AMB has achieved this milestone thanks to talented people and without ever losing sight of our goals. Peak Rock Capital is a historically active investor in our market, he knows both our business and the growth potential of our company ». The goal of the partnership "is to further accelerate our development plans, creating sustainable products within the circular economy - explains Marin -. Sustainability and food safety will continue to be at the heart of our activities to meet the needs of our customers ». Despite the pandemic and the consequent economic crisis, Amb achieved significant growth in 2020. "Thanks to the investment of Peak Rock Capital - adds Giles Peacock, COO of AMB - we will be able to further focus on our priorities, expand our presence globally and launch new growth initiatives, always in the name of innovation. This partnership is based on solid shared values and I am sure that our customers, our employees and all the activities that revolve around AMB will benefit greatly » . The CEO of the American fund, Alex Dabbous, is enthusiastic about the operation. «AMB represents a stimulating investment opportunity for us. The company, leader in the sector of recyclable products, operates in a European market characterized by constant growth in food packaging. We are excited about the idea of supporting the Marin family and the management of the company, which has shown great talent, in their strategic objectives of geographical expansion, acquisition of new customers, product innovation and further achievements ".Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Maura delle Case

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Rossetti Marino Spa Acquires Green Methane
rNEWS: Rossetti Marino Spa Acquires Green Methane
Saturday, 6th february 2021 | rNEWS

Important corporate movements can be seen in the field of clean energy production from alternative sources, such as agricultural processing waste and urban wet waste, called FORSU. As reported by Porto Ravenna, the Rossetti Marino Spa company has acquired 60% of Green Methane. Rosetti Marino SpA . acquired 60% of Green Methane s.r.l. , a leading company in Italy in the design, construction and commissioning of plants for the transformation of Biogas into Biomethane . The agreement for the takeover of Green Methane by Rosetti Marino was reached between the CEO of the Ravenna-based company, Ing. Oscar Guerra from a side and by Dr. Ferruccio Marchi and by Eng. Luigi Tomasi on the other, respectively, Presidents of the founding companies that sell Marchi Energia s.r.l. and Giammarco-Vetrocoke Engineering s.r.l .. The transferring companies still maintain important stakes in the new corporate structure led by Rosetti Marino, who with his Group will make available to Green Methane the considerable skills and technical experience, managerial and organizational at its disposal. The waste from agricultural processes and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (FORSU) are the raw materials from which Biogas is generated , which therefore has a non-fossil origin and is mainly made up of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2). The Green Methane plants purify the Biogas from CO2 and produce a Green Methane with suitable characteristics, both for the introduction into the distribution network of the gas that reaches our homes, both for automotive. Green Methane technology has been selected by the Ravenna Group because it produces Biomethane with a very high level of purity and because its plants - which are characterized by high efficiency and reduced operating costs - they are perfectly compatible with those of liquefaction of methane and generation of hydrogen from methane, already developed by Rosetti Marino through its subsidiary Fores Engineering srl Furthermore, the CO2 separated from the Biogas is available at high purity and suitable for subsequent uses or destinations (CCU or CCS) without further treatment. Rosetti Marino's declared goal is therefore to present itself to the market as an integrated contractor on the entire Biogas treatment line, guaranteeing, based on the needs of customers, plants for the production of Green Methane, also liquefied, and Green Hydrogen. Furthermore, for the Ravenna Group, Green Methane technology also represents direct access to CO2 capture technologies, essential for achieving the objectives of carbonization dictated by the European Green Deal and the COP 21 Conference in Paris. The Green Methane operation is therefore part of a wide-ranging entrepreneurial project, which aims to consolidate Rosetti Marino's position as a leading player in the plant engineering market for Energy, both in the present context of energy transition and in a future characterized mainly by the use of renewable sources and the circular economy.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: ExxonMobil's commitment to Reduce Environmental Impact
rNEWS: ExxonMobil's commitment to Reduce Environmental Impact
Saturday, 6th february 2021 | rNEWS

Like many large companies that have always been involved in the extraction, refining and distribution of energy from hydrocarbons, ExxonMobil also recognizes the need to create concrete actions to reduce the environmental impact of the use of fossil fuels. While reiterating, through the information in the article, the centrality of fossil fuels in the coming decades, he wants to offer the company reassurance on its commitment in the field of reducing the environmental impact of its production and use of its products. Earlier this month, ExxonMobil released its annual summary on the subject energy production and carbon emissions, with a comprehensive look at the company's work to manage the risks of climate change, including actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The publication articulates ExxonMobil's climate strategy focused on four areas: reducing emissions from its operations, developing and implementing scalable technology solutions, providing consumers with products that they help reduce their emissions and proactively engage in climate policy. Here's an overview: A look back: the company reported in 2019 the lowest levels of greenhouse gas emissions since 2010. Most this is partly due to its commitment to reduce methane emissions from its upstream operations. At the end of 2020, ExxonMobil was on track to meet the announced commitments of a 15% reduction in methane emissions and a 25% decline in flaring compared to 2016 levels. Looking to the future: the company's emissions reduction plans for 2025 are expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from its oil and gas production activity by around 30% and flaring and methane emissions by 40-50%, compared to 2016 levels. The 2025 plans, which cover the direct (Scope 1) and indirect (Scope 2) emissions of the assets managed by the company, represent some of the most aggressive reductions in the sector . The company also aims to eliminate routine flaring from its upstream operations over the next decade in line with the World Bank initiative. These plans help ExxonMobil become an industry leader in greenhouse gas management by 2030 and support the goals of the Paris Agreement. Commitment: ExxonMobil is committed to providing reliable and affordable energy to help support human progress by promoting solutions to mitigate risks of climate change. As the world moves to new sources of energy, climate scenarios that include 2 degrees rise in temperatures, developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), also recognize the role that oil and gas will continue to play for decades. Today, the company's employees deep understanding of the global energy system helps improve operational efficiency and develop and implement low-carbon technologies to help addressing the risks of climate change. The approach: the development of innovative technologies is fundamental to achieving the objectives of the Paris Agreement. To this end, ExxonMobil is working to develop revolutionary solutions in reducing emissions for the company's most emitting industries, including manufacturing, power generation and commercial transportation, which account for 80% of global emissions. of CO2. Carbon capture and storage, advanced fuels, hydrogen and energy efficient technologies will be solutions that will help reduce emissions and will create radical change. An exchange of ideas and expertise: A variety of scientific and engineering disciplines are needed to provide accessible and usable energy. No single company has all the answers and knows the key to activating new technologies in the energy field. This is why ExxonMobil collaborates with external technicians, private and public entities: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the United States, the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the United States, more than 80 universities and startups at the forefront of alternative energy solutions. All together in search of those answers and a new energy innovation. In an effort to transfer ideas and innovations from the laboratory to the market, the company brings its unique strengths to the field of science, engineering and of a global market position. A collective approach: Beyond the lab, field tests and IT skills, ExxonMobil also works with stakeholders to support robust policy solutions that can reduce climate-related risks, while also facilitating access to affordable and reliable energy for society. That work requires collective and collaborative efforts beyond top-down regulations. Our voluntary efforts to reduce methane emissions, for example, provide a framework for effective regulation for the entire sector. Why it matters: “Few would disagree that one of the most pressing social challenges we face today is manage the risks of climate change. How we meet the global demand for energy needed for economic growth while mitigating the long-term impact on our environment is critical to our sustainable future. “- Darren W. Woods, President.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Why does Recycled Plastic have to Cost more than Virgin Plastic?
Why does Recycled Plastic have to Cost more than Virgin Plastic?
Friday, 5th february 2021 | Circular economy

In a world where the exploitation of the earth's natural resources is bringing to its knees the environment we live in, where the exponential growth of waste is creating an intolerable situation, also aided by human behavior and where the recycling industry fails to absorb all the waste that society produces to transform it into raw materials, there are still people who consider the purchase of recycled raw material only possible if it is a profitable economic deal. Don't be surprised, but that's what happens in many parts of the world, where even today the recycled plastic material is seen as an economic by-product of virgin raw materials, reducing the purchase to a mere fact of economic convenience. That's why recycled plastic has to cost more than virgin plastic. First of all, in general, it would be an ethical question to understand that the use of recycled plastic is necessary for the consumption of the waste that is produced every day by society and that without the recycling and use of this raw material, the waste problem would be much more pressing than it is now. But suppose that ethics is a subjective mental exercise and that we are not touched by these doubts, but we must strive to consider how important it is to understand that, today , it should not be possible to choose between using virgin plastic instead of recycled one in the production of everyday items. Let's see some reasons: • Recycled raw material, except for some specific sectors such as medical and a part of the food sector can normally be used as virgin raw materials, both for technical and aesthetic characteristics. So the phrase that is often heard "if it costs the same price or a little less I buy the virgin raw material because it is better" we must forget it. • Faced with a growth in non-recycled waste, which today has reached 85-90% of plastic waste produced in the world on average, the sector of recycling suffers from the lack of many types of plastics to be processed, as the system of collection-recycling-production of raw material in many countries is disconnected or does not work as it should. • The lack of some strategic products such as PVC waste for extrusion and molding or HDPE for the blow molding and extrusion sector, implies , in the face of the numbers referring to materials that are not recycled that we saw in the previous point, having to buy virgin raw material to make up for the lack of recycled one. • Government policies of economic support to sectors, which in the past were considered strategic, such as the extraction and refining of fossil energy sources, are completely out of time and wrong, if we consider that the world of recycling does not receive the same state subsidies despite carrying out an ecological task and respecting the circular economy. • Producing secondary raw material means not using natural resources, reducing the carbon footprint, avoiding pollution of the seas, land and air if waste are burned. Also preserve our health, as it has been shown that the food chain is negatively affected by this problem. That is, we eat what we throw away. • The price of recycled polymers can and should cost more than virgin for technical and ethical reasons. Among the technical ones we consider that much more must be invested in the separate collection chain to increase the available input, that the mechanical selection and treatment of waste has a high cost that affects the cost of the polymer, which the sector suffers from competition from producers of virgin raw materials in terms of price and therefore the margins of the sector, which also perform a social work, are very low if not negative. The ethical reasons concern the concepts of the "green economy" in which the rules of the 4 Rs apply: reuse, recycling, saving and recovery . Better to use raw materials that derive from the recycling supply chain than virgin raw materials for all the reasons presented. • We must consider a cost of civic education of the population on waste management and the consequences of human actions of throwing it into rivers. Educating people to a correct cultural approach to the environment is a necessary financial element, to be counted in the cost of recycled raw materials, an action that will lead to a cleaner world, to reduce the exploitation of natural resources for the production of virgin polymers. and to a greater availability of plastic to be recycled today lacking on international markets, for some types. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: How Fabric Recycling Works and Why It Is Done
rNEWS: How Fabric Recycling Works and Why It Is Done
Friday, 5th february 2021 | rNEWS

The circularity of materials in modern productions must take into account the entry of products at the end of their life. This is normally done with plastic, paper, wood, metals, rubbers, glass and also with fabrics. This sector, as Rick Leblanc tells us, if not supported by recycling, starts processes of accumulation of waste in landfills with a consequent increase in pollution and the exploitation, through virgin fibers, of the planet's natural resources. which we can no longer afford. Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. In the United States, this group is represented by SMART, the Association of Cleaning Materials, Used Apparel and Fiber Industries. The steps required in the fabric recycling process include donating, collecting, sorting and processing the fabrics and then transporting used clothing, rags or other recovered materials to end users. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. The textile industry has evolved into a nearly trillion dollar industry globally, which includes apparel as well as furniture and material for mattresses, bedding, curtains, cleaning materials, leisure equipment and many other items. . The urgent need to recycle fabrics The importance of textile recycling is increasingly recognized. It is estimated that around 100 billion garments are produced each year worldwide. According to the US EPA, about 17 million tons of textile municipal solid waste (MSW) were generated in 2018, about 5.8% of total MSW production. The recycling rate for fabrics derived from clothing and footwear was 13.0%, while the recovery of sheets and pillowcases was 15 , 8% for the same year. As such, textile recycling is a significant challenge to address as we strive to move closer to a landfill zero society. Once in landfills, natural fibers can take from a few weeks to a few years to decompose and can release methane and CO2 gas into the atmosphere. Furthermore, synthetic fabrics are designed not to decompose, so in the landfill they can release toxic substances into the groundwater and surrounding soil. ; The recycling of fabrics offers the following environmental benefits: Decreases the need for landfill space, bearing in mind that synthetic fiber products do not decompose and that natural fibers can release greenhouse gases The use of virgin fibers is reduced Reduced energy and water consumption Pollution prevention Decreased demand for dyes. Sources of fabrics for recycling The fabrics for recycling are generated by two primary sources. These sources include: 1. Post-consumer, including clothing, vehicle upholstery, household items and others. 2. Pre-consumer, including waste created as a by-product from the production of yarns and fabrics, as well as post-industrial textile waste from other industries. The donation of old garments is supported by non-profit organizations and many corporate programs, including those of Nike and Patagonia . Wearable and reused fabrics In the European Union, about 50% of the fabrics collected are recycled and about 50% are reused. About 35% of donated clothing is turned into industrial rags. Most of the reused garments are exported to other countries. Oxam , a British charity, estimates that 70% of clothing donations go to Africa. The issue of sending used clothing to Africa has generated a degree of controversy over the benefits of such initiatives, where they can have a negative impact on local textile industries, indigenous clothing and local waste generation. The recycling process For fabrics to be recycled, there are fundamental differences between natural and synthetic fibers. For natural fabrics: The incoming material is sorted by material type and color. The selection of colors produces a fabric that does not need to be dyed again. Color selection means no new dye is needed, saving energy and avoiding pollutants. The fabrics are then transformed into fibers or shredded, sometimes introducing other fibers into the yarn. The materials are shredded or reduced into fibers. Depending on the end use of the yarn, other fibers may be incorporated. The yarn is then cleaned and blended through a carding process Then the yarn is spun again and ready for subsequent use in weaving or knitting. However, some fibers are not spun as they are compressed for stuffing fabrics such as mattresses. In the case of polyester-based fabrics, the garments are shredded and then granulated to be transformed into polyester chips. These are subsequently blended and used to create new fibers to be used in new polyester fabrics. In addition to recycling, buy sustainably As the company becomes more familiar with the risks associated with sending old fabrics to landfill and with the development of new recycling technologies , it can be expected that the textile recycling industry will continue to grow. The fast fashion industry generates considerable pollution and a considerable negative impact on climate change. Consumers can help influence change by choosing clothing brands that last longer and demonstrate a commitment to reducing their impact on climate change. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Costellium Company Will Increase Aluminum Recycling
rNEWS: Costellium Company Will Increase Aluminum Recycling
Friday, 5th february 2021 | rNEWS

Aluminum recycling is a fundamental activity in the field of the circular economy, allowing products to be continuously put back into production at the end of their life. Even the French company Costellium, as A. Jadoul tells us, has decided to increase the recycling of aluminum in its production sites. The aluminum group wants to increase its capacity by at least 60,000 tons per year to serve the packaging and automotive markets. Constellium wants to increase its aluminum recycling volumes in Europe. The French group has announced plans to add at least 60,000 tons per year to its current capacities, which reach around 560,000 tons worldwide. This production will be aimed at its customers in the automotive and packaging sectors. “Aluminum is the epicenter of several mega sustainability trends in our end markets for packaging, automotive and transportation. As a result, our customers increasingly demand products that are produced in a sustainable and responsible way. We believe this investment will allow Constellium to expand its low carbon product offering to meet the needs of its customers ", says Jean-Marc Germain , CEO of the group. Constellium plans to finalize the scope and location of the project by the end of 2021, based on engineering projects and obtaining required permits. Production is expected to begin within two years of starting construction. For now , the group's main can recycling unit is located in Neuf-Brisach (Haut-Rhin), France. A closed circuit for cans Experts recall that the aluminum cans of the most recycled beverage containers, "are endlessly reborn in a 'closed-loop' process that puts them back on the shelves in 60 days ". "In the automotive and transport industry, aluminum helps advance green mobility by improving fuel economy, reducing CO2 emissions, increasing range of electric vehicles and improving safety, "they add. And to specify that aluminum is infinitely and easily recyclable, 75% of all aluminum ever produced is still used today. Aluminum processing group mainly present in the aeronautical, automotive and packaging sectors, Constellium achieved a turnover of 5.9 billion euros in 2019, with a workforce of 13,000 people and 25 factories.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Circular Economy NEWS: The Space Dedicated to the Circular Economy
Circular Economy NEWS: The Space Dedicated to the Circular Economy
Friday, 5th february 2021 | Circular economy

Circular Economy NEWS is the information space, created within the blog that highlights, without veils or filters, the articles considered interesting referring to companies in the field of circular economy . The articles will have an informative, non-commercial cut and will be chosen from those published online that adhere to the spirit of the portal so as to create independent content available of customers. Subscribers of the platform can intervene in the life of this section by publishing an article, free of charge, in compliance with the rules of disclosure without commercial purposes. In the published article the sources and the author will always be mentioned, who will remain the owner of the contents. The management reserves the right to accept, reduce or exclude articles if they are not in line with the spirit of the portal. If you wish to submit an article for publication please email us the text and a photo. Happy reading!

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Car Sustainability Goes Through Battery Recycling
rNEWS: Car Sustainability Goes Through Battery Recycling
Thursday, 4th february 2021 | rNEWS

The electrification of the auto sector is affecting all car manufacturers which, despite the pandemic and the collapse in sales, are heavily investing in the production of more sustainable cars. But sustainability also passes through the use of construction materials according to the principle of the circular economy and therefore the components must follow the recycling of materials. In Italy, Midac will be at the forefront in the production of car batteries through the recycling of exhausted ones, as reported by the northeast economy. With a total investment of 104 million euros, the company Midac will be able to produce its own lithium batteries with the reuse of raw materials deriving from recycling of exhausted batteries, in accordance with the principles of the circular economy In the Europe crossed by the pandemic there is an industry that continues to invest and create jobs: that of lithium-ion batteries. By facilitating the transition from fossil fuels to cleaner energy, this supply chain fully responds to the ambitious European goal of the Green Deal, which aims at climate neutrality in 2050. To support this strategic sector, the European Commission has given the green light to the second tranche of funding for Important Projects of Common European Interest (IPCEI) on new batteries generation (2.9 billion euros), attributed after careful selection to 42 European companies in the sector. One of these is Midac Batteries Spa has obtained the green light for the development of three innovative projects relating to the production, reuse and sustainable management of the end of life of lithium batteries. These projects will allow the company to build the first integrated lithium battery production plant in Italy, for a total investment of 104 million euros. The company will thus be able to produce its own lithium batteries with the reuse of raw materials deriving from the recycling of exhausted batteries, in accordance with the principles of the circular economy, thus ensuring compliance with Midac's "green" philosophy. In particular, the first project concerns the process of selecting and recovering batteries at the end of their life, which allows the non-reusable ones to be sent to a recycling plant with a capacity equal to 30,000 tons / year and to use those still functioning in less demanding applications. In this way, the batteries can live a second life, reducing the environmental impact and increasing the percentages of materials recovered from 60% to over 90%. The recycling and reuse activities will be developed in collaboration with partner companies, including Enel X. The second project concerns the development of a new cell production plant based on third and fourth generation technology, which allow faster recharging, greater autonomy and safety . These will then be destined for the new battery assembly department in Soave and in Cremona to be used in automotive, Material Handling and reserve power applications. The third project is related to the development of battery management electronics, which, thanks to the help of artificial intelligence, will allow to extend their life. The batteries will also be equipped with IoT systems to facilitate their use by end customers. The construction plan for the new plant, lasting a total of 7 years, represents an unrepeatable opportunity for the company and for the entire Italian and European sector to gain a leading role in the lithium-ion storage technology sector, and to develop, also in Europe, the entire technological chain that revolves around this so strategic technology. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Uzbekistan Acquires License to Produce LDPE / EVA from Versalis
rNEWS: Uzbekistan Acquires License to Produce LDPE / EVA from Versalis
Wednesday, 3rd february 2021 | rNEWS

The large producers of virgin raw materials continue to push for the increase of production of plastics all over the world. Faced with decreases in the consumption of fossil fuels due to the slowdown in world demand and the growth of renewable energy, the plastics market expands to countries where production was scarce, as reported by Versalis' communication of the new concession in Uzbekistan. Versalis , licensed to Enter Engineering Pte. Ltd . a swing unit of low density polyethylene / ethylene vinyl acetate ( LDPE / EVA ) which will be built as part of the new gas to chemicals complex based on MTO - Methanol to Olefins technology which will be built near Karakul, in the Uzbek region of Bukhara. The plant is part of the project for the construction of a world-scale chemical complex of significant importance for the geographical area in which it will rise, Central Asia, both in terms of size and applied technologies. Enter Engineering Pte. Ltd., one of the largest construction companies in the region, will act as licensee on behalf of the Uzbek company JV Jizzakh Petroleum LLC, owner of the 'LDPE / EVA unit is responsible for the management and operation, after construction, of the entire gas to chemicals complex. The licensed plant will be based on Versalis-owned LDPE / EVA technology. The plant will be designed for a maximum production capacity of 180,000 t / y of EVA . LDPE and EVA are polymers and copolymers of ethylene, characterized by a good balance between workability and mechanical properties. widely used in the production of materials with a wide range of applications, such as films, coatings, injection molds, packaging, medical devices, foams and base components for hot melt adhesives. LDPE / EVA technology is part of the broader portfolio of polymer technologies offered by Versalis for the creation of high added value products. Versalis' background and expertise in the licensing of its proprietary technologies is based on its consolidated research and development capabilities, as well as on its laboratory and testing capabilities pilot plants and large-scale operational experience at its manufacturing facilities. This knowledge strengthens Versalis' actions aimed at supporting and assisting its licensees in achieving their specific needs, from project development to operational phases. The contract was acquired by Versalis in collaboration with ECI Group , a US company specialized in improving the life cycle of plants, which provides design, engineering, procurement, construction, technology and consultancy services focusing in particular on polyolefin plants. ECI Group includes Engineers and Constructors International (USA), Simon Carves Engineering Ltd. (UK) and International Technical Excellence Center (USA).

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Density of Plastic Creates Its Bad Luck in Our Society
The Density of Plastic Creates Its Bad Luck in Our Society
Tuesday, 2nd february 2021 | Environment

It is certainly a provocation to say that some types of plastic, such as PET bottles, HDPE bottles and other types of plastic packaging, for thanks to their density, they are destined to float and, therefore, to attract the anger, understandable if you don't know the problem, of those who give life to plastic free movements. It is always a provocation to say that if the specific weight of plastic products were different and, like other packaging materials, went to the bottom, we would probably be deluding ourselves that, not seeing them float, there is no real environmental problem. Not only are these two provocations, but an insult to human intelligence, thinking of doing like the ostrich, putting your head in the sand to hide the problem. But in reality the emotional effect of the plastic islands floating in the seas has given rise to an aversion to the product, without thinking what happens below the buoyancy of the seas and how did all that plastic get there. Metal bins, glass bottles, car bodies, washing machines, mobile phones, cable scraps, wheels, televisions, tires, fishing nets, waste appliances , metal pipes, fittings, chairs, tables, sofas, chandeliers, ceramics, rubble, construction waste and many other products, are regularly discharged into the sea every year. Do we see them? No, unless we dive with a small deep submarine and go to see the disasters that man makes, the stupidity and ignorance of mankind. Of the millions of tons of waste that enter the sea every year, it seems that those visible are only 1%, as they float or they are beached by currents and tides, while 99% is deposited in the seabed. But returning to the plastic free movements, all these products that lie in landfills at the bottom of the sea are not normally mentioned, it is not founded a movement “free glass bottles” or a “free tire” or a “free televisions” , what is not seen does not impact emotionally and has no audience, it does not move the crowds. But if we changed the density of the materials in order to make all the plastic sinkable and all the other waste float, perhaps the seas they would no longer be navigable and we would no longer hurl ourselves against plastic, which we would not see, but with all products made with different materials, such as iron, aluminum, glass, steel, rubber, copper…. But if the seabed is full of waste other than plastic and the surface of the seas and beaches are full of plastic, whose fault is it? What's the point of picking on a single product when the seabed contains much more garbage of a different nature than what is seen on the surface? The problem is the absurd incivility of man who uses rivers, seas and oceans as landfills, thinking of solving a waste problem in his home , and then eat them back through the food chains. Where is the intelligence of the race superior to animals? Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Environment NEWS: the Information Space Dedicated to the Environment
Environment NEWS: the Information Space Dedicated to the Environment
Tuesday, 2nd february 2021 | Environment

Environment NEWS is the information space, created within the blog that highlights, without veils or filters, the articles considered interesting referring to companies in the environment field. The articles will have an informative, non-commercial and will be chosen from those published on the net that adhere to the spirit of the portal so as to create independent content available to customers. Subscribers of the platform can intervene in the life of this section by publishing an article, free of charge, in compliance with the rules of disclosure without commercial purposes. In the published article the sources and the author will always be cited, who will remain content owner. The management reserves the right to accept, reduce or exclude articles if they are not in line with the spirit of the portal. If you wish to submit an article for publication please email us with the text and a photo. Happy reading!

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Why Make the Production of Electronic Devices Sustainable?
Why Make the Production of Electronic Devices Sustainable?
Tuesday, 2nd february 2021 | Circular economy

In our E-WASTE article The Recycling of Survival, we tackled the problem of electronic waste under the aspect of illegal recycling in developing countries. In this article we would like to propose, with the help of Adrian Mendez Prieto, some solutions that can help us understand what steps the production system and the E-Waste system should take to increase recycling and erase the scourge of electronic waste smuggling. Although almost 100% of electronic waste is considered recyclable, it has only a recycling rate between 10-15%, which is why it is seen as an emerging environmental problem, but also as a potential business opportunity. Items that can be recovered from electronic waste to avoid environmental damage include metal, glass, ceramic and plastic components in a broader composition; the latter represents 20% of the global composition of E-Waste. Due to the presence of additives such as flame retardants, of the brominated type (BFR), the recycling of plastics from E-Waste presents a greater processing complexity and reprocessing, compared to plastics used in other applications. The processing of plastics containing additives (BFRs) considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is regulated by the Stockholm Convention (in force since 2004), which establishes that Recycling or final disposal of articles containing BFR or POP must be done properly and must not result in the recovery of BFR or POP for reuse. It also requires the separation and classification of plastic with BRF from other electronic waste. Currently, most electrical and electronic equipment is not designed for recycling, much less to encourage a closed cycle of its waste. Developing appropriate eco-design would allow for environmental and economic benefits, so that the use of recycled plastics could reduce the environmental impact by more than 20%. Phases of implementation of an environmental strategy that promotes the circularity of E-Waste Circular economy as a strategy. The circular economy is a regenerative industrial system that from the beginning, with the design, considers the optimization and reduction of the use of materials and energy, as well as the minimization of waste and emissions. This leads to trying to disconnect the use of raw materials and non-renewable resources to eliminate pollution and waste generation. Control in the selection of plastics. Decisions about the use of materials and chemicals are made from the beginning of the life cycle, during the eco-design phase of the product. Circularity, therefore, will be promoted by reducing the wide variety of polymer types and eliminating complex additives by using recycled plastics in manufacturing. For recyclers, one of the main obstacles to reprocessing electronic plastic waste is the large number of different polymers. A potential solution to reduce this great variety could be to promote agreements between manufacturers on the types of plastics they use in their products, facilitating component identification and by encouraging investments in new recycling technologies. Greater content and use of recycled materials. Undoubtedly, a big dilemma in the industry is the fact that recyclers do not process plastics if there is no market and manufacturers cannot buy recycled plastics because there is no supply. Here the requirement of a circular symbiosis between the elements of the value chain of the plastics industry becomes concrete. That is, greater integration and communication between resin producers, manufacturers, collectors, recyclers, etc., which allow the management and processing of quality recycling that leads to obtaining competitive products. Key points to improve the recycling of electronic plastic waste Management of residual materials. The E-Waste flow is characterized by being particularly complex thanks to its composition, with a combination of high-value components (such as gold and palladium) and toxic materials (for example, mercury and brominated flame retardants). Because of this, these materials hardly enter a controlled and official collection system, which favors their illegal handling and export to developing countries. development. This requires, as a matter of urgency, the implementation and application of the rules for the classification and labeling of such waste. Traceability. One of the main weaknesses in managing and managing e-waste is the lack of a traceability system, as it is currently difficult to track the flow of materials into and out of the e-waste supply chain. The full traceability of electronic waste management should allow an increase in the volume collected, reduce uncontrolled flows and ensure the proper treatment of materials based on their plastic composition and the content of hazardous substances. Likewise, efficient traceability would allow the implementation of a more controlled collection infrastructure, which would result in the treatment and reprocessing of electrical and electronic waste of superior quality. Technology. The current state of technology for handling such waste materials has proved inefficient due to the significant losses of clean plastic and the limits set by restrictive regulations for E-Waste. For this reason, it has been shown that the recycling of waste plastic based on manual disassembly and separation has been more selective and precise, which implies less clean plastic leak. However, the use of low technology implies higher costs, making it less attractive from a technological and economic point of view. Design considerations. It has been shown that quality recycled materials and the implementation of an eco-design that ensures the circularity of the system through the replacement of components or the recyclability of materials, allow tangible and sustainable benefits, which in turn allows to reduce the impact 20% product environment. An interesting thing to highlight is that these environmental benefits must be conveyed to the market through sustainable product communications. Consumer participation. The efficiency of collection systems in the Nordic countries based on the separation of electronic waste from the source has been demonstrated, based on the involvement and commitment of consumers to contribute to the system. The limitations of manual dismantling of electronic waste during recycling demonstrate the urgency to reduce the types of plastics used in the production of electrical and electronic equipment and the need for identify plastic parts in terms of polymer type and brominated flame retardants. The above shows that for the treatment of electronic waste it is necessary to incorporate an eco-design system that promotes a circular and more sustainable flow of materials, reducing their environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to create appropriate protocols and regulations for the use of plastics in EEE applications or complex electronic components. Considering the great diversity of application sectors and the wide range of plastic products, as well as the presence of additives such as brominated flame retardants, the efficient and reliable implementation of identification, collection, collection and separation systems, which enable quality recycling to reduce pollution, as well as the development of low environmental impact flame retardants.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Chemical Recycling of Plastic Versus Mechanical Recycling?
rNEWS: Chemical Recycling of Plastic Versus Mechanical Recycling?
Monday, 1st february 2021 | rNEWS

The history of plastic recycling was born and developed, to date, thanks to the mechanical system, made up of selection, grinding, washing and extrusion of polymers that constitute new raw material. This type of recycling leaves behind a considerable amount of non-recyclable plastic waste that goes to incineration or landfill. We have dealt with the reasons for a quantity of non-recyclable plastic waste several times in the blog articles of the Arezio portal, but today, as presented by Sreeparna Das perlando of the ENI-VERSALIS chemical recycling process, we can see a concrete possibility of finding a right placement of non-recyclable plastic waste through chemical recycling. Competition with mechanical recycling? I would say no, indeed I see a completion of the circular waste process. The resistance of plastic , considered a benefit in the past, today takes on a strongly negative connotation. Now, when we hear the word plastic, one of the first images that comes to mind is that of a bag floating in the ocean. This is largely due to the unprecedented increase in single-use products and the disposable mindset of consumers. What are the advantages and disadvantages of plastic? It is important not to lose sight of the value of plastics and the various industries that depend on this material. Plastic has proven its advantages in terms of mechanical properties, performance, versatility, cost, etc. It is, for example, a fundamental material in the fight against the pandemic of COVID-19 around the world. The risk to health, especially for medical professionals and frontline workers, would be greater without the plastic present in PPE kits, masks and gloves. How plastics are currently produced, consumed and handled at the end of their life, however, is not completely sustainable. The debate on replacing plastic with other recyclable materials, such as paper, especially in packaging, has taken hold due to the negative impact on the environment of linear plastic production, the high volume of single-use applications and the mishandling of waste over time Some years. The circularity of plastic and the valorisation of waste are the order of the day and chemical recycling technologies can play a fundamental role in achieving the same goal. The recycling of plastic Clearly a change of course is required. Those who work within the plastics value chain must adopt circular principles. Part of the solution to ensuring plastic's circularity is its recycling, but current rates are far from ideal. The European Commission recognizes the need for higher recycling rates in its recently adopted action plan for the circular economy under the European Green Deal . Member States must achieve the following objectives: • 55% recycling of plastic packaging waste by 2030 • Reduction of consumption to 40 bags per person by 2026 • Improve product design to meet durability, repairability and recyclability requirements • Monitoring and reduction of marine litter Many stakeholders are following the circular model of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation and in in this direction, Eni's circular strategy focuses on: • The use of sustainable raw materials • Reuse, recycle and recovery • Extend the useful life To further support the circularity of plastic and increase recycling rates , Versalis started the Hoop® Project in February 2020. The project focuses on the development of new technologies for the chemical recycling of plastic waste. Together with Research and Development Services (SRS), the chemical company of Eni is developing a process for the valorisation of waste mixed plastics that cannot be mechanically recycled. What is the chemical recycling of plastic? Chemical recycling, an umbrella term for several advanced technologies, can transform plastic waste into raw materials that fall into the value chain to produce new polymers. CEFIC, the European Council of Chemical Industry, has broadly classified these technologies into three types. Chemical recycling and classification of technologies. Dissolution : from plastic waste to polymer The process consists of extracting the polymer by dissolving the selected plastic waste with a solvent and / or heat. In this way it is also possible to separate the additives from the polymers. Furthermore, the extracted polymer can be processed with new additives to produce new plastics. Depolymerization : from plastic waste to monomer This method involves the selected plastic waste being broken down into their constituent monomers using various chemical reactions. The purified monomers can then be used to produce new polymers. The most suitable polymers for this technique are polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), etc. Conversion : from plastic waste to raw material Thanks to these techniques, mixed plastic waste can be converted into a hydrocarbon blend that can be used as a raw material for new plastics. This raw material similar to oil or gas can replace the fossil raw material just extracted in chemical plants. The two main types of processes are: pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis is one of the main processes explored today to achieve the challenging recycling goals and meet the need for plastic circularity. The process takes place at high temperatures (in the absence of oxygen) and transforms plastic waste into raw materials that are further used in the production of new chemicals. Versalis is pursuing the development of pyrolysis technology through the Hoop® project. To better understand the mission and vision of the project, I spoke with Fabio Assandri, Director of Research and Technological Innovation of Versalis. D: Can explain Hoop® and why is Eni investing in this project? Assandri: Today, plastic waste is a challenge for all of us. Europe collects nearly 30 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste and recycles only a third of it. Mechanical recycling is the main method used and efficiently manages pre-sorted waste streams (e.g. single material, less contaminated, etc.). A good example is PET water bottles. However, mechanical recycling has some limitations. The reprocessing steps lead to degradation of the material properties and can cause a reduction in transparency. It also includes on the number of times plastic can be recycled. Perhaps, however, the biggest drawback is the inability to manage more complex and mixed plastic waste streams, which are currently incinerated or landfilled. This led us to invest in the Hoop® project, a project that focuses on chemical recycling as an alternative solution to the problem, thus advancing the circularity of plastics. D: How does Hoop® work? Assandri: Hoop, the name of the project, it represents a complete circle and therefore symbolizes support for circularity. We worked on a new process based on the SRS pyrolysis technology. which transforms polymers into smaller molecules and bricks. This conversion is analogous to disassembling a lego set into single pieces. We have completed the pilot tests and also the design of the demonstration plant with a capacity of 6,000 tons per year at the Mantua site. Our goal is to scale and have the technology ready for large-scale application. Q: What is plasmix? And what are the advantages of pyrolysis technology? Assandri: Plasmix is the mixed plastic waste that is not suitable for effective mechanical recycling. It represents a significant percentage of plastic waste that is currently not recycled. Pyrolysis is ideal for such disposal streams and allows materials to extend their use, in line with the principles of the circular economy. As the quality is the same as virgin plastics, chemically recycled grades can be used in high value applications, including food contact applications. The process we have developed offers further advantages such as flexibility, energy efficiency, product quality and great savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions . The recovery of the materials of all flows resulting from the pyrolysis process (liquids, gases and solids) is an absolute priority for us. Q: Can chemical recycling reduce dependence on fossil fuels and CO2 emissions? Assandri: Overall, the ecological footprint of chemical recycling is lower than the emissions upstream and downstream of the current linear system (extraction of raw materials, plastic production and end-of-life waste management). Currently, mixed plastic waste is being incinerated or landfilled. Both solutions have a negative environmental impact. Incineration leads to increased emissions of CO2 and other pollutants, while landfilling causes further dispersion of plastic waste into the environment. Chemical recycling avoids these problems and, by converting waste back into raw materials, helps reduce dependence on fossil reserves. Q: Will mechanical recycling vanish with the development of chemical recycling plants? Assandri: Not at all. Mechanical recycling is already a considerable activity with a well developed ecosystem for polymer streams such as PET, HDPE, PP, etc. There is no point in replacing existing systems that work well. The aim of the project is to integrate mechanical recycling and drastically improve the circularity of plastic products, expanding the scope of recyclable waste streams. In fact, I believe that mechanical recycling will benefit from the development of chemical recycling technologies, as goals and ratings would be more split between the two. Q: Is Hoop® the solution to the problem of plastic waste? Assandri: The issue of plastic waste is complex and requires a multi-layered approach to find effective solutions. Projects like Hoop® are taking steps in the right direction and are an important part of the solution. Whether or not chemical recycling, together with mechanical recycling, will be able to tackle the problem of plastic waste depends on several factors: All actors in the value chain, including brand owners, need to be involved and collaborate. Consumers also have an important role to play in following proper waste collection and in increasing demand for recycled products. Standardized and internationally recognized certifications are a necessity. As chemical recycling generates an equivalent virgin raw material, the materials mix in chemical plants and make it difficult to physically trace the recycled raw material. Experts therefore suggest using the mass balance approach to accurately track the flow of recycled material around industrial facilities in order to attribute the correct value of the recycled content to a product. One last aspect, but no less important: the industry will also need political and regulatory support. Greater clarity on sustainable plastics production is expected to come in early 2021, once the European Commission completes the revision of the EU Taxonomy Regulation. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Renewable Energies NEWS: the Information Space Dedicated to Renewable Energies
Renewable Energies NEWS: the Information Space Dedicated to Renewable Energies
Monday, 1st february 2021 | Renewable energies

Renewable Energies NEWS is the information space, created within the blog that highlights, without veils or filters, the articles considered interesting referring to companies in the field of the Renewable Energies. The articles will have an informative, non-commercial slant and will be chosen from those published online that adhere to the spirit of the portal so as to create independent content available to clients. Subscribers of the platform can intervene in the life of this section by publishing an article, free of charge, in compliance with the rules of disclosure without commercial purposes. In the published article the sources and the author will always be mentioned, who will remain the owner of the contents. The management reserves the right to accept, reduce or exclude articles if they are not in line with the spirit of the portal. If you wish to submit an article for publication please email us the text and a photo. Happy reading!

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: DS Smith has a New CEO for the Recycling Division
rNEWS: DS Smith has a New CEO for the Recycling Division
Friday, 29th january 2021 | rNEWS

The multinational DS Smith deals with paper recycling services in 14 countries around the world with 3500 employees and 16 paper mills, producing 5 million tons of paper products every year, through this interview we meet the new CEO of the recycling sector. Rogier Gerritsen as new managing director of DS Smith's Recycling division is responsible for recycling operations throughout Europe. What attracted you to the role of CEO of our recycling division? After working in both the Paper and Packaging divisions, I couldn't say no to this fantastic opportunity. I have always admired our circular business model and the Recycling division plays such a crucial role in this by helping our customers improve their recycling and reduce their waste, while keeping materials in use for as long as possible. This is just one of the ways we are creating the circular economy, minimizing the impact on the world around us. I am thrilled to play a role in helping create a more sustainable future for our business, our customers and the environment. What would you like to achieve in your new role? During my first few weeks, I had the great pleasure of meeting many of the passionate and knowledgeable people on our team who care about our business , they want to make a difference and have the necessary experience. I want us to be able to share our experience and expertise even more and help our customers with their recycling challenges whatever they are: achieving the goals recycling, improve performance or achieve sustainability goals. What makes you proud of your new role? Our mission is to ensure that our customers' recycling is truly recycled and I firmly believe that we can make a difference in most markets where we operate. I am particularly proud that we have a responsibility to provide the highest possible quality of recycled materials to our plants and a network of trusted partner companies around the world. I would like us to use our skills, passion, processes and footprint to help our customers and shape our entire industry. What motivates you outside of work? I really want to make a difference and I think it's really important to invest in our future generations, share knowledge and experience to make sure they benefit . For me, this starts with my family. I was recently able to help my son with a sustainability school assignment by sharing examples of sustainability in action from my work at DS Smith . It fills me with pride that soon everyone who works for DS Smith will be able to share their knowledge and enthusiasm in this way. Last September the Now and Next sustainability strategy, what can our customers expect from this? I am very excited about the launch of our new Now and Next sustainability strategy. This is our company-wide commitment that aims to address the sustainability challenges we are facing today, as well as those that will impact our future generations. One of the main goals for me is that by 2030 we will involve 5 million young people in the circular economy and in circular lifestyles . I already see this strategy coming to life all over Europe and as I said, it is also helping me with my son's schoolwork! Many of our customers have always been interested in our sustainability initiatives and now this approach is growing. We will work together with partners and customers to develop fully circular strategies, from design to manufacturing, from supply to recycling. I truly believe that by partnering with our customers, communities, governments and influencers, we can make a difference together. What would you tell your customers about the challenges they are facing right now? The pressures on sustainability on companies have increased significantly over the past two years. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still the expectation that organizations of all types shouldn't just limit themselves to minimizing their impact on the natural world, but should strive, where possible, to create a positive impact on people and the planet. Sustainability is at the heart of our business model and is the core of our aim to " Redefine packaging for a changing world ". Thanks to our unique business model, we are involved at every touchpoint in our customers' supply cycle and can guide them in adopting long-term sustainable practices and solutions. I personally look forward to working closely with all of our customers and prospects across Europe and showing how DS Smith can positively impact achieving their recycling goals, corporate goals and environmental goals.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. by DS Smith

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https://www.arezio.it/ - What is OCC Carton and How is it Recycled
What is OCC Carton and How is it Recycled
Thursday, 28th january 2021 | Circular economy

It seems a strange acronym, OCC, but the experts classify as OCC a corrugated cardboard suitable for the formation of boxes and packaging, in which the walls have the task of protecting the goods inside and assume a resistant behavior during handling and transport. Usually it consists from two sheets of flat paper enclosing a light corrugated layer which, thanks to the vaulted shape, gives the sandwich a good resistance. Corrugated cardboard, or OCC, is a very common element in the packaging sector and is also a product that has a high degree of recycling, in fact, according to data from Corrugated Packaging Alliance , a box made from corrugated cardboard, is made up of approximately 50% recycled material. With the increase in micro shipments by online commerce, the quantity of corrugated cardboard in household solid waste is taking on a relevant position, without forgetting the traditional distribution and industry market. OCC cartons can be reused or recycled creating a circularity chain that improves the environment and our lives. Among the advantages of reusing the product, we can include the saving of water that the paper mill uses to create the new paper pulp, and therefore of the energy for the process that creates CO2 and other pollutants such as sulfur or volatile organic chemicals. In the context of OCC cardboard recycling we can mention the reduction in the use of virgin wood which is used to produce natural fibers for the paper. To make a ton of virgin cardboard, three tons of trees are needed, which suggests the importance of reusing and recycling cardboard. As regards the OCC that is sent for recycling at the paper mills, through the collection centers, it is important that whoever delivers the cardboard to be recycled has the care remove different materials present on the boxes or boxes, which would compromise their recycling or pollute the process. The corrugated cardboard must be flattened and packed to form uniform bales in order to reduce their volume to minimize the cost and environmental impact of handling to the centers recycling. After the transformation of the OCC inside the paper mills, the recycled fibers will be reused, in the most suitable percentages, mixed with the virgin fibers based on the types of packaging to be made, to create new paper and cardboard packaging. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Technique NEWS: the Space Dedicated to Technique in the Circular Economy
Technique NEWS: the Space Dedicated to Technique in the Circular Economy
Thursday, 28th january 2021 | Technical information

Technique NEWS is the information space, created within the blog that highlights, without veils or filters, the articles considered interesting referring to companies in the field of technology in the circular economy. articles will have an informative, non-commercial cut and will be chosen from those published online that adhere to the spirit of the portal so as to create independent content available to customers. Subscribers to the platform can intervene in the life of this section by publishing an article, free of charge, in compliance with the rules of disclosure without commercial purposes. In the published article the sources and the author will always be cited, who will remain the owner of the contents. The management reserves the right to accept, reduce or exclude articles if they are not in line with the spirit of the portal. If you would like to submit an article for publication please email us with the text and a photo. Happy reading!

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Glass and Non-Recyclable Plastic: is there an Alternative to Landfill?
Glass and Non-Recyclable Plastic: is there an Alternative to Landfill?
Wednesday, 27th january 2021 | Circular economy

As far as we can be virtuous in the separate collection of glass and plastic , as well as for other recyclable materials, there are some important fractions, in terms quantities, which cannot be recycled with mechanical waste treatment plants. While waiting for the chemical recycling technology to become widespread and cheap, the human genius is working hard to find a different path to glass and plastic waste, sometimes mixed with paper and organic, which cannot be sent to recycling plants. The cause of this waste of waste can depend on an incorrect domestic selection or packaging made of materials that are not compatible with recycling , whereby a fraction of glass and plastic, during collection, is discarded to be sent to the landfill or, for plastic, to incineration. They seem small numbers but if we consider that, for various reasons, the percentage of waste recycled in the world does not exceed 10% of those produced, we realize how important and imminent it can be to find alternative solutions. An Australian bituminous conglomerate production plant, in addition to the "green" bitumen recipes that already contemplated the use of non-recyclable waste plastic, has found a solution to use glass waste which would go to landfill. The aim of the plant is to use, as a partial replacement of the sand of the bituminous compounds, the glass powder to create recipes that we have high technical characteristics with a view to environmental sustainability. The production uses about 4 million packages of waste glass per day, producing 800 tons of sand with high technical properties, avoiding the spillage of precious materials in landfills. The production plant is not only able to recycle the plastic and glass that should be buried, but also receives the waste of the exhausted asphalt which is milled and removed from the streets, subsequently recycled in the company and reformulated with other waste materials, producing approximately 500,000 tons of green asphalt every year. If we consider the process of excavating sand from quarries or river beds for the production of road asphalt, we realize how many natural resources, fuels for the transport (with a high amount of CO2 emitted) we consume every year, which negatively affect the consumption of the earth and the increase in the carbon footprint. The attention to the circular economy by the bodies in charge of awarding contracts for the asphalting of roads, requires more and more bituminous mixtures for asphalt that contain an important quantity of treated waste, creating at the same time recipes that are not only sustainable but also with better qualitative performances. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Sabic and Plastic Energy Together for a New Chemical Recycling Plant
rNEWS: Sabic and Plastic Energy Together for a New Chemical Recycling Plant
Wednesday, 27th january 2021 | rNEWS

Attention to the environment, the circular economy and waste materializes in the analysis of solutions that can really use waste of waste , ie those products that leave the mechanical recycling plants as waste and that would be destined for landfill or incineration. Chemical recycling is certainly a way to reuse these waste by transforming it, as Sabic and Plastic Energy in the Netherlands will do, creating a value chain in sustainable polymers. At the end of 2018, the Saudi petrochemical group Sabic signed a memorandum of understanding with British Plastic Energy to build a plastic recycling unit in the Netherlands. The project was to be completed in 2021. Although it's a bit late, work is underway on its implementation. The two partners have just created a joint venture, Spear (Sabic Plastic Energy Advanced Recycling BV), of which they own in equal shares, to start construction of this site in Geleen , an important petrochemical center, near Maastricht, where Sabic is already present. It is expected to be operational in the second half of 2022. with the support of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Several collaborations Sabic and Plastic Energy have been collaborating since 2019 to produce and market “circular” polymers, included in Sabic's Trucircle catalog. The Saudi group was thus able to collaborate with processors, consumer goods groups and / or retail chains to produce various packaging: among these first users we they are, in particular, Albéa, Aptar, Avery Dennison, Berry Global, Huhtamaki, Sealed Air, Walki, Tupperware, Unilever and Tesco. “The new unit will allow Sabic to significantly increase production of certified circular polymers in order to provide customers with a better access to sustainable materials that have been recycled, reused and produced in a way that can help protect our planet's natural resources by acting as a back-up solution, ”said Fahad Al Swailem, Sabic's vice president of polyethylenes and polymers sales. Thermal anaerobic conversion Plastic Energy has developed a patented anaerobic thermal conversion technology (TAC) that transforms a wide range of end-of-life plastics , dirty or contaminated and difficult to recycle using conventional processes, in synthetic oils by pyrolysis which, once refined, make it possible to produce polymers with properties identical to those of the original materials. The company already operates two chemical recycling plants for plastics in Seville and Almeria, Spain, since 2014 and 2017. The new unit will produce both this oil what resins. A. Jadoul

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Do Companies Respect the Commitments They Have Made for Sustainability?
rNEWS: Do Companies Respect the Commitments They Have Made for Sustainability?
Wednesday, 27th january 2021 | rNEWS

Many medium and large companies are striving to reduce their carbon footprint in the production or distribution of goods or services, with an eye to ecology and another to the satisfaction of customers who reward, through purchases, the companies most deserving of respect for the environment and therefore more sustainable.Many of them have a protocol with objectives to be achieved and openly communicate their results, as happens in many French companies. According to the French Association of Private Enterprises Afep , the commitments made by 38 large companies to reduce their ecological footprint have been respected 83%. Commitments undertaken since 2017 concerning in particular the recycling and recovery of waste, the eco-design of products, the reduction of resource consumption, of packaging and also the extension of the life of the products. According to this association, which brings together 111 global groups, 79% of the actions launched between 2017 and 2019 "are in progress" with 13% is early and 8% late. Almost a quarter of the projects started in this period have been completed (23%), 96% of which have achieved the objectives set. The chemical company Arkema has "completed" its actions and "achieved" its objectives of promoting the economy and reduction of resources consumed, while the organization of a polymer recycling chain, which is the subject of European funding, "is following the expected pace". Distributor Carrefour has been delayed in its goal of eliminating free disposable cash bags in 2020 due to Brazil, where, in most states, these plastic bags are "a consumer right". Accor, which had committed to recover 65% of the group's hotel waste at the end of 2020, but states that it only recovered 56% in November and recognizes a rate of progress "below the set schedule". On the food waste front, the hotel group has aimed at a reduction of 30% and obtained an average reduction of only 21%, for the 485 hotels on 1,870 of the brand that “precisely follow the volumes” wasted.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. H. Saporta

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Healthy Environment is our Duty
The Healthy Environment is our Duty
Wednesday, 27th january 2021 | Environment

From the anthropocentrism of rights to that of duties From a legal point of view, we can guarantee sustainable development only by stating that the current generation has an obligation to deliver a non-deteriorating planet to future generations. The environment is firmly at the top of the policy agenda and the focus of the attention of the media and ordinary people.  Global warming, Paris Agreement, encyclical of Pope Laudato si’, Case Urgenda, circular economy: under media pressure and gripping by the concern that arises from the subjective perception of climate change, no one can today call themselves out of the discussions on the environment. Everyone claims to live in a healthy environment and even the right, in its various joints, strives to give shape to such a legal situation, also to make it justiceable. But can we really encamp rights and claims to nature?  Events such as frequent natural disasters show that it is a profound illusion to claim to be legally living in a particular natural context (because this, technically, means being the holders of a right), that it is precisely healthy.  And when the environment or its elements are not “healthy” (think of dangerous animals), the prospect of subjective law appears insufficient, nor can this lack of protection be compensated by accessing the hypocrisy of animal law: law is a cultural construction of man and man is the protagonist (can the tree act in court? Who can stand up to his representative?). Looking at the problem from a legal point of view, we cannot abandon anthropocentrism. The problem arises from the fact that the anthropocentrism of the right to the healthy environment does not satisfy us: it risks being a somewhat hypocritical mechanism, stiffens the legal plot and appears emptied of the capacity to attack real problems or an instrument too strong in the hands of a select few. On a more general level, then, it reflects the idea of a man – ruler who encamps the claim to exploit nature and ends up dequoting all that is not instrumental to the well-being of the proprietor.  The truth is much simpler.    The environment, for man, also legally, is the object not of a right, but of a duty of protection, from a point of view of responsibility.  It is enough to look at the principles of environmental matter to realize that they express a very obvious content of dutifulness. Animal protection can also be better ensured by exploiting our responsibilities, rather than by invoking empty legal claims of those who will never be able to exercise them. The discipline of the sector, then, is literally chock-full of duties. The basic principle of all others, sustainable development, finally, confirms the correctness of this perspective and shows that the The real centre of gravity of legal discipline on the environment is the duty to protect mankind:the present generation has an obligation to give future generations an environmental context no worse than the inherited one. We need to move from the anthropocentrism of rights to the anthropocentrism of duties.  This is a cultural waste, which aims to highlight our responsibilities, victims or aggressors.  In the face of scientific uncertainty and the extraordinary complexity of the problem, this attitude requires us to act wisely and with extreme caution, each in its own specific scope of action: environmental issues cannot be solved only by economics,ethics, science or law, instead imposing a joint effort. An attitude perhaps to be recovered after the exaltation also deresponsabilizing of the rights of recent decades and that suggests to evaluate with a certain distrust those who, proposing absolute certainties, pretend to simplify a question steeped in inextricable ethical and axiological value. Speaking of respect for future generations: as the most contains the least, attention and caution also needs to be towards the current one, so that it does not convince the prospect of pointing out some of its exponents as the privileged spokesman – but how conscious? of the environment or future generations, dimensions that do not need representatives, but who claim suffered respect (wanted is every reference to the Thunberg case). Fabrizio Fracchia, ordinary in the Department of Legal Studies of Bocconi University in Milan

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Microwave-safe Cups in Recyclable and Compostable Fiber
rNEWS: Microwave-safe Cups in Recyclable and Compostable Fiber
Tuesday, 26th january 2021 | rNEWS

The American company Kraft Heinz is studying the production of fiber cups that can be reusable or recyclable compostable and that can be inserted without problems in the microwave. The company aims to make 100% of its packaging recyclable, reusable or compostable by 2025. Kraft Mac & Cheese , a proprietary brand of Kraft Heinz Co. based in Chicago , announced that it is developing and testing the first recyclable fiber-based microwave cup. Upon completion of testing, the brand will launch a new Kraft Mac & Cheese Shapes variety later in 2021 using the new cup and new design. According to a press release from Kraft Mac & Cheese, the fiber-based microwave mug currently under test is microwave safe and it has the same dimensions as the other packaging currently offered by the brand. The brand also reports that it is eliminating the plastic label on this package through new direct printing technology. The company says the intent of the design change from plastic to fiber is to reduce the use of plastic and be both recyclable and compostable in industrial composting plants. Kraft says it is working with external partners to certify and incorporate appropriate recycling labeling to help consumers know what to do with packaging. The company adds that this innovation supports Kraft Heinz Co.'s goal of becoming a more sustainable company. The company has a commitment to make 100 percent of its packaging recyclable, reusable or compostable by 2025. by Megan Smalley

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: LyondellBasell and Sinopec Together to Produce Polypropylene and Styrene
rNEWS: LyondellBasell and Sinopec Together to Produce Polypropylene and Styrene
Tuesday, 26th january 2021 | rNEWS

The phenomenon of corporate aggregations continues in the plastic production sector with the aim of finding strategies to cover the markets both from the point of view of production and distribution. LyondellBasell and Sinopec will produce polypropylene oxide and styrene monomer in China for a booming market despite global demand that remains critical due to the pandemic . LyondellBasell , one of the largest plastics, chemicals and refining companies in the world and China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec) , one of the largest integrated energy companies in China, today announced the signing of an agreement to form a 50:50 joint venture that will produce propylene oxide (PO) and styrene monomer (SM) in the Chinese domestic market. First announced on December 23, 2019, the JV will operate under the name Ningbo ZRCC LyondellBasell New Material Company Limited. "As the Chinese economy continues to grow, so will the demand for propylene oxide and styrene monomer. We are excited to expand our our relationship with Sinopec through this joint venture to better serve the Chinese domestic market - a win-win, "said Torkel Rhenman , Executive Vice President, Intermediates and Derivatives and Refining. "Built on the remarkable success of our first joint venture, we are very pleased to continue to strengthen the important partnership with LyondellBasell for future results. The creation of the new joint venture is not only in line with the national push for further opening, but also a fundamental step for Sinopec to deepen and expand its our international operations, "said Yu Baocai, Senior Vice President of Sinopec Corp . " We have high expectations on the new joint venture to push the economic development of the city of Ningbo to a new level. During the fourteenth period of the five-year plan (2021-2025), Sinopec will continue to promote green industrial upgrading and innovative transformation, contributing to the eternal economic growth of Zhejiang Province and East China, and even the development of the chemical industry in China. . " The JV will build a new PO and SM unit in Zhenhai Ningbo , China. This new unit will have a capacity of 275 kilotons per year (KTA) of PO and 600 KTA of SM. The unit will use LyondellBasell's leading PO / SM technology. The products produced by the JV will be marketed equally by both partners, significantly expanding their respective participation in the Chinese market for PO and SM. The launch is expected at the end of 2021. The constitution of the JV is subject to the approval of the relevant government authorities, including antitrust review by the State Administration for Market Regulation. LyondellBasell expects to make its equity contribution to the JV during the first quarter of 2021. According to IHS Markit, China accounts for over 60% of the chemical market demand in Asia and accounts for 40% of the growth of the global chemical market in the next decade. PO and SM are LyondellBasell's core products and are used in a variety of applications including packaging, building and construction, furniture and transportation. LyondellBasell operates five wholly owned factories in China located in Guangzhou, Suzhou, Dalian, Dongguan and Changshu. Info by LyondellBasell

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Gazechim Plastics Changes Name to Snetor Uk after the Acquisition
rNEWS: Gazechim Plastics Changes Name to Snetor Uk after the Acquisition
Thursday, 21st january 2021 | rNEWS

Following the acquisition of Gazechim Plastics by Snetor Group last July, we are pleased to announce the change of the company name of GAZECHIM PLASTICS UK which becomes SNETOR UK . This new corporate name illustrates our desire to strengthen our visibility on the European market and is part of our strategic development. ; Closes the name change initiated with GAZECHIM PLASTICS ROMANIA which became SNETOR EASTERN EUROPE at the end of 2020. From January 2021, GAZECHIM PLASTICS BENELUX and GAZECHIM PLASTICS NORDEN are called SNETOR BENELUX and SNETOR NORDEN Emmanuel Aubourg, CEO Snetor Group

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Importance of Dehumidification of Recycled Plastic Polymers
The Importance of Dehumidification of Recycled Plastic Polymers
Wednesday, 20th january 2021 | Technical information

How and why it is necessary to reduce the moisture of recycled polymers before their use. As described in the article the" Absorption of 'humidity in polymers ” the presence of humidity on the external surface and inside the polymeric masses creates different types of problems for the characteristics of the raw material to be used. Both hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic recycled plastic polymers are subject to the damaging effect of moisture, which can be absorbed in the phases processing, transport or storage, through the search for a balance with the environment in which they are found. As we have seen, in non-hygroscopic recycled polymers, moisture is retained on the surface, while in hygroscopic ones it will also be found inside the plastic granule. Humidity, whether on the surface or inside the granule, negatively affects the aesthetic and mechanical aspect of the final product and, therefore, to produce a plastic raw material that does not encounter these problems, it must be dehumidified before using it. The percentage of residual moisture tolerated by the recycled raw material is usually indicated by the producers through the quality control of the outgoing goods and can vary according to the type of polymer taken into consideration and the type of product to be made. It must be borne in mind that recycled plastics, after the packaging phase, spend more or less long times in transport and storage operations, times in which it is possible that the polymers take on new moisture. For this reason it is always recommended, before using the granule, to carry out the dehumidification operation which, according to the polymer , may require variable times, reaching a final residual humidity expressed as follows for a polymer sampling: • ABS  Air temperature: 80 °  Treatment time: 2-3 hours  Residual moisture: 200 ppm • PE  Air temperature: 90 °  Treatment time: 1 hour  Residual moisture: 100 ppm • PP  Air temperature: 90 °  Treatment time: 1 hour  Residual moisture: 200 ppm • PVC  Air temperature: 70 °  Treatment time: 1 hour  Residual moisture: 200 ppm The most common way to dehumidify recycled polymers is to bring the plastic material together with a current of hot air , as this has the ability to retain humidity and the higher the temperature, the greater the volume of humidity removed. The air has the ability to retain water until it is saturated and this quantity varies according to the temperature increase. For example 1 Kg. Of air is saturated with: • 20 ° - 14.7 grams of water • 35 ° - 36.6 grams of water • 50 ° - 82.6 grams of water In polymer dehumidification cycles it is possible to use the air coming from the environment, defined as simple drying, only in situations of favorable temperature and humidity. While previously dried air, called dehumidified, can be used to achieve an important drying action even in unfavorable conditions. We take into consideration that a dry granule, when placed in contact with the air, begins to absorb moisture , whose percentage will vary as the climatic conditions in which it is found vary, therefore the type of dehumidification intervention will vary according to these parameters. In a drying process the hot air will hit the granule, which will be placed in a hopper, which will release moisture from its surface and its interior. which will migrate to the created airflow. The main variables, therefore, during a drying process are: • Type of polymer • Starting moisture of the granule • Process air dew point • Required residual moisture • Drying time • Process air temperature • Size of the grain The whole drying process rotates around the humidity residual accepted , depending on the type of product to be produced and the production technique and, the lower the drying process, the higher the temperature used, without prejudice to the technical limits of each polymer on the degree of softening and emanation of harmful substances. The air requirement for the dehumidification processes will be expressed in cubic meters of air for each Kg. of polymer to be dried, taking into account the quantity of granules handled in the hopper, the air temperature and the current consumption. The size and shape of the granule also have an influence in the dehumidification process, as, as its size and surface area per unit of measurement increase ( cube, cylinder or sphere) increases the drying time. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: The Barons of Oil, Gas and Coal What End Will They Do?
rNEWS: The Barons of Oil, Gas and Coal What End Will They Do?
Tuesday, 19th january 2021 | rNEWS

For years the oil, coal and gas lobbies have been doing everything to be able to extend their power, even when scientists gave clear and clear indications on the need to reduce emissions into the atmosphere in a short time. Labeled as catastrophists and overshadowed, so that public opinion doesn't over-emphasize their warnings, they continued the extraction and refining of fossil natural resources trying to create the greenest image possible. Now that the global environmental movement is also made up of ordinary people and not just activists, the push towards renewable energy has found a valuable ally in finance, undermining the castle of oil, gas and coal producers. We find interesting the article written by Bill McKibben, journalist and environmentalist, is leader of the 350.org decarbonization campaign. The supervisor's threat to divest billions of fossil fuels is a major win for environmentalists. The entire portfolio will be decarbonised over the next two decades. The move represents a series of capitulations which, taken together, indicate that the once dominant fossil fuel industry has reached the minimum of its financial and political power.  New York State Accounts Supervisor, Thomas DiNapoli, announced that the state will begin divesting part of the $ 226 billion employee pension fund by oil and gas companies if within four years they do not produce a business plan in line with the objectives of the Paris agreement. Historically, these investments totaled approximately $ 12 billion. The entire portfolio will be decarbonised over the next two decades. "Getting CO2 emissions to zero by 2040 will put the fund in a strong position with respect to the future outlined by the Paris agreement," DiNapoli said. This is obviously a major victory for activists who for eight years have been trying to get Albany to divest from fossil fuels and for the global campaign for divestments in as a whole. Funds and portfolios with a total value of over $ 14 trillion have already joined. This new move is the most substantial by an American pension fund and follows that of the New York City pension fund managed by Scott Stringer , which in 2018 announced its intention to divest five of its nearly $ 200 billion from fossil fuels over five years. But it also has another meaning: that of a series of capitulations which, on the whole, indicate that the once dominant fossil fuel industry, it has reached the minimum of its financial and political power. The first capitulation is that of investors, who have realized that most of the Big Oil simply do not represent a credible partner for change. DiNapoli has long argued the need to dialogue with fossil fuel companies, convinced that, if large shareholders started to express concern, companies would change course. And this is how things should go: DiNapoli was warning companies that their strategy was not only putting the planet at risk but also their business. They should have listened to him. Instead they ignored it over and over again. In December 2017, for example, at DiNapoli's urging, Exxon Mobil agreed to "analyze how global efforts to implement the Paris Agreement goals and reduce global warming they would have impacted his business, ”as the supervisor himself reported at the time. It could have been a turning point. Two months later, however, Exxon published the absurd results of that analysis: the Paris agreement would have no effect on its business and therefore Exxon could have continued to extract oil and gas from its reserves. (Documents leaked later clearly show that Exxon instead planned to significantly increase its emissions by speeding up production.) In his statement DiNapoli had said that divestment was "the last resort". But he also specified that it was "a tool that can be used against those companies that systematically jeopardize the long-term value of our investments". For a long time oil companies have sought to establish themselves as a responsible partner in combating climate change , in opposition to pro-activists divestment, judged "unrealistic". The Independent Petroleum Association of America has even created an anti-divestment website to pressure decision makers like DiNapoli not to steal money under their control from Big Oil. DiNapoli deserves the credit for having faced, albeit late, an industry that is still very powerful. Today he ranks alongside Stringer as a leading proponent of climate activism in the financial sector. And it has the indisputable credibility of those who first tried to act collaboratively.  Today other investors are ready to follow , not only because of the climate risk, but also because the fossil fuel industry has been the worst-performing sector of the American economy for many years.  The industry faces two kinds of problems: on the one hand, a vast resistance movement , motivated by the undeniable fact that its products are damaging the climate of the planet. On the other hand, on the side of wind and solar power , technologically formidable competitors able to offer a similar but more ecological and cheaper service. These two realities will end up destroying the coal, gas and oil barons, it only remains to know when. At this point, Big Oil can only take time, but it becomes increasingly difficult to do so, especially now that, with the end of the Trump administration, the protective shield they enjoyed is about to fall. There are the first signs that this second capitulation, the surrender of the oil companies to reality, has begun. One of the so-called supermajors, BP PLC , announced its intention to cut oil production by 40% this summer and gas over a decade and to significantly increase investment in renewable energy. Divestment activists have every reason to be skeptical: already in 2000 BP, coining the slogan "Beyond Petroleum", announced that it wanted to go "beyond oil ”, an intention soon abandoned. This time, however, at least the contents are good. “The next decade,” reads a statement from BP's CEO, “will be critical to the global fight against climate change. To achieve the necessary changes in the global energy system, everyone's effort will be needed. "  Even around Exxon it seems that a kind of silent capitulation is beginning. While Exxon was the largest company in the world in 2013 , this fall is no longer even the largest in the energy sector: NextEra Energy, a renewable energy supplier based in Florida, it briefly exceeded its market value. Last week Exxon put its cards on the table, revealing its intention to cut the budget assigned to exploration and capital expenditures from the expected 30 billion for this year and 35 for the next to about half and to want to cancel about 20 billion of natural gas reserves which, today he recognizes, will never extract. The decline of oil and gas companies has finally begun and recalls the collapse of the coal industry over the past decade, collapse which DiNapoli helped speed up last summer, with the divestment of the New York state pension fund from coal.  Big Oil's decline does not only mean fewer emissions in the long term and, it also means less political influence in the short term and therefore less force to slow down the steps required for the transition to 'clean energy. Big Oil's influence on the Republican party remains strong, but President-elect Joe Biden will not have to face the same behemoth his parents have had to deal with predecessors. The fact that DiNapoli is able to oppose these forces is a good indicator of what the new administration can achieve.  Last month was the most history globally and it seems increasingly certain that, despite the increasing cooling caused by La Niña in the Pacific, 2020 will reach or exceed the record of the hottest year. The planet is warming rapidly but, as the news from Albany makes us understand, the same is true for the movement that wants to counteract the warming. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Paper Recycling: between Detractors and Supporters
Paper Recycling: between Detractors and Supporters
Tuesday, 19th january 2021 | Circular economy

As in all activities, also in the field of recycling there are adverse currents that try to discredit or minimize the competing market. In the paper recycling sector, a study has emerged published in October 2020 in Nature Sustainability by Yale University and University Colleage of London, according to which the production of recycled paper would use more energy from fossil sources than that produced from virgin fibers. According to the researchers, the direct CO2 emissions for the production of an Invercote carton amount to an average of 33 kg. per ton, while the same product made through the use of recycled paper would produce on average about 294 kg. per ton of CO2. However, we must point out some important things to frame this analysis: • Recycled paper supports the world market of the finished product unequivocally in terms of quantity and price containment. The circularity of paper production also passes through the use of renewable energies that significantly reduce the carbon footprint. • Paper recycling is a fundamental pillar in responsible waste management which cannot be renounced. • The calculation of the environmental impact of paper recycling is not attributable only to the finished product, but to the recycling system which is an indispensable industrial activity, on which we can and must work to reduce the carbon impact. • Also in other recycling sectors, plastics for example , there are examples in which the price of virgin raw material costs less of the regenerated one and, if we count the environmental impact to produce one kg. of virgin granule compared to the regenerated one, we would probably see that the recycled granule could have a greater carbon impact. But if in counting what the carbon footprint of a virgin grain really is, also counting the production of the raw material coming from oil refining, the accounts would be different. Eventually the recycling market must be pushed, supported and improved as, without proper waste management, carbon impact accounts would be far more critical than the current ones. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - India Increases the Development of Solar Energy Through an Agreement with Total
India Increases the Development of Solar Energy Through an Agreement with Total
Monday, 18th january 2021 | Renewable energies

Adani Green Energy Limited (AGEL) is one of the largest companies developing, building, owning, managing and maintaining solar and wind energy projects in India a, with a current project portfolio of 13,990 MW. Angel is present in 11 Indian states through wind and / or solar farms and has 54 operational projects and 12 sites under construction in its portfolio, thus helping India on its way to renewable energy. With a view to a growing Indian policy aimed at decarbonisation, Angel has signed a strategic agreement with Total , which has acquired 20% of Angel, after the fruitful collaboration in past years in the area of gas distribution services in India. In fact, in 2018 Total invested in Adani Gas which was responsible for managing gas distribution in cities. Total and Adani have agreed on an investment of $ 2.5 billion in solar assets already operational equal to 2.35 GWac owned by Angel and the right, from part of Total, to a seat on the company's board of directors. Angel, in 2015, started the largest solar park in the world, located in Kamuthi, which produces 648 MW of energy and, to date, has a production of about 3 GW from renewable energies, with another 3 GW under construction and 8.6 GW under development. The company's goal is to arrive by 2025 with a production of 25 GW of renewable energy. For Total, the agreement with Angel will allow to reach gross production of 35 GWp by 2025 with the aim of increasing this capacity by 10 GW per year.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: RadiciGroup Joins the Pinfa Association for Flame Retardants
rNEWS: RadiciGroup Joins the Pinfa Association for Flame Retardants
Monday, 18th january 2021 | rNEWS

RadiciGroup, historic Italian manufacturer of technical polymers, has decided to join the Pinfa association which brings together producers and users of flame retardants. Pinfa - Phosphorus, Inorganic and Nitrogen Flame Retardants Association is one of the sector groups within the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC). Pinfa represents the manufacturing industry and end users of non-halogenated, inorganic and nitrogenous phosphorus flame retardant materials (PIN FR). Pinfa associates share the same vision of continuous improvement of the environmental profile and the health and safety of materials. Consequently, the members themselves seek a dialogue with the users of these products, in order to better identify their needs and find the appropriate technologies. Online with the Group's sustainability strategy, RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers has recently joined Pinfa, the Association of manufacturers and users of self-extinguishing and halogen-free systems headed by Cefic ( European Chemical Industry Council). «This is a further step in the path of attention to safety and the reduction of the environmental impact of our products - said Antonio Nerone, Electrical and Electronic Market expert of RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers. Joining Pinfa also allows us to interact with other industrial companies operating in our same sector, sharing the most recent discoveries and best practices and pooling skills and know-how in the field of self-extinguishing and halogen-free products ». RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers, in fact, in its product range has materials of this type available, especially at the service of the Electrical and Electronics sector. Joining Pinfa allows the Group and other member companies to share information that can facilitate the development of more environmentally friendly fireproof materials, in line with even the most stringent demands of the market. With particular reference to the Electrical and Electronic sector, it is also necessary to take into account the respect of safety regarding the protection from the risk of fire and the preservation of the insulating properties of technopolymers even under conditions of extreme use, without all this necessarily generating an increase in the production costs of end customers. RadiciGroup info.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Post-Consumer Recycled LDPE: 60 Types of Odors Hinder Sale
Post-Consumer Recycled LDPE: 60 Types of Odors Hinder Sale
Thursday, 14th january 2021 | Technical information

The separate collection of plastic packaging is a modern achievement that allows, through recycling, the reuse of exhausted packaging with the double advantage of reducing the 'carbon footprint and the withdrawal of natural resources from the earth to create new products. However, much still needs to be done in the recycling sector as the share of plastic that is collected and reused is still far less than what is produced every day. This quantitative imbalance between what is recycled and what is produced again has many causes: • Limited diffusion of separate waste collection in the world • Difficulty in recycling many multilayer plastic packaging • Low quality of recycled raw material • Lack of a culture of recycling In countries where separate collection has started and is working stably, the production of recycled raw material suffers from a quite negative judgment on the quality of the same, caused by factors that also, but not only, depend on the mechanical recycling chain. This negative evaluation has a significant impact on the sales of the recycled raw material, relegating its use only to certain sectors of use, reducing hence the salable quantities and lowering the average price per ton, which in turn entails a low economic margin for companies that recycle. Furthermore, the less recycled granule you sell , the less plastic waste you can recycle and the greater the problem of its disposal becomes, risking to landfill the precious raw material that could be reused. Among the problems suffered by the recycled raw material, despite the enormous plant development in the sector, that of odor is among the most felt by customers who could use it to produce films, rigid packaging, materials for the construction sector, for the automotive sector, gardening, furniture and many other products. To date, the perception of the smell of a plastic raw material coming from post-consumption is entrusted, in a completely empirical way, to a nasal sensation of those who produce it and those who use it, who evaluate both the type and intensity of odors present in the recycled plastic in an extremely subjective way. Evaluation that you can then collide with the end customer who will buy the product and will give a further personal evaluation of the smell. The human nose is certainly an excellent tool, but each person perceives odorous solicitations in a completely personal way, which is why in particular cases, groups of people are hired who together make assessments on the odors to be intercepted. If we take for example the plastics recycling chain, starting from separate collection, we have seen that LDPE bags and flexible packaging that go to recycling, bring with them a very high number of chemicals that generate odors in the recycling chain. The detection of the sources of odors has not been studied through empirical sensory methods, therefore through the human nose, but through a chemical investigation carried out by one laboratory machine which consists of a gas chromatograph with an ion mobility spectrometer. This tool analyzed the chemical components, within a large sampling of recycled LDPE from separate waste collection, identifying 60 types of substances chemicals that generate odors. The sampling analyzed came from the traditional mechanical recycling cycle in which the material is selected, shredded and washed with a stay in water of about 15 minutes . The most common smells perceived by the human nose of this sampling were: • Molds • Urine • Cheese • Earth • Fecal • Soap • Coffee • Sweaty • Pepper These families of perceived odors are created by approximately 60 chemical compounds that are associated during the collection and processing of recycled plastic. Some critical points have been identified:  The separate waste collection bag which contain the domestic plastic packaging to be selected in which we find different types of polymers, may contain residues of substances such as detergents, food, oils, disinfectants, chemicals, creams and many others. This mixture of different chemical elements can bind to the surface of the plastic but, depending on the time of association, it could also penetrate inside.  The selection between the various plastics , through optical reader machines, creates a certain percentage of error which translates into the possibility of have quantities of mixed plastics within the selected fraction.  The washing phase of the plastic ground has the function of further dividing, by density, the plastics introduced and has the purpose of clean them of any product residues that the packages have contained or have come into contact with. With the exception of PET, the other polymers from separate collection are generally washed in cold water, a process that does not significantly affect the cleaning process in order to reduce odors.  The extrusion phase of the washed material, for the formation of the granule, could lead to a degradation of the raw material in which they are present fractions of polymers other than the main one which will then melt at different temperatures. This can cause the formation of chemical elements that will give rise to odors. Intervening on these phases would lead to significant improvement in the quality of post-consumer polymers produced, not only through a reduction in the types and intensity of odors, but it would also improve their technical performance. The analytical control of odors , through tools that detect their chemical genesis, can help not only in the certification phase of the odor level of the final raw material in an unequivocal and no longer empirical way, but would also give important support in the creation of recipes on the types of raw materials to be used during the recycling phases of plastic waste, on the identification of the best sources and on the results of production processes in the plant (selection, washing and extrusion). Reducing odors and improving the quality of the post-consumer granule would lead to the opening of new markets in which the material could be used first recycled instead of virgin with an environmental, economic and industrial advantage. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Eni Rewind Signs an Agreement for the Circular Economy in Bahrain with Noga
rNEWS: Eni Rewind Signs an Agreement for the Circular Economy in Bahrain with Noga
Thursday, 14th january 2021 | rNEWS

The management of waste, water and soil lead the Italian player to provide integrated assistance and consultancy not only in the energy sector but also in the circular economy in Bahrain. The National Oil and Gas Authority of the Kingdom of Bahrain NOGA and the environmental company of Eni will collaborate in promotion of joint initiatives for the efficient recovery of water, soil and waste. In the presence of H.E. Mohamed Bin Khalifa Al Khalifa , minister of oil of Bahrain and president of the National Oil and Gas Authority of the Kingdom of Bahrain (NOGA), and of Claudio Descalzi , Chief Executive Officer of Eni, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed today between NOGA and Eni Rewind, Eni's environmental company. The agreement, signed in videoconference by H.E. Naser Sultan AlSowaidi, Chief Executive Officer of the National Oil and Gas Authority (NOGA) of the Kingdom of Bahrain and Paolo Grossi, Chief Executive Officer of Eni Rewind, aims to identify and promote joint initiatives for the management, recovery and the reuse of water and soil resources and waste in Bahrain , in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development approved by the United Nations. The signing of the agreement, which marks a step forward in the collaboration already started between NOGA and Eni in the energy sector, will help to identify further areas of collaboration for the development of innovative circular economy solutions, in line with the three principles of reducing, reusing, recycling. Eni Rewind will contribute to the partnership by providing its environmental know-how, the experience gained and the best technologies for the management and enhancement of water, soils and industrial waste. S.E. Nasser Sultan Al Suwaidi commented: «NOGA is pleased to sign the memorandum with Eni Rewind, which represents an important step in the collaboration between Eni and NOGA, providing for the launch of new environmental initiatives in areas of common interest. The initiatives covered by the agreement promoted by NOGA's Water Resources Management Unit are in line with our ten initiatives for environmental sustainability and integrated management of water resources. Thanks to the memorandum, Eni Rewind will offer NOGA the advanced technological skills that Eni's environmental company possesses in the management, treatment and recovery of soil, water and waste resources ». « Eni Rewind , thanks to a consolidated experience in reclamation and waste management as Eni's global contractor - commented Paolo Grossi , Chief Executive Officer of Eni Rewind - is gradually developing environmental projects and services for clients outside the group, both in Italy and abroad, in the countries in which Eni operates. We are very honored and eager to participate in environmental projects in the Kingdom of Bahrain through this important partnership with NOGA signed today. A step that testifies to the mutual desire to consolidate alliances for sustainable development, in order to face together the challenge of the energy transition for the protection of the environment and the regeneration of natural resources, a path undertaken by Eni since 2014 ". Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. ENI editorial

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Toxicology of Plastics: Phthalates in Plasticizers
Toxicology of Plastics: Phthalates in Plasticizers
Wednesday, 13rd january 2021 | Technical information

With the advent of polypropylene on the market, following the discovery made by Giulio Natta in the 1950s, which earned him the Nobel , the traditional glass and metal packaging products, were quickly replaced by plastics for greater lightness, safety, pleasantness and economy. The the food packaging industry experimented with various polymers, including PVC , used both in rigid structures and in protective films for packaging. Polymers, including PVC, need additives to be able to shape them in production, to make them flexible and, at high temperatures, to avoid degradation. The choice of additive to use depends on the polymer to which it is to be bound and the final application of the product to be made. The plasticizer is an additive widely used to make food packaging and must have precise and standardized characteristics: • Chemically inert • Easily mixable with polymer • It must not create the exudation effect, i.e. migration to the surface • It must be heat-sealable • Must be photo weldable • Must not be volatile Among the most common plasticizers we find Phthalates , a family of products that perfectly matches the demands of the production and distribution chain required for packaging. Phthalates do not bind chemically to PVC but act as additives creating the best conditions for the polymer to take on greater flexibility. The major families of phthalates used in PVC for the realization of the packaging fall under the abbreviations DEHP, DIDP and DINP , enclosing different physico-chemical properties depending on the lengths of the alkyl chains of the ester functional group. The main characteristics of Phthalates are: • Fat soluble • Not very soluble in water • Odorless • Colorless • Volatile Phthalates are not found only in food packaging but in many products in common use such as toys, rainwear, car interiors, home upholstery, tires, adhesives, sealants, paints, external curtains, cables, cosmetics, perfumes, medical devices such as catheters, transfusion bags and many other products. Due to their very widespread diffusion it is important to know what effects on humans the unregulated diffusion of phthalates in the environment could have, as they are products that persist in water, air and soil, entering the animal food chain and, consequently, man. The damage I can cause to humans concerns the action that Phthalates have as endocrine disruptors, which were already studied in 2009 by the Endocrine Society , which confirmed the harmful effects of these endocrine disruptors on physiologically sensitive systems to hormones, such as: • Brain • Testicles and prostate in males • Ovaries and uterus for females • Pituitary gland • Thyroid • Cardiovascular system • Pancreas • Adipose tissue • Mammary glands • Neuroendocrine system of the hippothalamus The EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) in 2019 redefined the maximum limits of use of four of the five most used phthalates in polymers (DBP, BBP, DEHP and DINP) indicating the maximum tolerable daily dose by humans which corresponds to 0.05 mg./Kg. bodily. These data take into account the use of virgin polymers but, in consideration of the life cycle of end-of-life plastics in environment, with the possibility that phthalates can transfer into food chains , it would be necessary to create a chain of control over the supply chain. As for recycled plastic , given the easy diffusion of these chemical agents in the environment, a greater performance in quantitative terms of the recycling compared to the virgin plastic produced would also be a necessary environmental objective. Furthermore, the transformation of plastic waste into a new raw material would impose an analytical control of the chemical substances inside it, through a analysis instrument such as a gas chromatograph combined with an ion mobility spectrometer, which characterizes the chemical components that will go on the market. However, it is also recommended in the use of virgin raw material for food use, even if not directly related to packaging, for example plastic tubes for the transport of drinking water , produced according to the UNI 1622 standard, which concerns smells and tastes of the liquid transported, which could over time release substances incompatible with human health. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Doing Things Well but Communicating Them Badly: + 1 - 1 = 0
Doing Things Well but Communicating Them Badly: + 1 - 1 = 0
Wednesday, 13rd january 2021 | General News

Is it possible to be an all-rounder? Difficult. Entrepreneurs don't improvise , you don't get up one morning and decide that by the afternoon you can make a product or a service you do not know. You do not acquire the technical, productive and distributive notions in a limited period of time, but they come from a clear and thoughtful reasoning in which you they balance pros and cons, technique and dedication, effort and ability, time and result. Emerging in today's interconnected market is really difficult, your product or service must be well thought out and you must devote the utmost care and attention to it. the maximum effort to give your customers a result that is not only useful in their life, but probably better than the average of the competition. Globalization has changed distribution systems and, while they offer many opportunities, they have the drawback of being extremely crowded with more or less valid proposals, in which companies struggle to have a correct showcase of themselves. Making good products or good services today is no longer enough if you don't know how to communicate your qualities and prerogatives to the market . Years ago it was enough to have a website, to make fairs, to have commercial collaborators who proposed your company. Today things have changed, in a radical way, as the internet is increasingly crowded and the proposals multiply by reducing attention of your potential customers. Trade fairs go through difficult periods and the sales network, also thanks to the company management costs, are in direct competition with online sales. Getting noticed on the net, having the opportunity to find the right attention for your company in order to capture new customers, involves commitment and dedication. Corporate communication is a cornerstone of every big or small company , because on the internet we are all the same, but we can differentiate ourselves in based on the content we create and the loyalty we build with our potential customers. Blogs, Newsletters, social pages and corporate articles are a valid help to the entrepreneur who wants to grow his company in his own territory or abroad. Thinking of saving on communication means closing the gate of your company and disconnecting the phones and electricity while waiting for the end. Correct, qualitative, punctual and professional communication creates an important reputation that will give you the right boost in your business, without taking time away from you and to your staff to focus on what you are good at. I invite you to view the communication services and promotion services that could help your company.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Total Strengthens Natural Gas Business with Fonroche Biogaz
rNEWS: Total Strengthens Natural Gas Business with Fonroche Biogaz
Monday, 11st january 2021 | rNEWS

Total's energy diversification continues, not only in the solar energy field, but also through acquisitions of renewable energy producers such as Biogas.Total announces the acquisition of Fonroche Biogaz , a company that designs, builds and operates anaerobic digestion units in France. With nearly 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) of installed capacity, doubled between 2019 and 2020, Fonroche Biogaz is today the leader of French market in the production of renewable gas with a market share of over 10% thanks to a portfolio of seven units in operation and a pipeline of four upcoming projects. Drawing on the skills of its 85 employees, Fonroche Biogaz has developed industrial and technological expertise along the entire renewable gas value chain. Its integration marks a significant step in Total's development on the renewable gas market, with prospects for rapid growth on the French market and international diffusion. "This acquisition is consistent with our climate footprint strategy and plans to reach Net Zero by 2050. We believe renewable gas plays a role key to play in the energy transition as it helps reduce the carbon intensity of natural gas - and we support the imposition of renewable gas blending in natural gas networks ", explains Philippe Sauquet, President Gas, Renewables & Power by Total . "In 2020 we declared our intention to contribute to the development of this sector, which we expect to become more competitive in the next few years. We intend to produce 1.5 terawatt- hour (TWh) of biomethane per year by 2025 and Fonroche Biogas is therefore the cornerstone of our development in this market. " "We are proud to join the Total Group, which has shown a strong vision and ambition by launching a massive and sustainable investment program in renewable energy. Our integrated business model combined with Total's strength and global reach gives us a positive and sustainable outlook for the future. Their excellent track record in the solar sector, both in terms of the duration of their investments and strong growth, confirmed our decision to combine the expertise of the Fonroche Biogaz teams with this French energy major, "said Yann MAUS, President and Founder of Fonroche Group. With this acquisition, Total becomes a major player in renewable gas in France and in Europe, and strengthens in significantly its presence in the sector, already effective through its affiliates Méthanergy (combined production of heat and energy from biogas), PitPoint and Clean Energy (production of biomethane and distribution through a network of Bio-CNG / Bio-LNG stations) respectively in Benelux and the United States. In December 2020, Total signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Clean Energy to establish a $ 100 million 50/50 joint venture to develop renewable gas production in the United States. By 2030, Total plans to produce 4 to 6 TWh of biomethane per year. Editorial team of Total Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: RadiciGroup Launches a new MeltBlown Plant for Masks
rNEWS: RadiciGroup Launches a new MeltBlown Plant for Masks
Monday, 11st january 2021 | rNEWS

Through the Meltblow process, among the most innovative for the treatment of non-woven fabric, it is possible to create products that have high softness, elasticity, wettability and resistance both longitudinal and transversal.RadiciGroup continues its commitment to deal with the health emergency by making an important investment for the acquisition of a new production line of meltblown material used for the production of protective masks and other PPE. The Group - at the forefront since the beginning of the pandemic in the fight against the spread of Covid-19 with the activation, in a very short time, of a local supply chain to the production of gowns and other devices in spunbond non-woven fabric - quickly matured the decision to also focus on the production of meltblown, another type of TNT not present on the Italian market, but indispensable in the production of > surgical masks . «In the midst of the pandemic - said Maurizio Radici , Vice President and COO of RadiciGroup - the lack of availability of meltblown was evident. We ourselves continued to receive dozens and dozens of requests from potential customers: meltblown is a material produced in minimal quantities in Europe and certainly not enough to meet the needs in health emergency. Since we have a consolidated experience in the world of non-woven fabrics, we moved quickly to understand how to develop a made in Italy supply chain for PPE and, as soon as we the opportunity to do something concretely is presented, we had no hesitation ». RadiciGroup's investment is 15 million euros for the meltblown production line: the new plant, under construction installation, is extremely sophisticated, technologically advanced and of considerable size: it has a high productivity and allows the creation of products with particular technical characteristics, not only in polypropylene , but also based on other polymers such as polyester, polyamide and TPU. The machine is located inside Tessiture Pietro Radici SpA, a Group company based in Gandino (Bergamo ), where space adaptation works were also carried out. RadiciGroup press release

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Polymeric Coatings for Metal Food Packaging
Polymeric Coatings for Metal Food Packaging
Saturday, 9th january 2021 | Technical information

Metal boxes for food preservation have a long history but, if in the past, they had deficiencies from the hygienic and toxicological point, especially in because of the welds that were made in Sn-Pb alloy, currently the quality of the manufactured products are much better. Today the protection of food is mainly entrusted to the polymeric layer of inner coating , called coating , which stands between the metal wall and the contained food. The primary function of this barrier is to protect food products from light, oxygen, enzymes, humidity, pollutants and microorganisms that would result in the modification of the structure of the food and its quality. The aim is also to increase the useful life of the food or the drink which in normal, that is, not canned, it would deteriorate more quickly, as the biochemical and enzymatic reactions and the activity of microorganisms would normally run their course. Therefore, to increase the life of the food, the metal packages are normally coated with synthetic resin film applied to the metal sheet again flat, film with a thickness of a few microns. The choice of the type of resin depends on its mechanical, chemical or thermal characteristics based on the content they must host. Below we can list the main ones: • Rosin consists mainly of abietic acid, which is normally added with ZnO to control the chemical reactions that are formed through the sulfur amino acids of proteins. • Vinyl resins are from the family of thermoplastic resins, normally PVC, which have excellent resistance to acids, but have the defect to absorb food pigments. • Phenolic resins are composed through the polymerization of formaldehyde and phenol which have excellent resistance to heat treatments, PH and to fats. Through the formaldehyde content we can identify two families of phenolic resins: Novolacche (thermoplastic) and Resoli (thermosetting). • Epoxy Resins are thermosetting resins consisting of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin which are the most common coating in canned foods, especially in fish-based foods in oil. • Polyester resins are thermosetting resins obtained from different monomers such as phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride or fumaric acid, integrated with vegetable oils and pigments. They have the characteristic of flexibility giving this characteristic to the metal wall layer. • Epoxy-Phenolic Resins are the result of the polymerization of epoxy resins with phenolic ones through catalysts. They are used as a transparent coating for many metal cans that contain oil, vegetable or pet food preserves. As regards the toxicological characteristics there are specific legal regulations that place limits on the possible migration of packaging substances into food, in which both specific migration and global migration are considered. However, the scientific community has given new impetus to studies and research on the toxicological aspects relating to plastics used in the food industry, with particular attention no longer to the single element that constitutes the packaging, but takes into consideration the cocktail effect that is given by all the elements that come into contact with food translated over time and with different thermal characteristics. Undoubtedly the food or drink contained in the packaging at the time of packaging has certain characteristics, but over time and in different climatic conditions , the quality of the food that arrives on the table could be different. Therefore it would be advisable to verify it through a chemical analysis, on a sample, with an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph and a spectrometer ion mobility that, in a simple and rapid way, will give the photograph, analytical, of the quality of food or drinks. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Giulio Natta: the Genius of Chemistry Applied to Plastic
Giulio Natta: the Genius of Chemistry Applied to Plastic
Friday, 8th january 2021 | History

He received the Nobel Prize for having invented polypropylene | Let’s get to know him better. Through the study of macromolecules and “polymer catalysts” Giulio Natta realized the potential of chemistry applied to plastic. Giulio Natta was born in Porto Maurizio (I) on 26 February 1903 by Francesco Maria, magistrate and by Elena Crespi who worked for the education of Giulio at an early age. He graduated with great advancement at the age of 16 at the classical high school in Genoa, later specializing in mathematics. In 1921 he enrolled in the faculty of industrial engineering at the Polytechnic of Milan where he was assistant to Professor Bruni at the general chemistry department. Always ahead of its time in 1924, he graduated at the age of 21. Then in 1925 he accepted a scholarship in Freiburg, Germany, at Professor Seemann’s laboratory, dealing with macromolecules. It is here that natta realized the importance and potential of the macromolecules that he continued to study on his return to Milan studying the crystalline structure of polymers. Between 1925 and 1932 he was professor of chemistry at the Milan Polytechnic and in 1933 he won the competition to become professor of general chemistry at the University of Pavia and in 1935 he moved to the La Sapienza University of Rome and in 1937 to the Polytechnic of Turin. The following year he returned to the Milan Polytechnic which he left after 35 years in 1973. During this long career Natta was able to experiment with numerous studies such as the production of Butadiene, he collaborated with the Montecatini firm dedicating himself almost exclusively to industrial chemistry. From 1952 Natta began to take an interest in the discoveries of Karl Ziegler who succeeded in synthesizing linear polyethylene in 1953, while the following year Natta succeeded in producing the first polypropylene samples. At this point, Montecatini sponsored the collaboration between the two scientists, leading to the creation of an international laboratory that involved many scholars who led to the discovery of isotactic polymers, registered under the trade name of Moplen . The discovery of the Ziengler-Natta catalysts yielded to both of them the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1963. But what exactly did the two scientists discover enough to win the Nobel Prize? In 1953 Karl Ziegler discovered that a mixture of TiCl4 and AlEt3 (aluminum triethyl) catalyzed the polymerization of ethylene in polyethylene. Giulio Natta discovered that this catalyst was not usable for the production of polypropylene polymers, in fact, with this catalyst only oligomers of high propylene content were obtained. In 1954 Natta and Ziegler discovered a new recipe of Dietil Aluminum Chloride and DEAC which gave a high yield of isotactic polypropylene . At this point Montecatini began industrial production with considerable commercial success.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Is Certified Recycled Plastic for Food Safe? There are those who say No
rNEWS: Is Certified Recycled Plastic for Food Safe? There are those who say No
Thursday, 7th january 2021 | rNEWS

The legislation on the use of recycled plastic in food packaging, especially as regards PET, is moving towards widespread use both in the beverage sector and in food trays . Having obtained certification from EFSA, manufacturers are using post-consumer recycled plastic in food packaging. the doubt that arises from many parts concerns the certainty or not of the possible transfer by the recycled plastic, of harmful substances that can migrate to man, as the checks are made not on the food contained in the packaging but on the production processes. The article by below describes the problem through the interview with Floriana Cimmarusti is Secretary General of Safe Food Advocacy Europe (SAFE). Until now, companies have not used recycled plastics in food packaging due to safety concerns. But times are changing and they seem ready to reconsider their position: the EU is about to authorize more than 100 “safe” recycling processes for food contact applications. Floriana Cimmarusti is Secretary General of Safe Food Advocacy Europe (SAFE), a non-profit organization based in Brussels: spoke about the toxicity risks in recycled plastic packaging. We propose below the translation of the interview that he gave to the Euractiv news magazine. “The risk of toxic substances contaminating food already exists with virgin plastic, so it will only be higher with recycled packaging from old plastics that may contain banned chemicals ”says Floriana Cimmarusti. Companies like Tetra Pak have never used recycled plastics in food packaging due to safety concerns. They now appear ready to reconsider their position ahead of the EU decision to authorize more than 100 "safe" recycling processes for food contact applications. So what has changed? Are recycling processes now safer? No, it's just that those recycling processes will now be formally authorized for use in food contact applications. Therefore Tetra Pak and other companies will be legally protected if they use recycled plastics that have been manufactured using these authorized processes. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has already given a favorable opinion on these recycling processes, therefore as soon as the European Commission will approve them through the comitology procedure, it will become law. Legally, food packaging companies will then be able to use all the recycled plastics they want. And in case something goes wrong, they will be protected by EU law against potential litigation by consumer groups. Without this type of authorization, it would be very risky for companies to use recycled plastics. Food packaging companies have no interest in seeing a scandal break out over the safety of their products. So they have to trust that at least some of these processes are indeed safe. I'm sure they believe the system is safe. But as soon as the EU approves the process, they will not face any legal risk, which is a key point for them. Recycled plastic can come from very different places and contamination can happen very easily, for example when people mix the trash they goes into their containers for recycling. Can a standard procedure approved at EU level actually ensure that no contamination occurs? PET is the only type of plastic that is easier to clean in the recycling process, and therefore considered the safest after recycling. But there will always be a risk. Many types of plastics absorb chemicals during waste management and it is very difficult during recycling to eliminate them. For example, it is a challenge to introduce sorting systems that separate food contact materials from non-food plastics. The risk of toxic contaminating food is already present with virgin plastics, so it will only be higher with recycled plastics than old plastics that may contain highly toxic and prohibited chemicals. For example, levels of oligomers (unintentional by-products of plastic that migrate into food) are higher in recycled plastic than in plastic virgin. Some tests have also shown that migration levels in vegetable oils are higher with recycled plastics than with virgin plastics. Also, a lot of unidentified contaminants were found in recycled plastic that we don't find in virgin plastic. These contaminants come from cross-contamination during waste management. Finally, a lot of additives are found in recycled PET that are absent in virgin plastics or present in much smaller quantities, and these additives have been shown to have higher migration rates in recycled plastics than in virgin plastics. Thus, the risk of contamination with recycled plastic is clearly higher than that of virgin plastic. The European Commission is preparing to approve 140 new recycling processes for use in food contact applications such as packaging. EFSA has already expressed a favorable opinion to all but 3 of them, in which the assessment was inconclusive. What do you know about these 140 recycling processes? Am I really safe? I do not think that the risk assessment procedure used by EFSA can give us full certainty that recycled plastics are safe. As I said, many types of plastics absorb chemicals during use and waste management, which are difficult to remove during recycling. Furthermore, it is important to remember that EFSA's risk assessment focuses on starting the recycling process, not on the finished product that comes out at the end. Therefore, there is no serious analysis of chemicals at the end of each recycling process. And this data is currently lacking. Furthermore, the cumulative exposure is not taken into account by EFSA when the exposures are estimated. Now, most of these recycling processes involve PET plastic, which is one of the few exceptions that allows for quite thorough cleaning during recycling. However, even in PET, plastic polymers often degrade during use and recycling. And this can result in oligomers that can migrate into food. Brominated flame retardants have been found regularly in plastic articles intended for materials in contact with food, which clearly indicates that waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was used in the process. And this is clearly not allowed. So better application is needed to improve this situation. Was there a sufficient amount of control over these 140 EFSA-approved recycling processes? No, due to the questionable EFSA risk assessment procedure. We must not forget that some of the data submitted to EFSA by the complainant companies are confidential trade secrets , as for glyphosate. In the case of glyphosate, part of the data, the important one, has been obscured from the official text. I'm afraid the same happens with those recycling processes. So we can't read all the data. And there is no scientific review of the data presented by an independent laboratory. Clearly, there isn't enough research to tell us whether or not recycled plastic is dangerous for consumers. So I think it's a little too fast to adopt 140 methodologies in such a short time. We simply don't know how many chemicals there will still be at the end of the recycling process and what kind of migration will take place in the food. In an ideal world, how would a safe recycling process for food contact applications work? An independent research center should conduct the risk assessment. And the data required for this assessment should be collected by an independent organization, not by the industry that requires approval of the recycling process. We shouldn't just trust the research done by companies, which is what's happening right now. We believe there should be no compromise between consumer safety and economic profit. The Commission wants to use an accelerated approval procedure for those 140 recycling processes, which means that Parliament and the Council will not have the opportunity to check decisions before they are made. How does it feel? We don't feel comfortable with that. The European Parliament should be involved so that consumer health can be adequately protected. It is really a pity that Parliament cannot say anything about it. Plastic is lightweight and economical, making it a convenient option for food packaging. So what are the green alternatives? An alternative could be glass because it does not cause the migration of chemicals into food. With aluminum or plastic, there is. Of course, it would not be practical to pack everything in glass - it is heavy, it can break, etc. And the problem with bio-based alternatives is that they aren't strong enough. But there are some alternatives. We are campaigning with restaurants and bars to encourage them to use alternatives to disposable plastic cups for coffee and tea, such as bamboo. When you put something hot in plastic, there is more migration of chemicals, so the campaign raises awareness of alternatives. You can also use reusable steel containers or try to sell as many plastic free or bulk products as possible. More and more stores sell products such as pasta, nuts, sweets or rice in pieces that customers put in cotton bags that they take to shop. Related Articles Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian. Veganoc Observatory

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Wind turbines: Increase their Height to Reduce the Number
Wind turbines: Increase their Height to Reduce the Number
Wednesday, 6th january 2021 | Renewable energies

How to increase the production of electricity by reducing the number of wind turbines on the territory. The compelling the need to increase the production of energy from renewable sources has led to the development of many projects in the area in different fields: wind, solar, thermal, biomass, wave motion and other projects under study. If on the one hand the population is well aware of the importance of using and, therefore, of producing clean energy, from an institutional and governmental point of view, bureaucracy it often puts new green projects in difficulty. From the point of view of the production of wind energy in the area, the presence of the blades can create an environmental disturbance , as often they do not integrate optimally with the landscape, especially if in the presence of protected areas in artistic-artistic fields. The industry is meeting these needs through the production of wind farms that count on a smaller number of blades per area considered, but with a greater height of the shaft which creates a greater extension of the rotation area. A “repowering” project, for example, which is being carried out at ERG in Sardinia, in the municipalities of Nulvi and Ploaghe, with the aim of replacing the old blades with a series of plants whose height will increase from 76 to 180 meters, but their number would increase from 51 to 27, achieving, at the same time, a greater production of energy . Despite the negative opinion with respect to the repowering project by the Region of Sardinia and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage , local authorities such as municipalities of the area are in favor of the project, as the company Erg will recognize a commission on the energy produced by the wind farm, thus helping them to support themselves financially in a period of reduction generalized monetary flows to municipalities. The union FilctemCgil is also in favor of the project as it would allow you to maintain employment in an area where finding work is complicated Furthermore, it is not clear how a project to replace blades can be blocked in an area where they already existed and above all by reducing their number. For once the Nimby syndrome , not in my garden, for once it doesn't matter. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Environmental protection in the indications of monotheistic religions
Environmental protection in the indications of monotheistic religions
Tuesday, 5th january 2021 | Environment

Christians, Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus and Jews, in different forms, united to preserve the world The protection of the environment has entered forcefully into the popular objectives of the main world monotheistic religions, not that it is a novelty to be treated in a time of danger for our planet, but a form of renewal of the ancient teachings on the relationship between man and land.  The communication forms may be different , the perspectives for looking at problems can change, the arguments can be exposed starting from further or closer, but the common point of the main monotheistic religions is respect for creation.  Five years ago, Pope Francis circulated the Encyclical Laudato Si , which is entirely dedicated to the protection of the planet, taking up the Canticle of the Creatures written by St. Francis in admiration of creation. Treating the subjects in a pastoral and unscientific way, in the encyclical we talk about pollution and climate change, the relationship with water, biodiversity, social degradation, iniquity, weakness in reactions and diversity of opinions. In oriental, Buddhist and Hindu religions unlike the others, the concept of cosmic logic contemplates man as part of creation, with a joint and interdependent relationship with nature and therefore, in an environmentalist logic, the protection of the habitat is part an integral part of the life of the faithful. For Hindus , respect and care for the environment are first of all a spiritual question of approach to life, and secondly an ethical-moral question of a social and civil nature. Individual Hindu spirituality draws its life from the natural context in which the believer lives and, the environment, is one of the means that bring the faithful to the knowledge of happiness. For Buddhists, every entity, animal, human or vegetable, cannot be represented as being independent of its surroundings, because all existential phenomena are interdependent. Buddhism denies any form of violence against any being and proclaims respect for life in all the forms in which it manifests itself. Judaism intervenes decisively in social policies as regards respect for the nature in which we live, which is represented within the Torah, the doctrine written three thousand years ago, in which we taught to live in respect of natural resources and in harmony with the environment. Jews are careful not to cut down trees, divert the course of rivers, install production near inhabited centers that can create pollution, waste water and other restrictions. The Islamic religion , through the moral law, brings the faithful to the awareness of the recycling of water, the sharing of means of transport, the consumption of local food, the use of solar panels on mosques, the printing of the Koran also on recycled paper and other ecological directions.  Metaphors often occur in the Koran, such as that of water, where God asks men to account for their behavior towards the environment he has created, and being man a messenger of God, he must feel obliged to keep what he has received. He also recommends the pilgrimage to Mecca , to which every Muslim once in his life must arrive, through an eco-sustainable journey. In Mecca every year about 2 million faithful are expected and the indications that are given to the faithful also concern the attention to plastic bottles and the wrapping for the food consumed. In general we can say that the ecological aspect permeates every ecclesiological and dogmatic area , since the spiritual aspect and its dimension cannot be separated from a correct relationship with creation.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled pbt: technical characteristics and uses
Recycled pbt: technical characteristics and uses
Tuesday, 5th january 2021 | Technical information

Where and how to use PBT ground.Recycled PBT is normally found in the form of post-industrial ground coffee, especially coming from food production or from electrical appliances or machines with electrical components. Its chemical structure and its characteristics have a similarity with PET , as they are both partially crystalline thermoplastic materials but, in PBT, we find a faster crystallization time which puts it in an advantageous situation in injection molding compared to PET. If we consider a basic PBT, so without added charges, we have the following standard features: -Density: g / c3 1.30-1.32 -Modulus of elasticity: Mpa 2,500-2,800 -Elongation at yield:% 3.5-7 -Melting temperature: ° C 220-225 -Deformation temperature HDT: ° C 50-65 (1.8 MPa) -Electrical rigidity: kV / mm 25-30 The use of PBT is normally aimed at injection molding, using a melt temperature between 230 and 270 ° C and of the mold, defined ideal, around 110 ° C. To join pieces molded with this material, ultrasonic welds are normally used or uses the temperature of a hot-head tool or special glues based on reactive resins. Since PBT is a comparable product with PET, we see which features differentiate it from this. First of all, PBT has a low temperature tenacity better than PET, while strength and stiffness are slightly lower. If we talk about the characteristics of sliding and shrinkage, we can say that in the PBT they are definitely good, while from the point of view of the characteristics of electrical insulation, the product offers excellent insulation, whose characteristics do not undergo marked influences in the presence of water absorption , of high temperature and frequency. The fields of use are normally those of components for valves, roller or plain bearings, pump parts, parts of household appliances, wheels, coffee machines and pods. As far as the recycled product is concerned, it is very important that in the waste management phase, on the machine, the product is collected in special, clean containers that do not contain different plastics and are isolated from other waste materials to avoid contamination. From the aesthetic point of view, the trimming of the waste of trimmings or of the unsuitable product must be done taking care to accurately clean the mill, so that there are no foreign plastic parts left inside it that could pollute the PBT. After bagging the ground material, it is recommended to keep it indoors and use it after it has dried, by passing it through a clean silo, to remove any remaining moisture. The ground in PBT can be used both in direct and compound molding, in order to create recipes tailored to the customer. These recipes may include increasing mass flow, flame retardancy, increasing stiffness through fillers or reinforcing products, increasing resilience or increasing wear resistance.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - What Alternatives to Mechanical Recycling of Post-Consumer Waste?
What Alternatives to Mechanical Recycling of Post-Consumer Waste?
Monday, 4th january 2021 | Circular economy

A system that no longer meets the stringent needs of the circular economy.Ever since the world realized that plastic was recycled in a completely marginal quantity compared to how much was produced and, that the non-recycled part, about 90% ended up in the environment and in the oceans, we have wondered about the available technologies and on the future of recycling. The data are completely alarming, despite the willingness to set up recycling flows in the various countries according to the principles of the circular economy, at least starting from the urban ones that have a significant share of plastic, however, we remain concerned about the amount of plastic waste that can be recycled and reused. It is no longer sufficient to understand that the ham tray or the bottle of water or the tray of polystyrene tomatoes must be collected, separated, collected by the operators and sent to the recycling plants, but it is now necessary to understand, how and how much and at what price you can recycle all the domestic waste we produce. Why in this period we must ask ourselves, more insistently, why should we analyze the problem so carefully? Until a couple of years ago, recycling urban waste, the so-called post-consumption , was an industrial operation where the numbers and the quality of the product mattered most , therefore it was produced to get rid of the waste stocks from the warehouses . Naturally, the waste was separated by type, milled, washed and extruded according to a tested cycle of mechanical recycling. But each operation was aimed at the speed of the plants, the volume produced Ton / hour, with the aim of minimizing the waste, as the landfill costs were very high, so we tried not to throw anything away. But all this had a value until China imported any type of granule, ground and waste, so there was room for everyone at the party . The post-consumer granule producers had become accustomed to composing each type of granule, managing to collect and transform medium-low quality and “garbage” quality granules. Everything was fine, as long as China said enough. Today we find ourselves considering that the enormous quantity of waste that we have to manage in our countries, does not allow us to give answers to the market neither in technical terms, neither in environmental terms nor in economic terms. We find ourselves with the recycling infrastructures lacking in quantitative terms, technologically not adequate to manage the poly-coupled flows sent to China, we do not know how to manage the waste of the fraction of the non-recyclable plastics, there is a widespread adversity of opinion publishes towards waste-to-energy plants and landfills. In the meantime, our consumption trend , which generates even complex plastic packaging, does not decrease, the companies that produce the packaging have not yet taken a decisive step to have completely recyclable packaging and the national governments are still a little on the run in making radical changes (except for the European Community). The situation may have a solution if some situations arise: Increase of the chemical recycling of complex post-consumer plastics and reduction of the mechanical one, which generates poor and difficult to use products.Change of the parameters on the aesthetic quality expected on the products, using recycled granules. Improvement of the separation of waste, starting from the home, to use only those plastics that do not contaminate themselves with other materials (the PET bottle for example).  Increase in the availability of waste-to-energy plants to use the plastic fraction, which should not be recycled, as fuel.  Increase in plants for the creation of biogas and electricity from domestic food waste.  Impositions to the industry to produce more recyclable packaging possibly with single plastics.  Increase in the culture of the durability of plastic against the concept of single use.  Increase in the use of renewable energy for production processes.  Listen more to the young people and women who are most involved in environmental protection both with new ideas and behaviors and in purchasing choices.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Solar energy in the times of the sharing economy
Solar energy in the times of the sharing economy
Sunday, 3rd january 2021 | Renewable energies

How to install solar panels on your home without spending a penny. The concept of sharing goods, as an alternative to ownership, can also be applied today to the production of solar energy, bringing significant benefits to the environment and the circular economy. The Sharing Economy is based on the principle of maximizing the use of the asset by many people who do not own it, instead of having so many underutilized assets. This has a positive impact on the environment , as only what is used in full is produced and raw materials, energy and emissions are saved, for goods they are actually superfluous. The theory of sharing of assets emerged around 2008 , when the global recession led the middle and lower-middle classes to have to invent a way to round their wages or to sustain themselves economically for a certain period having lost their job. The push that generated the new business of sharing goods is to be identified also in the development of the internet through the technological improvement of smartphones, which have allowed a planetary connection between people, bypassing borders, customs and barriers. The concept of sharing has also led to an epochal change of the consumerist model hitherto adopted, based on the social value of private property , on the identification of a status symbol that the goods owned could represent. This is how some companies such as Uber or Airbnb were born, which allow those who need it to have a form of micro enterprise through their assets. A car, a room in the house shared with customers, make it possible to round the family income and to break down the wall of inviolability of the possessions. The concept of globalization that the internet has allowed in recent years has quickly led to a change in local customs and a downward leveling of the economic conditions of services, pushing the concept of maximum expansion of opportunities for all regardless of the standard of living in the country. As for the circular economy , the concept of sharing has also been correctly exploited in the field of solar energy , where, faced with the need to increase the production and use of renewable sources, there was the problem of the initial financing of micro house to house projects. Not all families can shoulder the burden of financing the design and installation of solar panels on their roof , even if the cost of electricity used through solar panels may be lower than that taken from the network. At the same time, renewable energies must know mass diffusion as soon as possible if they want to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere . Today, there are companies that rent solar panels through the sale of the energy produced by the same installed on your home. The owner of the property does not have to think about anything, as the companies that offer this service make the survey and design of the system suitable for your consumption needs, take care of the bureaucratic management of the installation practice and assemble the panels solar, remaining owners and responsible for maintenance. In the face of this service, the homeowner will pay for the consumption of electricity that he uses at a price significantly lower than that which he took from the network. Furthermore, further incentives are envisaged if the unused quantity of energy returned to the network is substantial.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Is the fuel from soybean oil sustainable?
rNEWS: Is the fuel from soybean oil sustainable?
Saturday, 2nd january 2021 | rNEWS

The production of biofuels based first on palm oil and, today. even on soybean oil, it clashes with the need to increase the arable land to increase production based on the growing demand for the market. To do this, farmers are pushing for the availability of new land with the consequence of increasing deforestation in various areas of the planet. This, despite the bans already present worldwide, contributes in an important way to increasing the carbon footprint of the planet. the following article addresses the problem of the sustainability of fuels that define themselves as bio. Banned palm oil as biofuel by 2030, if no action is taken again on European directive on renewable energies , soybean oil could take its place. With the same dramatic consequences for the environment, forests and CO2 emissions. According to the research commissioned to Cerulogy by the NGO Transport & Environment , the thirst for soybean diesel in Europe could increase 2 to 4 times by 2030. Causing the deforestation in Latin America of an area estimated to be between 2.4 and 4.2 million hectares. As much as the surface of a European state such as Slovenia or the Netherlands. With the possible emission of another 38 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere. The consumption of soybean oil doubled in one year Only in 2019, the EU consumed about 1.8 million tons of soybean oil in biodiesel, out of a total of 15 million tons of biofuels. A quantity that could double this year, according to the NGO's estimates. "Imports of soybeans will cause deforestation on an epic scale if we don't change the European law on green fuels," said Cristina Mestre, head of the biofuels area of Transport & Environment. « The solution is there and it's very simple. The European Commission has already decided that palm diesel will no longer be considered green, now it should do the same for soy-derived diesel " The reform of the directive « Renewable Energy - Recast to 2030 » redefines the regulation of biofuels with high and low ILUC risk (Indirect land use change), that is, causing an indirect change of land use but has so far excluded soybean oil. The Commission, to date, has decided to phase out, between 2023 and 2030, only the use of palm diesel. The data elaborated by Cerulogy show that the expansion of soybean cultivation in areas of the globe capable of retaining carbon dioxide could be higher than estimated. Ben 10.5% compared to the 8% estimated at the beginning of 2019. Percentage higher than the minimum threshold of 10% established by the EU Commission precisely to define an 'ILUC high-risk biofuel'. If so, Transport & Environment reiterate, "the EU should already consider soy as a raw material with a high ILUC risk and eliminate its use at the latest by 2030 ". European Commission on Deforestation are underestimated The legislation European Union requires that biofuel raw materials be certified as grown in areas that have not been deforested since 2008. However, indirect expansion, that which is it does not directly take the place of wooded areas and forests, it has not been taken into account. “If all these contributing causes are also taken into account, most of the biofuels used in Europe have very high greenhouse gas emissions. Sometimes even higher than those of fossil fuels ”, say from Transport & Environment. Deforestation in Latin America has not stopped Data in hand, despite political declarations of various governments, deforestation in Latin America has resumed growth since 2014, including in the Brazilian Amazon . In addition, the expansion of pastures that is added to soybean farming has also spread elsewhere, in areas that are equally valuable, but less protected. As in Chaco, a geographical area between Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay and the great Brazilian tropical savannah of the Cerrado. Area that had already been subjected to the preliminary assessment of the European Commission on high ILUC risk raw materials in 2019. Yet 60% of the expansion of soybeans in Brazil has concentrated in the Cerrado in the last two years. "The European policy on biofuels is a complete disaster and is in desperate need of a reset - reiterates Cristina Mestre of Transport & Environment - burning food crops to power our vehicles is actually worse than burning diesel".Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies Rosy Battaglia

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Has Plastic Fallen Victim of Its Success and Ignorance?
rNEWS: Has Plastic Fallen Victim of Its Success and Ignorance?
Wednesday, 30th december 2020 | rNEWS

Plastic has extraordinary qualities that have made our life, through its applications, much more comfortable, safe and economical. These are not sensations but clear and irrefutable data on how cheap, resistant, durable, suitable for food and medical, waterproof, electrically neutral, malleable, mouldable, light, colorable and with a very low carbon impact during production. The media fuss raised by many parties, sometimes driven by non-crystalline interests and by people who have no knowledge of the sector, even on a political level, it attributes to plastic the faults it does not have, such as that of polluting the planet. The problem exists, it must not be denied, but the question must be reduced to two factors: the main one is the habit of man to get rid of his own waste, whatever, in the environment comfortably and the second is that the recycling rates of plastic, as for other products, are still very low, for various reasons that we will see in this article produced by BASF. The topics are dealt with through the interview with Prof. Dr. Helmut Maurer, Principal Jurist at the Waste Management and Recycling Unit from the European Commission, Directorate General for the Environment and to Patricia Vangheluwe, PhD, Director of Consumer and Environmental Affairs at PlasticsEurope. The success of plastics is undisputed, while its negative aspects such as waste disposal are the subject of much discussion. Prof. Dr. Helmut Maurer and Patricia Vangheluwe , PhD, two experts in the plastics industry, discuss their ideas on how to address this global challenge. Plastics affect almost every area of our lives, bringing improvements, convenience and cost savings. For over 100 years, these highly versatile materials have helped shape our world and new plastics are always in development. But as plastic waste accumulates in landfills and oceans, their disposal is now a serious environmental problem. Patricia Vangheluwe, PhD, of PlasticsEurope, and Professor Dr. Helmut Maurer of the European Commission for Waste Management and Recycling, discuss the dilemma facing we meet. For some the word " plastic" has become synonymous with throwaway culture , yet the material makes a huge contribution to our daily lives. Do you think plastic has an image problem? Helmut Maurer : Plastic is a victim of its versatility and its great success. What don't we do with plastic? We even have it in our bodies as part of medical applications. There is no reason to demonize plastic. The problem, from my point of view, is that it is widely overused. We market and produce it as much as possible but then we don't have the tools to manage it properly. Planned obsolescence has become an industrial principle. Patricia Vangheluwe : I agree that plastics suffer from an image problem and that we need to change this situation. For example, we need to do much more to use post-consumer plastic waste as a resource and make people understand that plastic is a valuable material. As a society we have to address this problem because plastic offers enormous possibilities to address social challenges and is one of the most eco-efficient materials around. Increasing consumption has created problems as states make every effort to handle large quantities of plastic as waste. According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), between 22% and 43% of plastic waste ends up in landfills all over the place instead of being reused or recycled. How can we solve this problem?  Maurer : In developing countries, plastic is almost always thrown away, either in landfills or in nature. In Europe too, around 50% ends up in landfills. It is clear that we need to act urgently. What we need is a global ban on landfilling. And we have millions of tons of plastic decomposed into microparticles floating in our oceans - a stream of another 10 to 15 million tons reaches the marine environment every year. We need to talk globally - oceans have no borders. We also need to work on the chemical composition of the materials. It is necessary to make products with materials designed to be recycled and to avoid toxic additives that make recovery difficult. It is a great challenge for the plastics industry. Vangheluwe : I share Helmut's opinion that we must encourage a global landfill ban. When it comes to post-consumer waste, the entire value chain - from plastics manufacturing companies to product manufacturers, retailers and end consumers - can Do more. We have to design products to ensure eco-efficiency, which is not exactly the same as designing for recycling, and in doing this we have to take that into account which will happen with the product at the end of its life. Manufacturing companies have always taken waste very seriously, because from an economic point of view it makes sense to use the resources within the production as efficiently as possible . All the product and application developments they are carrying out are intended to make products lighter, more durable and more functional. This helps to save resources, which has similar positive effects to waste prevention. "We need to do much more to use post-consumer plastic waste as a resource and make people understand that plastic is a valuable material."  Often for industrially advanced countries it is cheaper to ship plastics by ship thousands of kilometers away than to rework them where they were used. Wouldn't it be appropriate to make recycling close to home more economically viable? Vangheluwe : Quality recyclates should be considered products, just like any other product on the market. In a free market, products can be traded; supply and demand govern the market. But it would be good for recyclers to go hand in hand with the value chain close to home to derive more value from these recycled materials. Plastics manufacturers can help recyclers because they have knowledge of the material itself. This information can help determine which markets those products can target and how to perform quality controls. Maurer : As Patricia rightly puts it, manufacturers know their material best and it is extremely important that recyclers have that same knowledge. There is still a lot to do to simplify this knowledge transfer. There are several things we can do to improve internal recycling of plastics. First we can set goals to recycle much more. So we also need to facilitate the markets. We can define end-of-waste criteria and create market demand for high-quality recycling. Burning plastic waste to generate energy is also an industry. As plastic recycling rates worldwide are low, many say it is a key component of the energy mix. Do you believe that waste energy recovery schemes using plastic play a long-term role? Maurer: In principle, the combustion of plastic should be avoided because in combustion we lose the process energy needed to produce the plastic. Combustion will slow down as recycling becomes more tempting. But the reality is that a lot of post-consumer plastic is not suitable for recycling - partly due to harmful materials placed in by manufacturers, such as some flame retardants or phthalates. But we're talking about a moving goal because tomorrow's plastic - the best recyclable plastic - will naturally lead to more recycling. Another important argument against plastic combustion is climate change. Until 2050 we have a maximum budget of 1,000 billion tons of CO2 emissions to be respected if we want to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius. But as we already know, the global reserves of fossil fuels are equal to 2,900 billion tons of CO2. If we were to leave them in the ground, this would force us to recycle more. Vangheluwe : Energy recovery is sometimes the most eco-efficient solution, especially for mixed waste. When this happens from a life cycle perspective, energy recovery makes sense as one of the waste management options. It is hoped that one day there will be an innovation that will allow us to break down mixed plastics that cannot be sustainably recycled into raw materials that can be reused to produce plastic in an economical and eco-sustainable way - this would be an achievement that would help increase the recycling of plastic. “In Europe too, around 50% of plastic ends up in landfills. It is clear that we need to act urgently. What we need is a global ban on landfilling. " How do you think plastic products will evolve in the next 50 years? In which sectors do you see the greatest opportunities and challenges? Maurer : I would like plastic to get rid of its negative image as an omnipresent, cheap and easily decomposable material. But I would like to warn against assuming that the future depends only on more technology. We have to face the fact that a global 5% annual growth rate in plastic production would mean doubling production every 14 years, so that by 2043 we would produce 1,200 million tons per year. This obviously wouldn't be sustainable. Already today, plastic in the marine environment is totally out of control. I think we are producing too many things that we don't really need. Vangheluwe : We will see continuous developments in intelligent packaging and barrier couplings, medical applications such as prosthetics and even lighter composite materials that can be used in structural applications for the automotive and construction markets. Bio-based plastics will continue to be developed and I believe we will have mixed plastics that will be used as a feedstock for plastics over the next 50 years. We will also see an increasing use of CO2 as a raw material, thus closing the entire carbon cycle. This is what is happening now for the production of polyurethanes. If plastics are going to continue to deliver all the benefits it has offered up to now, we will all have to continue working on the challenge of managing waste as garbage and plastic in the environment. I have always believed that technology and innovation can make a difference. With a growing education in proper waste management and innovation, plastics will continue to provide solutions to many of the social challenges that lie ahead. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rMIX: Open your Showcase on the Circular Economy Market in 154 Countries Around the World
rMIX: Open your Showcase on the Circular Economy Market in 154 Countries Around the World
Tuesday, 29th december 2020 | General News

rMIX is the portal dedicated to companies and customers operating in the circular economy sector where it is possible to find offers, requests and company profiles on production and commercial activities. The posts, on products or services, are published on behalf of customers anonymously and free of charge , or, through an annual contract , it is possible to give complete visibility through the publication of company data such as name, address, emails, website and telephone. In case of anonymous and free publication of the posts, when a customer is interested in having information about your product / published service, the portal will send you your contacts. In the case of publication of posts through an annual contract , the customer will immediately see the details of your company and can contact you quickly and direct. Furthermore, through the contract, the customer has the right to have the posts in the highest and most visible positions for customers. The sectors it deals with rMIX are: • recycled plastic, in various forms (granules, ground, densified or bales) • recycled paper • recycled glass • recycled wood • recycled metals (ferrous and non-ferrous) • recycled rubber • recycled fabrics • industrial machines and molds • products made from recycled materials • industrial services • technical or commercial or managerial consultancy • the distribution of products • the search and the job offer It is also possible to open a showcase of your company , through a dedicated profile, in which to insert a text of 300 words, the address, the website, company references and some photographs. The position of your profile within rMIX you choose it based on the category of activities described above, to which you belong and it will always be visible at the top of the posts by category. Through the annual euro contract 79,00+VAT your company profile, translated into 4 languages, will always be traceable and visible to the operators of the circular economy around the world. Ask for more information to join the program rMIX Profile.Connect to rMIX.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The return to old habits: the returning void
The return to old habits: the returning void
Monday, 28th december 2020 | Circular economy

There are not only new methodologies for improving the circular economy Sometimes the solutions to solve the big problems that beset us, such as that of plastic waste, are in the past. Coca Cola, in the 20s of the last century, introduced the concept of the returnable vacuum on glass bottles, managing to recover 98% of what was sold from the market. Often on the Arezio portal there are articles related to the many researches and experiments on new forms of recycling of plastic and non- plastic packaging , which aim to solve the great problem of waste that haunts us. Food packaging, especially plastic bottles, use a durable element to contain the liquids destined for our table, therefore it becomes waste in no time. In reality, until 2011 the market was governed by consumers by three needs: reliability, convenience and performance . The plastic bottle summarized the three characteristics required by consumers and therefore, the producers did not ask themselves the problem of what happened, after a few days from the purchase, to the bottles. Although the recycling of plastic containers had already started for some time through the mechanical waste management system , the large producers did not feel the problem of the environment and therefore continued to support the market, despite knowing that the share of plastic bottles produced compared to what was recycled did not present any kind of balance. In 2012, people began to talk about the pollution of the oceans by plastic waste worldwide, in which bottles were the worthy representatives of this phenomenon. But it was not until 2015 that consumers began to become aware of the problem, multiplying campaigns to protect the environment. People began to understand that of the 9.2 billion tons of plastic produced in the world, about 6.2 have become waste and of this quantity about 91% has not been recycled. Despite this evidence, the major beverage, detergent and industrial liquids companies wavered , did not want to take a position because they were afraid of bringing imbalances in their sales. Then, almost suddenly, companies like Coca Cola or Unilever, Nestlè, Proctor & Gamble, Pespi and others, broke the ice and acquired a new concept in their marketing DNA: environmental sustainability. The word recycling entered the advertising campaigns to satisfy the requests of consumers who demanded a new industrial sustainability and realized that the “green” lever could also have a new commercial value. The recycling market in recent years has undergone enormous changes and huge jolts, among those who pushed to improve and increase its potential and effectiveness to those who subtly waged war, lowering the prices of virgin raw materials , according to the most classic market rules between supply and demand. But there is no going back anyway and this has also been acknowledged by the producers of virgin raw materials who are competing with the large beverage and home care companies, the recycling market, through armored agreements and direct acquisitions . The cost of recycling is in any case a not indifferent burden and, today, contrary to what happened in the past, recycled material no longer has an economic advantage over virgin material. Thus other recycling channels must be found that make the supply chain sustainable. As in the 1920s, forms of product distribution such as the returnable vacuum or the refilling of reusable bottles at authorized distributors, from beer to detergents to soft drinks, to coffee cups as Starbucks and McDonalds do, are being experimented in the world. After realizing that we need to recycle we are slowly understanding that we need to reuse the packaging we buy and maybe we will also understand, I hope soon, that we must learn to consume less .

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https://www.arezio.it/ - “Orange” Defoliant Agent Continues to Pollute Vietnam
“Orange” Defoliant Agent Continues to Pollute Vietnam
Monday, 28th december 2020 | History

U.S. planes sprayed more than 20 million gallons of herbicides In an effort to bend the tenacious and stubborn resistance of North Vietnamese soldiers, U.S. aircraft and helicopters, they sprayed more than 20 million liters of herbicides, including Agent Orange, which contained dioxin, on the country’s rainforests. The conflict between the United States and the Viet Cong regime,backed by China and Russia, has devastated the Asian nation for nearly twenty years, resulting in millions of deaths, mostly among the civilian population. Despite the fact that decades have passed since the end of the conflict, Vietnam continues to suffer the negative effects of that war. The herbicides used by the US military continue to pollute and poison Vietnamese ecosystems and the people who live there. But why did the Americans use these poisons indiscriminately? The U.S. military suffered heavy human casualties in the armed conflict within the Vietnamese jungle, where Viet Cong soldiers, in addition to learning more about the territory and its nature, created frequent ambushes on American soldiers who could not be massively supported by heavy artillery or air raids. The U.S. military strategies, accustomed to handling field battles over open spaces using air cover and heavy artillery, were to try to lure the North Vietnamese army into the open field to exploit the overwhelming military superiority of their army. But the Viet Cong proved to be as cunning and tenacious soldiers enough to induce the U.S. army to enter the jungle or wooded hills, especially near the Cambodian border, to get them out into the open. In this harsh and solitary environment, Americans paid a very high price in human lives and achieved poor military results. The tactics of the North Vietnamese military was called “take the enemy for the belt” which consisted of frequent ambushes within the jungle or in densely wooded environments, where hand-to-hand combat prevented Americans from using the greatest firepower of their army. Unable to bend the resistance of the enemy, the U.S. Army decided to systematically destroy, in a preventive way, the forests in which their soldiers were to advance, to avoid ambushes and to enjoy, at all times, the armed support from the sky and the earth. For this operation they thought to spray, with defoliating agents, the vegetation in order to destroy it and, in some cases, the napalm to burn everything to the ground. The use of the defoliating agent Orange has not only destroyed forests, but also a part of the country’s food crops, due to the presence in the compound of a dioxin-based contaminant that affected many Vietnamese and U.S. military. An article from the University of Illinois and Iowa State University documents the environmental effects of agent Orange sprayed in Vietnam, also taking into account, not only the effects over time of the poison on the population, but also the persistent action that dioxin still has on the food chain. But what is Agent Orange? Olson and co-author Lois Wright Morton explained that Agent Orange was a combination of two herbicides, 2.4-D and 2,4,5-T,which, used individually in agriculture, had a useful life no longer than a few days or weeks in an environment exposed to sunlight. However, during production, the mixing of the two components to create the new herbicide called Agent Orange, formed a toxic byproduct consisting of dioxin TCDD, the most toxic in the dioxy family of chemicals dioxins. Once the dyoxin TCDD enters the environment it can remain alive for decades or even centuries. This is what happened in the Vietnamese territory bombarded by this substance. What was the contamination mechanism? Researchers examined an 870-page USA ID report, as well as a dozen other research reports on contaminated sites, to explain long-term dioxin behavior in all Vietnam campaigns affected by the event. “The path of contamination it begins with the spraying of Agent Orange, the absorption by the leaves of trees and shrubs, the fall of the leaves on the surface of the soil (along with some direct contact of the poisonous compound with the soil), then the attachment of the dioxin TCDD to the organic substance of the soil with the clay particles of the soil. From there, the TCDD dioxin moved with the surface runoff of the water, clinging to sediment particles and settling into wetlands, swamps, rivers, lakes and ponds. The sediment contaminated with TCDD dioxin was – and still is – ingested by fish and shrimp,accumulating in their fatty tissue and food chain in many other fish that form the basis of the Vietnamese diet. Although fishing is now banned at most contaminated sites, prohibitions by the authorities are difficult to enforce and, as a result, dioxin TCDD is still entering the human food supply more than 50 years after the end of the conflict. President Nixon ordered the U.S. military to stop spraying Agent Orange in 1970 also due to the discovery that U.S. soldiers themselves became ill due to dioxin dispersed in the environment.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled Plastic Market 2020: Lights and Shadows
Recycled Plastic Market 2020: Lights and Shadows
Saturday, 26th december 2020 | General News

The world, in 2020, went through a situation of general human, economic and social difficulty with heavy repercussions for all of us. The repeated restrictions on personal freedoms due to Covid are changing our approach also in the business world with the limitations of human contacts and the massive use of internet communication technologies. This brought advantages and disadvantages, but surely there were no different possibilities to continue working and to preserve companies and jobs. In the world of the circular economy , an activity we deal with, the recycled plastic sector has heavily affected by the fall in oil prices, with the consequence of compressing the prices of recycled raw materials to a dangerous point for the financial sustainability of companies. The elimination of the gap, in many cases, between the price of virgin raw materials and recycled ones, has resulted in some sectors not related to food or detergents, a drop in orders for recycled raw materials compared to the past. The upward expectations of the prices of virgin raw materials are not very clear, as, in a macroeconomic framework, the planetary crisis has substantially reduced the consumption of fuels (airplanes, cars, ships, trucks, industries) favoring the increase in the production of virgin plastics at highly compressed prices. Furthermore, in a situation like the one described, countries where the recycling problem is not so felt, the lack of a substantial price gap between the raw material virgin and regenerated, led to a shift in purchases towards virgin raw materials with the loss of entire markets in the sector of recycled raw materials. But 2020 has not passed in vain, there have been visible technological advances that bode well for next year in a new course for post consumer plastics. The research has led to good results on the development of uprecycling , which has the aim of increasing the quality and use of post-consumer plastics, in sectors and on products that until recently they could not be produced with these types of recycled plastics. Sorters, washes, extruders, screen changers, degassers and analytical odor control systems have brought a breath of quality to the recycling chain , substantially improving the raw material. And it is precisely on the control of odors that the battle will be played to increase the use of post-consumer plastics in sectors that still do not use them today. If until yesterday the definition of a odor-related disorder was, not only empirical, but subjective, as it was made through the sensation perceived by the human nose, today, through the laboratory instrument that performs a chemical analysis of the volatiles produced by the samples, nothing will be more subjective and uncertain. Those who use this tool, called an electronic nose in a reductive way , create a certified license for the smell of their own raw material or final product , whose values, analytical and incontrovertible, leave no room for discussion. Those who buy and sell recycled raw materials or products made from post-consumer plastic today have the possibility to certify the levels of the contained products that generate odors. The reasons to see 2021 in the post-consumer recycled plastic sector with a certain cautious optimism, I believe there are, so the gift we can give ourselves is a proactive attitude that accompanies us to improve our life, our work and the environment in which we live.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Post Consumer Plastic: Collection, Recycling and Reuse
Post Consumer Plastic: Collection, Recycling and Reuse
Tuesday, 22nd december 2020 | Circular economy

Post-consumer plastic and recycled plastic polymers that derive from the separate collection of household waste are a relatively recent achievement in a world that is moving towards circularity of goods and resources. In the context of the circular economy , that area of interest that concerns the study and application of methods, production systems and legislative, suitable for recycling end-of-life products, plastic is certainly a primary player in collection, processing and reuse. recycled plastic is defined as post-consumer when the product, in the form of packaging or finished object, fulfills the task for which it is produced and delivered, through separate collection, to mechanical recycling plants, to create new raw material in a sort of continuous circularity. In Italy, the collection of post-consumer waste and its basic selection is entrusted, predominantly, to national consortia, such as Corepla for packaging such as HDPE, PP, LDPE, PET and PS, Coripet for PET packaging only and Conip for rigid packaging from the sector fruit and vegetables, just to name a few. But each country, where separate collection is regulated and organized, has its own national collection structure or structures. Among the most collected and recycled products we find: • LDPE, low density polyethylene, which comes from the collection of flexible packaging, such as bags, films packaging, cover sheets, and rigid packaging such as flower pots. • HDPE, high density polyethylene, which mainly comes from the collection of detergent bottles and liquid cans. • PP, polypropylene , which derives from flexible packaging such as packaging films but also from rigid packaging such as boxes, bumpers, games, chairs, tables, construction products, such as pipes, siphons , grids, crawl spaces, tiles, buckets. • PS, polystyrene, which comes from packaging, jars and many items for the construction and electrical sector, such as sockets for electricity, electrical panels. • PET, polyethylene terephthalate, in post-consumer plastic is mainly expressed by bottles of mineral water and soft drinks. The processing of post-consumer plastic packaging involves in-depth knowledge of the collection chain, of industrial recycling systems of waste and the application of the resulting raw material for the creation of new products. The separate collection of plastic materials, but also of the other collected products, such as glass, metals, wood, paper, rubber contribute significantly to reduce the carbon footprint, to regulate waste management so that it does not go into the environment and to save raw materials that otherwise would have to be extracted from the planet. Collecting waste, recycling it, creating new raw materials from waste, producing new products through the circularity of the production and consumption system is one of the keys, but not the only one that allows the design of a better world. A supply chain of great importance, also at an economic level, which actively contributes to the budgets of the states to provide work and create an important sustainability among humans It's the nature. A supply chain that includes not only the production of raw materials obtained from waste, but also the machinery and molds industry for production and its control, producers of finished objects made of recycled plastic, service companies, transport companies, research institutions and much more.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: Melinda and Novamont Allied for Sustainable Packaging
rNEWS: Melinda and Novamont Allied for Sustainable Packaging
Monday, 21st december 2020 | rNEWS

The agreement between Melinda, an apple producer and Novamont, a producer of plastics from renewable sources, is not only interesting as an agreement between a fruit producer and a leader raw materials for an increasingly sustainable packaging, but it is also important, as stated in the article by Adnkronos, as the two companies are studying to reuse apple waste as a source of sugar extraction for bioplastic production processes. Reduce the impact of packaging as much as possible on the environment. This is the objective of the partnership signed by Melinda with Novamont - an Italian company in the production of bioplastics from renewable, biodegradable and compostable sources according to the Uni En 13432 standard, which allowed the development of a bioplastic film that together with tray, stamps and labels makes the packaging for the entire Melinda Bio line totally compostable. All the packaging, made with consumer friendly graphics, can be recycled by collecting the organic fraction of the waste to be transformed in compost, i.e. fertilizer for the soil, after treatment in special industrial plants. As a guarantee of certified biodegradability and compostability, each pack of the Melinda Bio line will bear the 'Ok compost Industrial' mark valid for each individual component of the pack. The whole process will not only allow a better management of waste streams, reducing their contamination, but also to bring clean organic matter back to the soil, contributing to the restoration of its fertility and the reduction of CO2 emissions. Thanks to this partnership, every package of Melinda Bio will also bear the MaterBi brand, owned by Novamont, which identifies the material first high quality bioplastic of which the film is made, a further guarantee for the consumer. According to a logic of learning by doing, the partnership between Melinda and Novamont has also given life to a research project on the use of processing waste of the apple of the Melinda supply chain for the extraction of second generation sugars that will be used for the production process of the bioplastic itself: a perfect example of a circular bioeconomy that sees two realities belonging to extremely several collaborate on a territorial project. "The goal is to develop increasingly sustainable processes in a valley that has the requisites to be a model of sustainability on the national and international scene, continuing to find innovative solutions to conduct a modern and increasingly environmentally friendly fruit growing" he declares Paolo Gerevini, General Manager of the Melinda Consortium. " We have found in Novamont the ideal partner with whom to develop projects that allow us to be increasingly respectful of the environment even in the production of packaging for our fruit and we look to the future by collaborating with them in a circular economy perspective. A project certainly ambitious but in line with the skills and desire for development of our companies, both leaders in their sector ". "I want to thank Melinda for choosing to experiment with us new solutions with a pioneering and constructive spirit - says Catia Bastioli, Novamont CEO, - in the awareness of the interconnections between climate change, degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, food, pollution, cohesion social and territories. Having a partner like Melinda at our side in our research path is an extraordinary result for us ".  "Like Novamont, by applying the circular bioeconomy model, we have contributed to the creation of the first integrated Italian supply chain for bioplastics and biochemicals, with soil health as a starting and ending point, reactivating 5 deindustrialized sites and creating supply chain agreements with world of agriculture, collaborating with composting plants, as well as with a network of innovative transformers, with large-scale distribution, with brand owners, with universities and research centers. Today this model has grown and has become an Italian demo project and the development of innovative bioproducts as systemic solutions has proven to be able to feed the many and diversified supply chains of great value in the country" concludes Bastioli.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: The accumulation of renewable energy through the CryoBattery
rNEWS: The accumulation of renewable energy through the CryoBattery
Thursday, 17th december 2020 | rNEWS

The Achilles heel of renewable energies is that of production in unfavorable environmental conditions to produce it and that of the difficulty of storing it when production exceeds consumption. As reported in the Renewables magazine article, there is a technology called CryoBattery that solves this age-old accumulation problem. British energy storage scores a new point. In fact, work has begun in Manchester on one of the largest electricity storage plants in Europe. The project bears the name of CRYOBattery ™ and the signature of two companies: Highview Power and Carlton Power. In June this year, Highview Power received a £ 10 million grant from the UK Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy ( BEIS) with which to finance the creation of an innovative cryogenic storage. The plant will be built in Trafford Energy Park, not far from Manchester, and when fully operational it will boast a power of 50 MW and a capacity of 250 MWh. And as Javier Cavada, CEO and president of the company explains, “it will provide the national grid with clean, reliable and cost-effective long-term storage. CRYOBattery ™ will help the UK integrate renewable energy and stabilize the regional electricity grid to ensure future energy security during blackouts and other outages. " Beyond the size, the most representative element of the system is the technology used. CRYOBattery is based on a process called air liquefaction. When there is a surplus of production , electricity is used to suck, compress and then cool the air until temperatures of -196 ° C. In this way, from the gaseous state to the liquid state, the mixture can be stored in insulated tanks at low pressure. When the demand for energy in the network increases, liquid air can be heated and rapidly expanded into gas, to drive an electric turbine. The advantages of this approach are the scalability and the ability to offer long-term energy storage compared to traditional batteries. The visitor center will be inaugurated in the first quarter of 2021 to allow everyone to follow "closely" the progress of the work and take virtual tours . CRYOBattery ™ will go into operation in 2023 and will use existing substations and transmission infrastructures. The cryogenic storage system will also offer valuable features including voltage control, grid balancing and synchronous inertia.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rMIX Takes you Directly to Recycled Products
rMIX Takes you Directly to Recycled Products
Tuesday, 15th december 2020 | General News

The circular economy is made up of finished products and raw materials, rMIX collects and promotes them Plastic, metals, wood, rubber, glass, paper are all materials that we discard during our consumption and that can and must be recycled so as not to steal new natural resources from the earth. In addition, the recycling of these waste solves the age-old problem of waste management by avoiding that, through reckless choices of a few people, these waste end up in the environment. It is an ethical and social responsibility commitment to buy finished products made with recycled materials or use raw materials that come from recycling to produce its products. Sometimes it is not easy to be able to identify articles that are made in a circular way and, at the same time, it is not easy for those who produce them following the canons of recycling, to be chosen by the end customer. Today you can count on rMIX , the specialized platform in the world of recycling , which welcomes, free of charge or with annual contracts, your offers or requests for finished products made of recycled materials or recycled raw materials or machines that serve for their production or job offers or searches in the circular economy sector or companies that offer services and consultancy. The final consumer can find the posts of companies that produce finished products made from recycled materials and producers can find the raw materials, machines and collaborations that are needed for their business. Publishing an offer or request is simple and can be completely free, knowing that we will take care of your publications, translating them in 4 languages and making them available to subscribers (6100 in 154 countries in the world) and to all those who are interested. Also rMIX has a service of free promotion as it offers the portal products and services worthy of note of the companies in the sector chosen by the editorial staff, at no cost, allowing a rapprochement between companies and the market in the recycling sector. See the rules and discover the advantages.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Can Plastic Bottles Transfer Substances to the Water Contained?
Can Plastic Bottles Transfer Substances to the Water Contained?
Thursday, 10th december 2020 | General News

Let's find out by checking the water contained in a PET bottle using the electronic nose. The packaging of soft drinks and mineral water has passed, in a few years, from glass to plastic bottles for a series of important factors that have made this bottling system the most used in the world. Around the plastic bottles , especially its primary material, PET , there have been developed support campaigns and campaigns of denigration among the most bitter, played between producers of soft drinks, producers of raw materials, distribution and citizens. The strongly discussed issues are environmental, on the one hand, claiming a sort of polluter license from the public opinion towards the producers of PET bottles, to due to the massive presence in the seas of disposable products. It is obvious to everyone that the producers of plastic bottles have no part in this environmental disaster that is to be attributed to the final consumer, who does not care about give the empty bottle to recycling centers or arrange for its reuse. On the other hand soft drink manufacturers have identified in the plastic bottle , by the way, today, consisting of one part of recycled material, a great advantage in terms of production costs, savings on logistics and a lower environmental impact during production than other packaging materials. But there is another question to consider, and that is the relationship between the plastic bottle and its contents , the 'water for example, a relationship that is a solidarity marriage as long as the water is not used by the consumer. During the permanence of the water in the plastic bottles , between the moment of bottling and the moment of its consumption, the bottle it can receive the effects of light, solar radiation and the increase in temperatures of plastic under the effect of the sun. Any modification of the standard conditions of the plastic, heat, cold, light, life time of the bottle , which can modify the structure of the plastic, could be shared with the water contained that the consumer drinks. How do we know if volatile elements that arise as a result of possible mutations in plastic are transmitted or not in the water? Not tasting it , as some substances that could be released may be tasteless, not looking at it against the light, because some substances may not be visible to the naked eye. Today we have a small but very effective laboratory instrument , called electronic nose, which analyzes volatile elements in a scientific way some materials. By sampling portions of water contained in various plastic bottles, the test tubes are inserted into the electronic nose and, automatically, the samples are heated, creating volatile parts that are intercepted by a gas chromatograph (GC), which communicates with an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) , which give us a three-dimensional examination of the volatile parts contained in the water, identifying exactly the quantity and chemical type of the compounds contained. What shall we drink then? Water or something? The electronic nose will tell us Ask for more information on the measuring tool.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier: the chemist who identified the hydrogen process
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier: the chemist who identified the hydrogen process
Monday, 7th december 2020 | History

An Intelligent, Shrewd and Opportunist scientist. "He favored" the discovery of Hydrogen. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, French scientist, is recognized as the father of the history of chemistry having issued the first version of the conservation of mass in 1789, also recognized and he cataloged fundamental discoveries such as oxygen and hydrogen. He studied in depth and, with a scientific approach, the relationship between combustion and lung respiration, through the observation of the behavior of air in these two phenomena . Being a nobleman, he sat in the major salons of politics and finance and, precisely through his high-level relationships, he managed to get his research financed. Chemist, botanist, astronomer and mathematician entered the academy of sciences at the age of 25 and in 1775 took care, for the royal administration, of the study and improvement of gunpowder, carrying out studies on saltpetre. Through these studies he noted the close relationship between the behavior of combustion and oxygen, between oxygen and plant life and the rusting process of the metal, overturning the phlogiston theory in existence at the time. He also made his own some studies conducted by Henry Cavendish, managing to understand the relationship between flammable air, discovered by the latter and oxygen with the formation of water, also based on the studies of Joseph Priestley, explicitly defining hydrogen. This characteristic of Lavoisier of using the studies of colleagues, incorporating them in his research and then taking all the credit for himself, seemed to be a constant in his life as a researcher. He proved the law of conservation of mass by burning sulfur with phosphorus in the air and stating that the weight of the result of this combustion was greater than the weight of the individual masses, this process having been influenced by air. He also cataloged, in a scientific way through precise nomenclature, the chemicals that were known at the time, creating a scientific literary basis of the highest importance. In 1769 he was called by the monarchical administration, as a mathematician, to reform the tax and tax collection system, helping the offices in charge to reform the measurement system metric for all of France. In 1793, following the political events following the French Revolution, he was arrested along with the people who had dealt with the collection of taxes on behalf of the monarchy for high treason . In vain he tried to prove that his role was only that of a technical consultant and that nothing had to do with the direct work linked to the collection action, but he was not believed and on May 8, 1794 the revolutionary court sentenced him to death by guillotine.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Steel and Tungsten Carbide Grinder Knives for Recycled Materials
Steel and Tungsten Carbide Grinder Knives for Recycled Materials
Monday, 7th december 2020 | Technical information

The steel cutting tools available to grinding plants for recycled materials are subject to considerable wear due to their use and , the greater the abrasiveness of the materials to be reduced in size, the greater their wear and the shorter the time required for their consumption. All this translates into costs . In fact, rapid wear of the cutting knives leads to frequent stops of the machine for their replacement, with a loss of daily production, which is not compensated for by the use of cheaper and less performing knives. Furthermore, when the wear of the steel begins , the vibrations of the machine generally increase, the dust due to an imperfection cutting and consuming more electricity as the machine takes longer to do the job. It must also be considered that the materials to be crushed have different hardnesses and that for this reason the choice of the composition of the knives must account of this important factor. Sometimes it is not enough to choose types of steel with different hardness, but it is necessary to use knives that have inserts with extremely tough materials such as tungsten carbide . But what is tungsten carbide and why is it so effective in grinder knives? The tungsten carbide is prepared mainly by carburization, by reacting metallic tungsten with carbon black or graphite at 1400-2000 ° C, in hydrogen atmosphere or vacuum. It appears as a gray colored powder with metallic luster , practically insoluble in water and diluted acids, but soluble in mixtures of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid. In aqueous solution it is easily oxidized by hydrogen peroxide Tungsten carbide has a melting point of 2 785 ° C so it is an extremely hard material, being around 9 in the Mohs scale and about 2600 in the Vickers scale. It has a Young's modulus of around 700 GPa, a compressibility modulus of 630–655 GPa [3] and a shear modulus of 274 GPa. For practical use it is combined with transition metals, mainly cobalt or nickel, working it from powders, with sintering techniques at temperatures around 1200-1500 ºC . The resulting compound is a ceramic-metal material called cemented carbide, hard metal or widia. To obtain hard metal other elements such as chromium or tantalum can also be added, in order to avoid the growth of carbide grains, acting as inhibitors. Tungsten carbide and metal powders undergo three steps: Grinding , to mix together powders of different qualities and create a homogeneous mixture of powders. • Heating to 100 ° C with the addition of binder (cobalt) to form a solid mass thanks to the union of the grains. • Sintering between 1200 and 1600 ° C , to allow the cobalt to melt, weld the grains and eliminate porosity. In the case of cutting tools intended for grinding plants for recyclable waste, these have great toughness and durability that allow a general saving of grinding costs, even if the knives cost more than common steel knives, but also allow obtain a uniformly cut product without smudging or excessive dust. Metal and tungsten carbide knives are suitable for the following tough materials: • PET • Plastics loaded with fiber • Plastics loaded with mineral fillers • Raffia • Polyethylene from greenhouse or from the countryside • Electronic waste • Tires • Wood If you want more information on steel and tungsten carbide knives click here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - rNEWS: The importance of Plastic in the fight against Coronavirus
rNEWS: The importance of Plastic in the fight against Coronavirus
Sunday, 6th december 2020 | rNEWS

The Coronavirus pandemic has seen a significant increase in the use of plastic in individual protection devices and medical assistance activities. Never as in this period has we seen the importance of not demonizing plastic but giving it the correct place it deserves in our life, while knowing that such a versatile and useful product must be disposed of and recycled correctly to create new raw material. . Anna Munzio's article tells us just about this. Reuters spoke of a «plastic pandemic». Because the virus that shocked the world had the not entirely secondary effect of making us understand how indispensable this material is for one of its most hidden qualities, protection. Of food and drink, but above all from the virus: this is how the "rush to plastic" started, the new gold used in masks, visors, gloves, containers of plastic for food and bubble wrap for millions of home deliveries. A race that made us forget, after years of campaigning, the main problem of this magical material, light, transparent if necessary and that when it was born it seemed ecological because it replaced natural resources such as ivory or wood: the times of decomposition, which are measured in centuries, and the resulting pollution. The solution has long been indicated in recycling. A system managed in Italy by Corepla which in 2019 collected 1,370,000 tons of plastic in a differentiated way, 13 percent more than in 2018, and which today covers 7,345 municipalities involving 58,377,389 citizens. However, it too has been put under stress by Covid-19. Between March and April, in full lockdown, the amount of plastic packaging waste handled by Corepla increased, but also the share destined for waste-to-energy and that conferred in rubbish dump. The president of Corepla, Giorgio Quagliuolo, anticipates some data on this complicated year also on the waste management front: "2020 will see single-digit growth in quantities of plastic packaging waste managed by Corepla, with peaks precisely in correspondence with the lockdown periods of March / April which showed an increase of 8 per cent, in contrast to the reduction in consumption (-4 per cent) and the production of urban waste (-10/14 percent) in the same period ». What were the main problems due to? «The closure of commercial and production activities and the abrupt halt in exports: in the seven-week lockdown the export of over 16 thousand tons of municipal waste was blocked. In addition, the almost total blockade of the construction sector has greatly reduced the use of the fraction of non-mechanically recyclable packaging as fuel in cement factories. Causes that have joined the saturation of the available capacity in national plants. It must be said that the system nevertheless held up, thanks to extraordinary interventions which however highlighted the structural deficiencies of the plant and of the national secondary raw materials market ». If it is true that we are what we eat it is also true that we are what we throw in the garbage: and the use of plastic is basically a litmus test that it reveals the state of our society, its economy but also the lifestyles and ecological sensitivity of consumers. So, will the plastic rush continue? According to the president, this depends on several factors: the trend of industrial production, the propensity to purchase by consumers, the unknown factor of the Plastic Tax, the impacts of the European SUP directive - Single Use Plastics which intends to limit single-use plastics, "all factors made more uncertain from the pandemic. Similar uncertainties concern the collection numbers, for which we expect the growth trend to be confirmed but with physiological slowdowns linked to the contingent situation ». And bioplastics, which are always talked about? “In 2019, they accounted for around 3 percent of plastic packaging placed on the market; at the current state of technology it is more complicated that they can replace fossil plastics in some sectors, the medical one is possible that it is one of these ».

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Post-Consumer Recycled Plastic Granule with Odor Certification
Post-Consumer Recycled Plastic Granule with Odor Certification
Friday, 4th december 2020 | Circular economy

Do Recycled Plastic Products Stink? Yes, No, Maybe, a little, every so often, often ... uncertainty applies to this field.  The post-consumer recycled plastic is increasingly entering the production of objects that we use every day and that we find on store shelves, in the distribution chains of furniture or objects for the home, in the interiors of our cars and in many products that we handle every day. The use of post-consumer plastic has not always been a voluntary choice by manufacturers of plastic articles, as its origin from separate collection, brings with it odorous problems which, if not managed well, can compromise the final products, creating inconvenience to customers. But the urgent need to reuse the highest possible amount of recycled plastic in the production of articles, in order to reduce waste, has imposed a new way of looking at mixtures for making plastic products. The large distribution chains of household items , for example, have turned to the production of their articles with a percentage of plastic recycled post-consumer, but require that the raw material does not bring with it unpleasant odors. The verification of the acceptability or otherwise of the raw material is done, normally with a system of tests carried out by people who put their nose at their disposal to endorse the purchases of raw materials and the marketing of products. Normally they are empirical, subjective and personal evaluations that leave ample room for discussion on what is an annoying smell and what a fragrance can be. Between the producer of raw material and the distributor of household products there is constant uncertainty as to what will be salable in terms of material first and what will be purchased by the end customer if the smell were to be perceived differently than the testers. It is therefore necessary to scientifically and analytically establish the odor gradients and their chemical origin to establish, among the parts, a range that protects both the production and the final sale of household products. Today technology comes to meet us through a laboratory machine which analytically intercepts the odorous substances of liquid, solid or powder samples, returning an exact evaluation of the chemical components present and their quantities, compared with an archive of 80,000 odorous substances. The control system is useful to the raw material producer , not only at the end of the process, through technical level analysis odorous of the plastic granules that it will sell, but it will also be very useful for analyzing the raw material , to classify its behavior in the following recipes. Knowing with certainty the odor contribution of the incoming waste or semi-finished product allows you to manage recipes in a simpler way which will lead to the production of a granule with the established odor gradients. The utility of the machine is also tangible for those who buy the raw material and transform it into final products, as they have the certainty to introduce in the circuit a certified granule from the odor point and can carry out a quality control, from the point of view of the odor impact, on the products that it will propose to the public. Related Articles: ODORS IN RECYCLED POLYMERS: HOW TO FACE THE PROBLEM? ANALYTICAL CONTROL OF ODORS IN THE RECYCLING SECTOR

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Illegal Deforestation in Romania
Illegal Deforestation in Romania
Thursday, 3rd december 2020 | Environment

An ecological disaster in the European Amazon. The state-owned forests of Romania amount to 3.13 million hectares, a figure that represents 48% of the country’s forested areas. In these territories, illegal felling of plants is fueling the black wood market and causing enormous environmental damage. According to data provided by Recorder.ro , illegal logging in Romania amounts to about 20 million cubic meters of timber every year out of a total of 18 million legally authorized by the state. Considering an average price of wood of around 50 euros / mc, it can be seen that the illegal business produces around 1 billion euros per year. In fact, the phenomenon has been going on for years, probably covered by state officials who pretend not to see the problem, but recently it has come back strongly to the fore as two park guards were killed, who were honestly working to protect the forest heritage of the state. There has been talk of mafia forms of management of the softwood business , which has also moved the European Commission, which has imposed on the Romanian state, a verification of the situation through the creation of a control commission on the numbers and on the deforestation procedures . According to the indications of Recorder.co , the report prepared, after hearing the operators of the field checks, assisted by experts trained in France, Switzerland and Finland, has shown that illegal logging represents about 20 million cubic meters / year . However, the report seems to have been censored by the authorities that received it, as it would not represent the real situation, based on the autonomous surveys of Romsilva, a company that manages the state forest assets . According to the data of this company, the volume of illegal logging would be between 40 and 50,000 cubic meters per year and speculates that the commission charged with the control, under pressure from the European Community, could have made calculation errors. In a public conference in which both the head of Romsilva and the managers of the IFN project , National Forest Inventory who carried out the surveys, participated, it emerged that the numbers contained in the IFN report were supported by independent European consultants, but that the state forest protection agency openly insists on believing it unreliable, leaving the problem in a dangerous limbo. As usually happens in business managed by the underworld, the phenomenon of intimidation, silence and corruption , greases a well-tested gear at all levels, with the sole purpose of keeping illegal activities sheltered from the clamor of the news, in to continue discreetly and operations. Bolsonaro has been so criticized for not fighting Amazon deforestation, but little has been said about illegal deforestation in Romania.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Epidemics: Taking Care of the Planet to Defend Our Health
Epidemics: Taking Care of the Planet to Defend Our Health
Thursday, 3rd december 2020 | Environment

The destruction and intensive exploitation of ecosystems in the world also has a direct connection with the latest Coronavirus pandemic It is increasingly clear and scientifically proven that epidemics, which have afflicted many areas of the earth in the recent past, and today, through the coronavirus, we have entered a pandemic phase, are the direct consequence of man’s anthropic behavior. The World Health Organization has estimated that around 4.2 million deaths occur directly worldwide each year due to air pollution and ongoing climate change. Scary numbers that left public opinion, regretted, but not very involved, until the richest western countries were overwhelmed by the coronavirus and were able to directly test the danger and mortality brought by these viruses in modern societies. No longer news heard on television from distant countries, where hygiene or malnutrition or environmental promiscuity is thought to favor these types of viruses. Malaria, Ebola, Sars, Hendra, Lyme, Mers seem to most, exotic names of diseases that developed in countries with which we do not normally have contacts. For viruses there are no borders , Serie A or Serie B countries, but we are all exposed to possible contagion , and it is precisely for this reason that we must understand, once and for all, that we must change the relationship with nature. The uncontrolled population increase, deforestation, the destruction of ecosystems inhabited by animals, the exploitation of deforested areas for the production of feed or for the wood trade, intensive farming, the indiscriminate exploitation of fresh water, emissions in an atmosphere of greenhouse gases to produce more and more energy, transport based on fossil fuels that unite all industrial activities, the increase in urbanization at the expense of green areas and the problem of waste, are among the problems we must deal with immediately , but seriously. The behavior of the man who pursues an ever wider well-being, has created imbalances so evident that the coronavirus pandemic requires us to understand. The habitats of many animal species have been colonized by man and his activities, creating a mixture of housing that has created health problems over time. Many animals that are normally carriers of viral loads, have come into contact with man through his food chain , allowing the so-called species jump, which although difficult, we have seen that it is not impossible. It is in fact known that about 75% of the emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are of animal origin and that about 60% of all the pathogens that attack humans are of zoological origin. Furthermore, climate change will accentuate the transmission of pathogenic elements due to the increase in global warming, with milder winters and more uniform and long seasons, which lead to the migration of some species of animals, carriers of diseases. We must start to take seriously the health aspect of the planet and correct those situations that pose an imminent danger for our species, by ceasing to make the poor population believe that the improvement of their living conditions and economic prosperity must pass from uncontrolled exploitation of the territory. Furthermore, the western world must stop pursuing a suicidal consumerist mentality, where money is the primary target of any social and political decision. Whoever thinks that we can talk about it tomorrow, it may be that there is no more to talk about it.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Water Recycling to Reduce Water Stress
Water Recycling to Reduce Water Stress
Wednesday, 2nd december 2020 | Circular economy

EU indications for a more sustainable agriculture The progressive rise in land temperatures, the increase in the population, a deficient transport system, which causes significant losses from the distribution networks and an incorrect mix of crops, which is very close to the production of fodder for the world meat industry, will probably lead to to 2050 to an unsustainable situation due to the lack of water, identified by experts as water stress. According to data processed by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) , which points the finger at the enormous phenomenon of water waste at all levels, the consumption of blue gold in the world sees a distribution expressed as follows:  70% for agricultural use  20% for industrial use  10% for domestic use The SIWI Institute goes into detail about the numbers, indicating some extremely critical points on the use of water, underlining, among others, that an incorrect worldwide diet based on meat requires about 8-10 times more water than the cultivation of cereals. Furthermore, the continuous population growth leads to an increase in food demand, which translates into a greater demand for water by agriculture, in the face of a constant reduction of rainfall due to climate change. It should also be noted that, according to the data processed by the research, a quarter of the water that is used in world agriculture is used to produce about 1 billion tons of food which will then be thrown away . SIWI also underlines the inequality between the water consumption of a person who lives in developed areas of the planet compared to another who lives in developing areas, which expresses a difference that is greater, for the first subject, than 30 -50 times the second. However, precisely because of the demographic trend of the planet, developing areas will have a 50% higher demand for water than current consumption, creating a situation whereby 47% of the world’s population will live in areas with water problems. To close the little reassuring circle we can mention another important problem, which concerns the waste of water caused by the age of the aqueducts, on which little maintenance is carried out because perhaps, one has the wrong concept, that a loss of water is not a so serious. But how much water do we have and who uses it? On the planet we have about 1.4 billion km3 of water, but only 2.5% is made up of fresh water, which can be counted at 35 million km3, but 70% of this quantity is expressed in permanent ice or snow. in the mountains, in the Antarctic and Arctic areas. Thus, we can easily dispose of only 1% of all the water present on the planet in the form of water reserves in the subsoil and on the surface. We must also consider that on the planet about 1 billion people do not have access to water and that about 2.5 billion do not have adequate sanitation. This situation, according to WHO , causes cholera, malaria and intestinal diseases which are the main cause of infant mortality. How to get out of this situation? From a circular economy point of view, agriculture too, which we remember consumes about 70% of the water available on earth, must use urban waste water that comes from purification plants, in order to save drinking water . According to the rules issued by the European Community regarding agricultural irrigation, farmers want to sensitize to a sustainable use of water through the use of non-drinking water. Based on the indications of the Commissioner for the Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Karmenu Vella , there are minimum parameters for the use of urban waste water from treatment and purification plants, which concern both microbiological values and the processes of plant control . The European Commission itself indicates that the system of reuse of these waters for agricultural purposes is under exploited and that the use of drinking water, in addition to an enormous use of energy for its extraction and transport, creates an important environmental impact which must take into account. It also indicates the presence, in a third of the European territory, of a situation of water stress, which will be further aggravated by the tendential decrease in rainfall and the increase in temperatures.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled Polymers in WPC, Wood-Plastic Products
Recycled Polymers in WPC, Wood-Plastic Products
Wednesday, 2nd december 2020 | Technical information

The polymer resin component coming from the separate collection for WPC plastic - wood products.The WPC, characterized as a wood-polymer compound, was born in Italy in the 60s of the last century by the Covema brothers who began the experimentation of blends made with fiber or wood flour with polymers and additives. Today the production of WPC is a worldwide reality and the use of floors and coatings, not only in the construction sector, has reached an appreciable market by virtue of the qualities expressed by this compound. Production takes place, in most cases, through the extrusion of the selected materials in plants that can use single or twin screws with different profiles. The advantage of using twin-screw extruders is expressed by the greater capacity of the mass processing plant in terms of mixing and processing uniformity of the material without degrading it. The recipes that make up the future element in WPC strongly depend on the machine used for extrusion (or molding), on the finish of the material you want obtain and the characteristics of durability and impermeability of the product according to its final location. In general it can be said that the percentage share of wood compounds can vary from 40 to 60% of the recipe and that polymeric components, considering an average 5% such as additives such as dyes, coupling agents, UV stabilizers, blowing agents, foaming agents and lubricants, account for the remaining part. Most of the world production of WPC uses polyethylene as a polymer binder by virtue of the compatibility in the melting temperatures of the two masses that make up the mixture and for the easy availability of recycled raw material on the market. The recycled polyethylene used can be in HDPE or LDPE, let's see the differences: • HDPE is a waste that comes from separate collection in the form of detergent bottles, shampoos, creams, milk and other consumer packaging that are collected from our homes, selected in automatic systems that read the chemical nature (density of the material), ground into small flakes, washed in industrial plants, selected by color, if necessary, through machines optical reading and subsequently extruded to create a raw material in the form of granules. HDPE is a stable, clean, single-component product with only small traces of PP inside (caps), lending itself well to the extrusion action typical of WPC. It is found in abundance on the market in those countries where separate collection is efficient. • LDPE is a waste that comes from the separate collection of plastic films that come from domestic and industrial waste which by their nature of use are less selectable, in terms of mono-plastics than HDPE. They can be of different origin and therefore of different quality:  Agricultural film is normally collected with a certain percentage of sandy residues that must be eliminated, though not always totally, through careful washing. The film, during its lifetime, undergoes a degradation from the sun which is to be considered when choosing the additives of the recipe of the WPC that will have to compensate for this deficit.  Industrial or first-use film are those materials that are collected from packaging waste of companies or distribution chains and which normally represent clean films never recycled. The quality of this waste is among the best to be used for recycling.   Films deriving from separate collection that contained waste organic or other contaminants, both solid and oily, whose mechanical recycling significantly reduces components other than LDPE, but fails to completely eliminate these substances. • Polypropylene is a material that can derive from separate collection in the form of rigid waste or in the form of packaging film. The mechanical selection yields a good quality raw material that may also have a certain percentage of PE inside. PP is a cheap and ductile material in the production of WPC. • The PVC in the form of waste can derive from the industrial supply chain, therefore as primary processing waste or in the form of separate collection such as the waste of pipes, window profiles, packaging, tiles and other materials to be selected. Post industrial waste is certainly the best in terms of cleaning from pollutants and final yield but it has a high cost and a limited quantity available on the market. The advantage of using PVC as a polymeric binder is the dimensional stability of the pieces produced and the smoothness. The function of recycled polymers and protective additives within the wood mixture create numerous advantages to the final product:  Waterproof  Imputrescence  Resistant to U.V.  Excellent cold workability  Good flexural strength  Excellent color maintenance  Recyclable in the WPC sector  Resistance to the corrosive action of sea water  No surface maintenance Learn more about recycled polymers

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https://www.arezio.it/ - What are organic flow batteries?
What are organic flow batteries?
Tuesday, 1st december 2020 | Renewable energies

An environmentally friendly system for storing energy using the rhubarb plant Renewable energies are in themselves subject to periods in which they cannot generate constant energy and for this reason they would need new storage technologies that can compensate for periods in which little or no production is produced. The wind, the sun and the water itself are subject, for meteorological reasons, to periods in which there are drops in performance in the generation of electricity. This is due to the absence of wind, persistent clouds or due to peaks in energy demand or lack of water, which is often repeated for the decrease in rainfall. Scientists have long been studying the possibility of bridging this drop in energy production with new batteries that can continue to feed clean energy to the community. The latest studies are directed towards flow batteries , which are rechargeable and composed of electrolytes containing dissolved electro-active substances that pass from electrochemical cells transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. The purpose of this research is to find an alternative to lithium-ion batteries that use expensive metals, which are now the object of trade wars for the domination of the quarries from which raw materials are extracted. Organic flow batteries use natural compounds such as quinones, which can also be extracted from plants, such as rhubarb . The use of these batteries under study could require an important structure , such as pumps, sensors and containment tanks, therefore suitable for permanent use. However, they are suitable for leveling energy peaks in homes or production facilities, storing energy during the night and reintroducing it into the network during the day, when the cost would be higher. They are also indicated for the accumulation of energy from renewable sources when this production falls from a performance point of view for meteorological reasons.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Pyrolysis of Solid Waste: Technological Aspects of the Process
Pyrolysis of Solid Waste: Technological Aspects of the Process
Tuesday, 1st december 2020 | Technical information

Gasification and pyrolysis. Innovative technologies for energy recovery of waste. The economic cost of energy production from fossil fuels has now reached unsustainable values, making it necessary to search for new fuels and develop truly sustainable process and technological alternatives. Among the “new” fuels which, after pre-treatment and / or transformation, can supplement the traditional ones there are different categories of waste of various origins (urban or industrial). Process development in this direction stems from the need to combine more sustainable energy production with the need for more efficient waste management. The objectives of current applied research In recent years, research into new technological solutions has become ever stronger, using various processes, even in combination, to ensure efficient waste transformation while promoting maximum recovery of material and energy and maximum reduction of gaseous, liquid and solid emissions. Eco-sustainable waste management The valorisation of waste as a basic material to produce valuable fuels, such as methanol and hydrogen, is the objective of applied research in all the most industrialized countries. The use of waste not as “such” fuels but as a material to be transformed into products of higher quality or value allows to go up the steps of the “pyramid of eco-sustainability”. The drive towards an energy economy based on the conversion of gaseous or at most liquid fuels (methane, light hydrocarbons, oils) and hydrogen is linked to the possibility of achieving, thanks to them, cleaner and more efficient combustion. The transformation of waste into such fuels is possible thanks to thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis and gasification, which induce a change in the chemical structure of the material through the action of heat. It is therefore not a question of carrying out “selection and pre-treatment” processes such as the production of solid fuels such as CDR but of realizing real chemical processes which must be accurately assessed for reliability, efficiency and cost. Thermochemical processes Pyrolysis: in which a thermal degradation of the material takes place in the total absence of air / oxygen through the direct or indirect contribution of heat. The calorific value of the products obtained is therefore very high. Gasification: in which a partial oxidation of the waste occurs in an environment with an oxygen defect. The final products are not completely oxidized and therefore have a lower calorific value than the starting refusal. Combustion: in which the complete oxidation of the organic fraction of the waste / fuel is carried out, in the presence of an adequate excess of oxygen and with the result of obtaining completely oxidized products without calorific value. Energy production “It carries out the total and very fast oxidation of the fuel fraction fed, in the presence of an excess of air which is the greater the more difficult the combustion-fuel contact. The reaction is exothermic and is therefore accompanied by a development of heat that depends on the lower calorific value (PCI) of the fuel and on the combustion efficiency. “ Alternative thermochemical processes to combustion Pyrolysis It is a process that takes place in the absence of oxygen and at temperatures above 400 ° C, achieved through the direct or indirect supply of heat, during which only a thermal degradation of the organic material takes place, possibly supported by the action of catalysts. The main products of the process are pyrolysis fuel gases, organic liquids and a non-vitrified solid residue containing the char and the fraction inorganic waste. The pyrolysis of plastic waste The composition of the pyrolysis products is extremely variable with the process temperature and with the presence of catalysts such as transition metals and materials containing acid sites such as silico-aluminates, zeolites, clays. The catalysts can, as well as the increase in temperature, favor dehydrogenation, or the loss of intramolecular hydrogen from the polymeric chain with consequent increase in the degree of unsaturation of the radicals obtained. Dehydrogenation inevitably accompanies the high production of unsaturated and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene, etc.) and amorphous or crystalline carbonaceous solids (graphite, micro and nano-fibers). The ability to change the bonds of polymers through the action of heat (thermolysis) or through chemical attack (solvolisi) has paved the way for the use of the decomposition product as a raw material for the petrochemical industry (recycling of raw materials). The biomass pyrolysis The pyrolysis of biomass can be differentiated according to residence time; a low residence time The production of bio oils has a moderate temperature or below 600 ° C. Plasma pyrolysis of hazardous waste Plasma pyrolysis takes place at very high temperatures (around 20,000 ° C) thanks to the electrical action that is formed between two electrodes. The energy of the arc is so high that the gas appears between the ionize electrodes. The process of “deconstruction” of a plasma pyroliser is based on this principle. In fact, in this case, the arc has developed inside a camera where the intense heat generated by the arc degrades the most resistant molecules (oils, paints, solvents) up to individual atoms (plasma). In a subsequent process, the solids were recombined to form non-gaseous compounds (carbon dioxide and water produced by oxidation in a bed of ceramic material). The latter are totally vitrified and incorporate metals that are no longer leachable: they are therefore reusable as a building material. The electrodes are made of carbon and the maintenance process continued without problems. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste The heterogeneous waste is composed of different combustible commodity categories which, however, with a process of extreme schematization, can be traced back to polymers (plastics, rubbers, resins) and biomass (paper, cardboard, wood, organic fraction, textiles). Pyrolysis technologies The application of urban waste piracy is in Europe in a stadium has not yet reached commercial maturity even if the push is to comply with the provisions of the Kyoto protocol has given rise to many demonstration projects. If the use of pyrolysis was programmed in a subsequent combustion or gasification stage it has already been applied on a large scale. Among the most interesting processes that lead to piracy are transformation processes of various types of hazardous waste (United Kingdom), Texaco, Compact Power and Ebara. Conclusions Most of the commercial pyrolysis processes take place at a low temperature, ie between 450 and 600 ° C so as to avoid having an excessive burden in terms of energy, even if the reactor (which can even reach 2h) and the reduction of the fraction waste completely degraded inside the oven. The energy efficiency of the process is the pyrolysis gas, if this is conducted at a temperature higher than 1200 ° C, consequently it is the adiabatic flame temperature of the pyrolysis gas. The load of a pyrolysis process can: • a landfill be sent after having been stripped of metals, a downstream of the process, they can be recovered in an unoxidized form • a combustion may be sent together with the pyrolysis gas; in this case it will not be possible to recover the metals (which in this way are oxidized) • a gasification system must be sent (option that allows to recover the metals in an unoxidized form and increase the CCE of the global system transforming the fixed carbon of the character into further syngas). by Maria Laura Mastellone and Umberto Arena Second University of Naples Department of Environmental SciencesAutomatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The crisis in the recycled waste paper market
The crisis in the recycled waste paper market
Tuesday, 1st december 2020 | General News

E-Commerce is also exacerbating the crisis in the recycled waste paper market, which collapsed in 2019. The crisis in the recycled paper market began to manifest itself in August 2017 with the beginning of the drop in prices on the international market, and then worsened in 2019, where both the exported volumes and the prices per ton are putting the recycling sector is in crisis. The reasons for this situation can be found in the reduction of imports by China , by the trade war extended over many sectors between the USA and China and, paradoxically, by the increased collection capacity of recycled paper, which cannot be used fully without exports. If pre-crisis numbers saw China as the primary importer of waste paper , with around 30 million tons per year and Europe with around 8 million, today the Beijing government imports “only” 12 million tons and, of this figure, a large part comes from the US-UK consortium. This surplus of paper that was destined for the Chinese area is placed in other markets, forcing sales by decreasing the price, with the aim of getting rid of unsold stocks. Considering that in Europe about 56 million tons of paper were collected in 2018 against a use of about 48 million, thus generating a difference for excess supply equal to about 8 million tons, paper that accumulates per year after year with very important management problems. This situation generates an imbalance, also financial, of the collection system in which substantially there is an acceptable level of sales, in quantitative terms, and a remunerative level on the price of the product that can cover all the costs of the chain. Then there are other factors, concomitant and collateral, which have increased the problems described above and which we could summarize in these points: Consumer disaffection with some plastic packaging has led to an increase in the use of paper packaging, with the consequence of producing more wasThe efficiency of the collection system, like that of glass, creates an offer higher than demand, which will have to be addressed through financial support to the circular paper economy.The explosion of e-commerce , which has its favorite packaging in cardboard packaging, generates a very important increase in cardboard waste.There has been much discussion about the social and ecological value of the sales system through web platforms, in which the supporters of the efficiency of technological modernism are compared with those who argue that the online sales of non-durable goods are the consequence of the whim and laziness grown with consumerism and a total lack of respect for the environment and for small businesses formed by neighborhood or village shops. To frame the size of the “e-commerce” phenomenon , we need to get an idea of the numbers it generates in the world and which are expressed in about 3,000 billion dollars , with a forecast of reaching 4,000 billion in 2022. The most representative companies of the phenomenon are Amazon and Alibaba , which offer goods anywhere in the world, in the shortest possible time and at the lowest price ever . The success of online sales is based on these three pillars, a system that has put traditional distribution in crisis and, with it, also the workers who were part of it. But if on the one hand I don’t think we can charge for the formula of online shopping, the closure of many medium-small shops , which had already entered into crisis with the advent years ago of the large distribution chains, it can certainly be said that the home delivery business of single items in a very short time is generating an environmental problem to be taken into consideration. Not wanting to go into the specific phenomenon of the increase in traffic due to this fractional logistics system, where the movement of a huge number of individual packages, in continuous rotation between suppliers, distributors and customers, creates an appreciable emission value of CO2 and NOx , as it deserves a dedicated study. Instead, I would like to consider the impact that this delivery system creates in terms of increasing cardboard packaging . In fact, the supplier sends the item to the warehouses of a company such as Amazon or similar, which stores it in its warehouse pending the customer’s order. Upon receipt of the order, the distributor will pack the item in a new cardboard package , suitable for shipping depending on the size of the package purchased. In practice, up to now, at least two packages have been used , with the relative accessories for the packaging. This is not an action with a negligible impact, if designed on a large scale with millions of packages moving every day and has no comparison, from the point of view of the environmental impact, if the same operation was done from the shop near home , who will only use the manufacturer’s packaging , or at most will add a bag that can still be reused at home. But what if the product was rejected by the end customer? The return of the rejected product needs further packaging for shipping and, here too, we are not talking about small numbers if we consider, for example, that Zalando , the well-known brand of online sales of clothing and accessories, declares returns for about 70 million parcels . An important thing to note is that most rejected packages end up in the “Destroy” area (area where new items are destroyed) as there is no economic convenience in returning the item to the manufacturer. This generates a substantial amount of waste and packaging which must be handled by the country of distribution and not by the manufacturer.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - From Waste Collection to the Circular Economy in the World Wars
From Waste Collection to the Circular Economy in the World Wars
Tuesday, 1st december 2020 | History

Waste collection has a distant genesis, in fact, it was already mentioned in the Middle Ages as a problem that plagued the first urban centers in the most advanced countries. But it was from the early nineteenth century that, as the city agglomerations grew, they organized themselves, especially in England , the first independent manual sorting centers for municipal waste. Unhealthy places, where mountains of garbage of all kinds were divided, almost exclusively by women, trying to recover what could be reused and resold. An extremely difficult and hygienically dangerous working condition, those of garbage women, which exposed workers to frequent accidents or illnesses, as described for the first time in 1900 the researcher Emily Hobhouse , writing an article for the Economic Journal, in which she talked about the job insecurity of women in these construction sites along the banks of the Thames: “A man shovels the waste just brought into his sieve , she sifts through and then quickly orders the rest before a new supply is launched. Grouped on each sieve half a dozen baskets are ready to receive the sorting. Rags, bones, string, cork, boots and paper, coal, glass and hard core these receptacles. The dust flies dense on the woman's face and permeates her clothes and hair; but the open air is healthy and she continues to work .. " Emily's remarks followed widespread public protest against these stinking places, so much so that during 1883 it was not unusual to read, even in the Times, letters from prominent citizens asking for a solution to this problem. Thus, around 1890, the industrial revolution brought with it the invention of the first waste incinerators which had a dual purpose, to physically destroy unusable waste and to bring about a sort of sanitization through fire. Starting from the twentieth century , in England, almost all the major cities were equipped with an incinerator and the municipalities began the waste collection in an organized way, leading to the closure of most independent collection sites. The action of waste pre-selection, with the aim of recovering reusable materials, became less and less evident, as the convenience of destroying incoming waste at a incineration plant, created a sort of alibi to avoid the costly work of separating and storing recoverable materials, also pushed by the industry that produced more and more new products at progressively lower costs. Close to the beginning of the First World War the concept of rejection was expressed in an element that had to be disposed of in a efficient, as worthless, but when hostilities broke out, the immense war effort needed all usable or reusable materials. It was thus that large quantities of paper, fabrics, rags, bones, metals were requested by the industries that worked for the ministry of war , but the inefficiency of collection at the municipal level was wasting most of these resources. At the end of the First World War we realized the importance of creating an organized collection, aimed at the recovery of all recyclable materials, as a sign of help to economy of the country, setting up an office in England for this purpose. At the outbreak of the Second World War , England was not taken by surprise, as it could count on a national collection network whose sorting centers could provide many materials for war needs. Under the guidance of H.G. Judd, in 1939 , his office imposed the obligation of separate collection with the aim of recovering from the waste as much as possible of materials to be reinserted into the production cycle, this also due to the strict embargo placed by the Germans by sea and by air. Through a study of Public Cleansing , from November 1947, we can see the materials collected through recovery and recycling programs of local authorities, in the period between October 1939 and July 1947: Materials in Tons • Waste paper: 2.141.779 • Scrap metals: 1.585.921 • Textiles: 136.193 • Bones: 68.695 • Household kitchen waste: 2.368.485 • Various (fuel, ash, glass, etc.): 2.546.005 Total Ton.: 8.896.012

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Henri Victor Regnault the First Father of PVC
Henri Victor Regnault the First Father of PVC
Monday, 30th november 2020 | History

He unknowingly discovered it by working the heated Dutch oil Henri Victor Regnault is hardly associated with the discovery of PVC, which was attributed in 1872 to the German chemist Eugen Baumann by resuming his experiments. The scientist French was born on July 21, 1810 in Aix-la-Chapelle, France, and at an early age lost both his parents. He and his sister were entrusted to a copy, a friend of his parents, who took care of it and followed the school fortunes. After studying chemistry, Regnault decided to travel to Europe to study and experiment in mining sites in Switzerland, Germany and Belgium between 1834 and 1835. On December 11, 1840, he was appointed by the French Academy of Sciences to professor of chemistry, a position he held for about 30 years. The scientist devoted himself to the study of substances and their mixtures, creating in thirty years an in-depth collection of data related to the properties of compounds, such as density and compressibility of gases and liquids, heat capacity and coefficients of gas expansion, steam pressures and speed of sound. These studies lead him to be considered as arguably the greatest experimenter of the nineteenth century. One of the many researches done, one in particular concerned the study of an oily liquid formed by the chloration of ethylene (then called olephysing gas), which became famous under the name of Dutch liquor. This compound was first discovered by Dutch chemists Johann Rudolph Deiman, Adrien Paets van Troostwijk, Nicolas Bondt and Anthoni Lauwerenburgh, on whom many chemists of the time later worked on it. Regnault attempted to decompose Dutch oil by heating it with an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide, obtaining the vinyl chloride monomer. The scientist was not yet clear where his studies were taking him, when he noted the realization of a white powder, which would later be identified as polyvinylchloride (PVC), having left the new compound accidentally exposed to sunlight. Although the scientific discovery was not attributed to the scientist French there is no doubt that this laid the groundwork for future research and perfection of PVC recipes. Photo: Pollution chimique

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The First Hydrogen Trains in Italy will be in Lombardy
The First Hydrogen Trains in Italy will be in Lombardy
Monday, 30th november 2020 | Renewable energies

In Italy there are still around 2000 diesel-fueled trains a day with a completely negative impact on the environment. And it is from this point that railway decarbonisation will take its first steps by replacing these locomotives with new hydrogen-powered vehicles.  The first The project will be carried out in Valcamonica , in the province of Brescia, where on the Brescia-Edolo section, starting from 2026, we will see the first 6 trains of the Alstrom with green traction travel, using hydrogen . The project also includes the construction of local power plants for the production, initially of blue hydrogen , which will power the locomotives, and then switch to green hydrogen once all the infrastructures have been built. The blue hydrogen, created through the use of energy deriving from natural gas and biomethane, will emit CO2 but will be totally recovered and stored, avoiding dispersion in the air. Once the project is completed, with the arrival of another 8 trains and the construction of two plants for the production, storage and refueling of green hydrogen, the the first totally green railway transport line in Italy. Hydrogen trains will only be the first step in a zero-impact project in the world of public transport in fact it is planned to equip a certain number of local transport buses traveling in Valcamonica with green hydrogen.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Analytical Odor Control in the Recycling Sector
Analytical Odor Control in the Recycling Sector
Monday, 23rd november 2020 | Technical information

Analytical Odor Control in the Recycling Sector: FlavorsSpec.Recycled materials , which are raw materials from the selection of waste, in their various states of life (loose, bales, ground, granules), o the final product, created through recycling processes, can bring with them gradients and types of odors that can be more or less unpleasant to operators or end customers. The sensation of acceptance or not of smell is entirely subjective and depends on an infinite series of sensory evaluations: what for me could be an acceptable smell, for the customer could be an unbearable home. The human nose is sensitive, but different between person and person in intercepting odors and, above all, it is not able to accurately catalog an equal level of odorous compounds, nor the repetition of the intensity of the odors it intercepts.  What a company produces, in terms of smell on a product , whether it is raw material or a finished element, must be cataloged in a completely analytical way, without approximation, to determine standards that can accepted by both the producer and the customer, so that all subsequent productions can fall within the established ranges. Defining and being able to replicate a range of odors accepted by the parties is not only an increase in the qualitative service of the product itself and of the company, but also a guarantee towards the end customer who can reasonably know that the odor intensity can be cataloged and managed exactly. Let's see some examples where an "electronic nose" can make the difference : • Producers of PET trays, receiving the recycled granule or ground, can analytically evaluate the odor intensity of the raw material and give the producer himself standards not to be exceeded to avoid problems on the trays in the distribution chain. • Manufacturers of beverages in PET bottles can establish with certainty not only the maximum odor levels accepted on the raw material, but they can establish whether the product contained in the bottles can undergo transfers by the plastic bottle of odorous substances that can affect the quality of their product. • Producers of raw materials can establish with their customers the maximum odor ranges acceptable to both, through an analytical analysis of the material first sold in order to ensure a reliable product quality. • The manufacturers of bottles for detergents , for care, for perfumed liquids need to purchase recycled raw material in HDPE that has an odor content coming from the surfactants such that they do not interact negatively with the final packaging on the shelves of the shops or can alter the fragrance of the liquids or powders contained. • Furniture or packaging manufacturers for industrial logistics who use PP, HDPE and LDPE from post consumption, they must be able to establish with certainty the incidence of the odors of the raw materials they buy, in order to establish limits that cannot negatively affect the final product they distribute. • We could continue to cite other examples in which the lack of a certain classification of odors can often lead to the dispute of the materials, with considerable costs and degeneration of customer-supplier relationships. Through the use of an odorous substance analyzer , a laboratory machine that uses samples of raw materials or pieces of final products , therefore in the form of granules, ground, liquids, etc ..., which are heated, creating volatile substances inside the test tube, which are then chemically analyzed and compared, through an analysis program, this creates a precise picture of the types and intensities. The machine allows you to compare also standard samples and therefore accepted by the parties, with the various production samples in order to intercept the deviations and immediately evaluate production corrections.  The results of the analyzes return a precise photograph, not only of the odor intensity, but also of the types of chemical compounds present in the samples that produce the mix of odors, so as to be able to intervene in a precise and timely manner. The tool that analytically analyzes the smells or fragrances of the volatile substances contained in the products is also used in the food sector to unmask food sophistications such as, for example, those of olive oil, to verify the compositions of coffee, to evaluate the freshness of food or the transfer of substances contained in the packaging to food. If you want more information on the equipment for the analytical evaluation of odors write to us.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - New Investments for the Environment: Green Bond
New Investments for the Environment: Green Bond
Wednesday, 18th november 2020 | Environment

How to make ethical investments that are good for the environment Perhaps the shock to the market dates one of the largest international investment funds, the BlackRock , which had provided precise indications to its operators to turn towards investments in companies that were focused on the attention of the environment in their businesses. The Green Bond concept starts from this attention to the relationship between business and sustainability. What are Green Bonds? They are financial instruments, specifically corporate bonds , whose emissions are linked to projects in the field of the circular economy, renewable energies, the correct use of environmental resources, pollution prevention, transport and infrastructure, which have as their purpose the improvement of one or more parameters related to environmental sustainability. Who issues Green Bonds? Until a few years ago, bonds were issued mainly by supranational financial structures, such as the European Investment Bank or the World Bank , which managed large-scale international projects. Over the past few years, with the growing attention of the environment by citizens , these securities have also been issued by individual companies that could demonstrate that they have a project that falls within the parameters mentioned. The first Green Bond was issued in 2007 by the EIB which has so far raised investments to finance 256 projects in 52 countries around the world . The interest from investors was so important that, from 2016 to the beginning of 2020, the emissions on the market have grown, from 750 million euros to more than 50 billion worldwide . In 2019 alone, the growth of green bonds was 50% on 2018, which expressed in value, correspond to + 170 billion euros. Which countries issue the most green bonds?  European Union countries 226 billion  China 98 billion  United States 43 billion  Canada 14 billion  India 14 billion  Japan 13 billion  Korea 12 billion  Great Britain 8 billion  Another 154 billion Over the years, states have also issued government bonds that have, for example, the energy efficiency of public buildings or schools, the hydrogeological restructuring of risk areas and other initiatives. We can count among the issuing countries, Italy, Holland, Spain, Ireland, France and Germany. Who guarantees the “Green” standards? Until recently, every issuer, large or small, did it alone, so the relationship with the investor was exclusively fiduciary. Today there is the ICMA which is the International Capital Market Association , the largest international capital association, which has set some mandatory points to boast the green brand. Let’s see what they are:  The issuer of the bond is subject to maximum transparency towards the market, therefore he must clearly indicate the destination of what has been collected.  It must follow a “road map” for the choice, evaluation and selection of the projects to be financed which must fall into a list of categories.  He must communicate to the market and control bodies about the timely management of the money raised  Reports relating to the progress of the projects must be prepared and circulated so that investors can follow their investment. To give an example, we can cite the case of the oil giant Repsol that had acquired the green certificate from Vigeo Eiris in 2017, on the basis of a corporate project that aimed at a reduction of 1.2 million tons of CO2 per year, modifying then his own business model, which he did not do, being cited by the NGO CBI as not worthy of that certificate . A new regulation for the market The Green Bond phenomenon is taking on such vast boundaries that international regulation has also become necessary to protect investors. In February 2019 the European Commission and the EU Parliament issued a regulation defining for which families of projects companies can ask the market for money under the banner of green bonds. The families identified are:  Climate change mitigation  Protection and sustainable use of marine and hydrogeological resources  Transition to the circular economy  Pollution control and prevention  Protection and restoration of biodiversity During 2021 the rules will be issued that will detail the individual families of activities that will be indispensable to remove the shadows of greenwashing .

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Glass in the circular economy.
Glass in the circular economy.
Tuesday, 17th november 2020 | Circular economy

The increase in the use of glass can be seen at the supermarket. The turnover of glass packaging, in supermarket chains, is having an upward trend on many products found in the food wards. According to a survey made by Assovetro in Italy, 85% of the turnover of items such as beer, sauces and wine is covered by glass packaging. If we consider the percentage growth in the 2016-2019 three-year period, we always see positive data, with a 17% increase in turnover for glass sauces, 16% for beers and 13% for wine. Values ​​with smaller but always positive increases, we find them for products such as oil, juices and generic preserves, with a 10% increase for glass juices. These data were presented in Milan, at a conference on large-scale distribution in Italy, in which representatives from the production, distribution and food sectors participated. Consumers’ sensitivity to packaging other than plastic, even though born of a distorted idea that plastic can pollute in any case, brings a renewed interest in people’s purchases to the glass sector. It is therefore not only the premium beverage sector, which is growing in itself with products of high symbolic value or higher than the average quality level, but the entire sector including the sectors with the largest turnover in supermarkets. Taking this new positive wind towards the packaging of glass, the European packaging industry has set itself the goal, to reach by 2030, the average collection rate for glass destined for recycling, at 90%.  

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Composite polymer for flexible batteries
Composite polymer for flexible batteries
Monday, 16th november 2020 | Renewable energies

The world of industrial research is frantically at work in order to build new batteries with ever-increasing performance capabilities, studying new polymers and new flexible elements. The fields of application are the most varied: from sustainable mobility, to clean energy generation plants up to the small appliances we use every day. The imperative is to be able to concentrate the maximum duration in a battery, the lowest possible level of polluting compounds, the maximum possible power, depending on the size, and finally the practicality of use. The researchers, in this case, have gone very far, studying and designing a totally flexible battery that can be adapted to new uses, perhaps still unthinkable. As the magazine Advance Material reports, researchers at the Zurich Polytechnic have developed a very thin battery that can be folded, rolled up, crushed without ever losing the power of transmitting the current. This novelty can be used in small, commonly used appliances, but also in very thin objects such as work clothes and for leisure. The heart of this product is a flexible composite polymer , also containing carbon and therefore electrically conductive, which makes up the two collectors for the cathode and the anode and the external structure of the battery. The interior is made up of superimposed silver flakes so that they can be adapted to the flexibility of the elastomer movements with which the battery has been designed, thus ensuring the passage of current even in elastic conditions. Furthermore, lithium-manganese oxide and vanadium oxide powders were placed on the cathode and anode . As far as the electrolyte is concerned, that element which allows the passage of lithium ions, both during the phase of use of energy and during recharging, was constituted with a gel based on water containing lithium salt which is result less polluting than other elements present in current batteries.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Use of Regenerated Polymers in Bituminous Mixtures
The Use of Regenerated Polymers in Bituminous Mixtures
Sunday, 15th november 2020 | Technical information

What is the phase reversal mixture and how are regenerated polymers used in bituminous mixtures.At the beginning of the 60s of the last century, the bituminous waterproofing layer consisted mainly of bituminous paper and bitumen, in addition the bitumed glass felt had recently been introduced on the market, whose characteristics of dimensional stability and resistance were particularly appreciated. In the same period, as we saw in the article on Giulio Natta, a whole series of stereospecific catalysts that were used to create new chemical mixtures from which new polymers, such as polypropylene, would soon be polymerized. These new discoveries led to the manipulation of the chains of molecules creating an order of the same from the chemical point of view. The fact of being able to position all the molecules on the same side, gives the polymer chain some advantages, including a greater mechanical resistance and a greater resistance to heat, thus defining the obtained isotactic polymer. Its opposite, from the point of view of the position of the molecules, therefore in a disordered way, is defined as atactic. If we want to get into some technical values ​​that characterize isotactic polypropylene we can underline that the mechanical resistance reaches up to 400 kg / sqm. and heat resistance up to 150 ° C. The atactic polypropylene has instead the characteristic of being more malleable and elastic with elongations up to 600%. Among the regenerated polymers and additives that are used in bitumen mixtures, there is not only polypropylene but also: – LDPE – HDPE – EVA – TPO – Mineral Charges (talc or calcium carbonate) – the Thermoplastic rubbers – oils – the waxes. By mixing the regenerated polymers, in different percentages with the bitumen, according to the technical characteristic of the membrane to be obtained, we will have the modification of several general parameters: – Viscosity (increases) – The softening temperature (increases from 60 ° to 150 °) – Penetration (decreases, then increases walkability) – The temperature of fracture by cold bending (decreases from + 10 ° to – 20 ° eg) – Weather stability (duration) But what exactly happens when mixing between the bitumen and the regenerated polymers? In technical jargon the reaction, between bitumen and polymers, during mixing is called Phase Inversion. When a mixture is prepared, the amount of polymers is clearly lower than the amount of bitumen but, through the hot mixing of the ingredients, at a temperature higher than the melting temperature of the polymer, the so-called phase inversion takes place, where the ingredient minority, in this case the polymer, constitutes the carrier phase of the mixture, while the quantitatively majority ingredient, the dispersed phase. To make the phase inversion take place it is important to use distilled bitumen because it is rich in oils of the maltene fraction compatible with polymers. During the creation of the recipes, the producers of bitumen-polymer membranes use the regenerated polymers in the form of: – Granules – Flakes – Densified (only if easily dispersible) As far as granule filtration is normally required it is less than 800-1000 microns, while for the ground and the densified it is required a good degree of cleaning (washing) and a low moisture content in order not to have dangerous reactions during the mixing with the hot bitumen.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Will the increase in demand for glass put photovoltaics in crisis?
Will the increase in demand for glass put photovoltaics in crisis?
Sunday, 15th november 2020 | Renewable energies

That renewable energies have entered our life and our future expectations is a certainty by now and, for this reason, companies and the scientific community are committed to finding increasingly performing products that improve, not only the technical efficiency, but also reduce the cost of the energy produced, is an important wish. In quest optics photovoltaics has made enormous strides in just a few years, creating double-sided solar panels that allow for better performance, not only through direct light, but also managing to intercept the light reflected from the surfaces surrounding the panel. This technological improvement, however, requires more glass, creating an increase in demand for raw materials that has caused the price to skyrocket. The problem is not only of an economic nature, but also concerns the future availability of glass to be processed in the next few years, a resource that, if not found in relation to the demand for the market, it would put the sector in difficulty. If we analyze the problem from an economic point of view, therefore an increase in the costs of the raw material that make up a double-sided solar panel, we must consider that the share of current market for this type of panel is about 14% of those sold, forecasting an increase of up to 50% by 2022. So an increase in the price of the raw material that will invest, probably 50% of the market, could lead to an increase in the cost of the panel which, in the general economy of 'plant, risks excessively thinning the profit margins of the sector without state support interventions. Consequently, if solar projects were to be considered no longer profitable, investors would probably give up financing them with the consequence of reducing the growth of the sector. As regards the increase in demand for glass, there are areas on the planet where separate collection does not work or does not apply, the consequence of which is that the glass is not sent for recycling and therefore an important resource is lost. In other areas of the world, separate waste collection fails to cover the growing demand for glass to be recycled by the production industries, with the consequence of increasing prices and to reduce industrial productivity. China is the world's largest producer of solar panels and is experiencing the difficulty of finding raw materials and containing production costs, a problem so important that the largest solar panel manufacturers, such as LONGi Solar, have asked the Chinese government to take an interest in the problem. Considering that China, having declared its intention to reach carbon parity in 2060, is committed to increasing the production of energy from renewable sources, including solar is an irreplaceable pillar, increasing this type of production from the current 210 GW to around 2200 GW by 2060, a project that can also continue by solving the problem of the lack of glass on the market.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Otto Rohm: The Pioneer of the Plastic World
Otto Rohm: The Pioneer of the Plastic World
Saturday, 14th november 2020 | History

The visionary who studied “PMMA” and patented the Plexiglas Like all the illustrious pioneers in the world of plastics, Otto Rohm is a figure that cannot be confined to the figure of a brilliant inventor of a product that made epoch. His chemical preparation and determination to know characterized his life, prompting him to study and understand firsthand the mysteries that then hovered in industrial chemistry. Otto Rohm was born on March 14, 1876 in Ohringen, present-day Germany, and then at the age of 15 was employed as an aide at a pharmacy. This hard work training tempes him both in the rigour of work and in the curiosity and knowledge of basic chemistry. After a few years he qualified as a pharmacist who allowed him to enroll at the University of Tubingen, at the faculty of chemistry, reaching his degree in 1901, presenting the thesis “On the curing products of acrylic acids”. Despite his interest in polymers his first work and research experiences were done in the tantry world with the study of enzymes,developing an innovative process for the bite of leather. He produced a product called Oropon that allowed for a more hygienic process and better results. It was a high-level commercial achievement that involved Otto Rohm in establishing a commercial company in 1907 with his partner Otto Haas. Enzyme studies continue and result in innovative solutions applied to the world of detergents, beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. At the same time his research laboratories are working on acrylates and towards the end of the 20s also on metacrilates. Laboratory director Walter Bauer begins studies and trials on the use of metacrilates as layered glass. It is precisely through these studies that PMMA is born with the qualities, long sought, of transparency and hardness as opposed to acrylate, thus creating the famous Plexiglas. Photo Evonik Industries AG

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Environmental Responsibility Education. The church Becomes Green.
Environmental Responsibility Education. The church Becomes Green.
Wednesday, 11st november 2020 | Environment

How to collect waste and convert it into subsidies for the poor according to the principle of environmental sustainability. How to collect waste and convert it into subsidies for the poor according to the principle of environmental sustainability. The church of the whole world , driven by the indications of Pope Francis , is posing the problem of making a substantial contribution through correct behavioral policies and information on the theme of ecology, waste and waste. There are so many fields in which the church is working, from the most visible to those less showy or under everyone’s eyes. Among the most visible we can mention a choice made by the Church of England which, in collaboration with the company specialized in ecclesiastical clothing, Butler & Butler , launched the first tunic made of polyester fiber, created 100% with plastic bottles recycled . These are not makeshift fabrics but real high-quality products, soft and soft that have nothing to envy from traditional ones. But the Vatican’s indication of a family education in environmental responsibility touches on various aspects of the lives of the faithful: – Avoid plastic packaging that is not strictly necessary – Worry about properly separating waste at home – Avoid food waste – Reduce energy exploitation – Minimize CO2 production through the necessary mobility – Reduce water consumption In debates and religious functions the relationship between man and nature has returned to its centrality, lost over time and seeks to recover a balance, even spiritual, between the ecosystem and human life. But the initiatives do not end there. Among the less visible ones, we can mention an initiative by the Pope, who, through collaboration with the founders of Plastik Bank , a company that has developed a system for collecting plastic poured into the oceans, then transforming it into money, has launched initiatives of financial support for the indigent. Considering that currently it is estimated that around 9 million tons of plastic per year end up in the oceans , for some time this initiative will economically support a large number of poor people, waiting for the adoption, finally, of more drastic environmental solutions so that finish this ecological mess.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Separate collection of municipal waste in Italy
Separate collection of municipal waste in Italy
Tuesday, 10th november 2020 | Circular economy

Lights and shadows on the Italian system If we wanted to make a summary and general assessment of the situation of urban waste collection in Italy in 2018, we could say that of the 30 million tons collected, 58.1%, equal to 17.5 million tons, represent the collection differentiated, with a 2.6% growth compared to 2017. There is no doubt that Italy virtuously continues the process of making municipal waste management more efficient on the national territory , pursuing the objectives imposed by the European community. But the country system thrives on lights and shadows that are clearly expressed in the 2018 urban waste report presented by Ispra , in which there are marked differences both in the collection, in the selection and in the disposal of waste. The first interesting data show the% of collection, in 2018, divided by macro areas:  North 67.7%  Center 54.1  South 46.1 Where in the first three places we find regions such as Veneto with 73.7% collected, Trentino Alto Adige with 72.5% and Lombardy with 70.7%. On the opposite side of the statistics we find Sicily with 29.5%, Molise with 38.4% and Calabria with 45.2%. The differences in the percentages, albeit abnormal, suggest , however, substantial improvements in the last regions compared to 2017, with growth between 6 and 8% in just one year. As far as the product fractions are concerned, we find a collection, expressed in millions of tons, divided as follows:  Organic fraction 7.079  Card 3,418  Glass 2,118  Plastic 1,368  Metal 0.332  Wood 0.908  WEEE 0.255  Textiles 0.146  Other 1,908 In light of these numbers, a major problem can be identified regarding the geographical location of the waste disposal and processing plants of separate collection, as most of them are located in the north, thus creating a migration of the waste to be treated from the center. – south to the north. This leads to a worsening in environmental and economic terms for citizens , caused by the large amount of road trains that move every day. To understand this phenomenon we have to go into detail on the distribution of the plants on the Italian territory divided by activity. Plants for the organic fraction :  North 220  Center 50  South 69 Authorized landfills :  North 56  Center 25  South 46 Incinerators :  North 26  Center 6  South 6 In addition to these daily migrations of waste from central-southern to northern Italy, there is a quantity of waste that goes abroad and which represents 1.5% of the collected amount, equal to 465,000 tons. The main countries that accept Italian waste are:  Austria 84,934 Tons  Portugal 52.204 Ton  Slovenia 49.413 Ton  Spain 49,382 Tons  Bulgaria 39.365 Ton However, the problem of waste must be seen from a broader point of view concerning the national energy transition , which must be achieved through the circularity of what has been collected and selected and towards renewable forms of energy. The deficient plant situation does not only concern the waste sector but also embraces the other renewable energy sectors, where a share of wind, solar, hydroelectric and biomass plants are subject to dispute. Politics must give a strong signal and show the way, involving local administrations, towards a national need for circularity and clean energy, bypassing unnecessary parochialism and local opposition, the result, many times, of technical incompetence and a short-sighted vision of the future or political favors.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Fashion also wants its circularity. The MacArthur Foundation Vision
Fashion also wants its circularity. The MacArthur Foundation Vision
Tuesday, 10th november 2020 | rNEWS

The circularity of the economy is not made only by sectors that are apparently, to the public opinion, more visibly polluting, but must be applied to all types of production industrial. Fashion, for example, is not perceived as a polluting supply chain by the population, but the data of experts do not support this popular feeling, if we consider that every second the quantity of a truckload of textile materials is sent to landfill or burned. RadiciGroup, through the latest information, takes charge of the problem. RadiciGroup, partner of Ellen MacArthur Foundation's “Make Fashion Circular” initiative since 2018, recently participated in the drafting of the guidelines on circularity in fashion drawn up by association and based on the principles of the circular economy, with the aim of offering a concrete contribution to the reduction of waste in the textile-clothing world. Guidelines to be implemented as soon as possible if you think about the data quantified by EMF: every second, the equivalent of a truck of textile materials is sent to landfill or burned . It is estimated that approximately $ 500 billion in value is lost each year due to occasionally worn and rarely recycled clothing. The new "Vision of a Circular Economy for fashion" starts from the assumption that it is necessary to work together to bring profitable business models to an industrial scale, which however allow to rent, resell or launder clothes more easily. That's why it's based on in-depth research and contributions from around 100 organizations including fabric manufacturers, apparel manufacturers, brands, retailers, collectors, selectors, recyclers, academics, international institutions, and NGOs. Three key points of the vision: use more, reuse, start from renewable or recycled materials. RadiciGroup, manufacturer of polyamide yarns but also polyester and acrylic, is a "contributor" to the new EMF vision, providing expertise and experience in the formulation of solutions textiles able to realize the circular economy. For more info: www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Togo seeks energy independence with solar energy
Togo seeks energy independence with solar energy
Monday, 9th november 2020 | Renewable energies

The government has launched a new sustainable electrification plan for the country Africa is considered by the international renewable energy agency IRENA to be the power plant for renewable energy and the proof is that many countries, such as Togo, have started sustainable electrification programs. Togo , a small country in south-western Africa, whose name, in the Ewe language means “going to the water”, has a population of about 5.5 million inhabitants who live mainly in villages and deal with agriculture and sheep farming. The population suffers from the difficulty of accessing energy , in fact the network coverage, until 2016, covered only 30% of its territory with problems related to social and economic development. The Togolese government has decided to allocate 1.5 billion dollars to bring electricity coverage, by 2030, to 100% of its territory, choosing solar energy as a sustainable energy source. The choice of this renewable source has found wide support in the government, as both the territory and the distribution of the population per km. square imposed a project that would make the service available to everyone at the lowest possible cost and achievable in the right time. Solar energy is produced in the presence of the sun or with cloudy skies and allows to generate electricity, heating and desalination of water even in the most remote villages without the need for special structures. Today, photovoltaics is one of the most flexible, fast installation, sustainable energy technologies with low costs after falling panel prices and long life, considering that a solar panel lasts an average of 30 years. Probably today this form of energy has become the cheapest in relation to the distance of the consumer from the energy transmission networks.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Agreement between Eni gas and electricity, CNA Costruzioni and Harley & Dikkinson for Energy Refurbishment
Agreement between Eni gas and electricity, CNA Costruzioni and Harley & Dikkinson for Energy Refurbishment
Monday, 9th november 2020 | rNEWS

The agreement between Eni gas and electricity, CNA COSTRUZIONI and Harley & Dikkinson, announced through Eni's press release, in order to promote citizens' approach to government incentives on energy redevelopment, carries out a constructive project of information and management of both technical and fiscal problems, which meets the implementation problems on restructuring interventions and on the national objectives of changing the Italian real estate assets in the direction of sustainability.  Eni gas and light, CNA COSTRUZIONI and Harley & Dikkinson have entered into an agreement to promote the opportunities related to energy redevelopment and the seismic safety of buildings, in order to take advantage of the opportunities of tax incentives in the eco-bonus, sismabonus and Superbonus 110%, introduced by recent Relaunch Decree 34/2020 (converted into law no. 77 of 17 July 2020). Furthermore, thanks to this agreement, the national network of territorial consortia, promoted by CNA Costruzioni and called Riqualifichiamo d'Italia, will be able to join as a Partner CoatMio service with the possibility, in particular, to transfer tax credits deriving from the interventions to Eni gas and electricity The agreement signed between Eni gas and electricity, CNA Costruzioni and Harley & Dikkinson pursues the strategic objective of increasing the country's interest in reducing energy consumption, which bring concrete benefits to the environment, while at the same time enhancing the housing stock and increasing market opportunities for construction companies. Through the realization of specific training meetings on the national territory, also provided in webinar mode, in which the experts of Eni gas and light and Harley & Dikkinson will participate, together with specific communications through the information channels of CNA COSTRUZIONI, all consortia of companies that adhere to Riqualifichiamo d'Italia will be able to deepen the opportunities deriving from energy requalification interventions and the seismic safety of buildings, also thanks to the incentives provided, with the possibility, if desired, to qualify as a partner of Eni's Gas and Light CoatMio Project. “Thanks to this agreement, we have the opportunity to increase the number of CoatMio partner companies to consolidate our capillarity throughout the national territory and offer a high standard of service quality to the customer ”commented Alberto Chiarini, Chief Executive Officer of Eni gas and light. "For Eni gas and light it is essential to promote synergies also with the trade associations of crafts and small and medium enterprises such as CNA COSTRUZIONI to offer a development opportunity to local economies, with the common goal of increasing comfort and value of customers' homes to make a more rational and efficient use of energy, to use it less and better ". "CNA COSTRUZIONI - declares its national President Enzo Ponzio - with this initiative it intends to position the artisan companies and associated SMEs in the best possible way on the Italian real estate stock redevelopment market and urban regeneration, enhancing their protagonism and their entrepreneurial autonomy, making the best use of the widespread and widespread presence throughout the national territory of our entrepreneurial association. And this to the advantage of all the actors involved: citizens, businesses and territorial Public Administration and national " Alessandro Ponti, CEO of Harley & Dikkinson, finally declared, "H&D, which has always aimed at optimizing technology, organization and, above all, financial relationships that contribute to the enhancement of the building, in the project of the transfer of the tax credit, right from the start, he wanted to work alongside important trade associations such as CNA Costruzioni and its associates in order to guarantee the autonomy of the entire redevelopment chain. "

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The inner layer of the corrugated pipes
The inner layer of the corrugated pipes
Sunday, 8th november 2020 | Technical information

How to obtain a correct internal wall of a corrugated pipe with a regenerated LDPE granule.By producing flexible corrugated pipes in rolls or small double-walled rigid diameters, the problem of making a good quality inner layer has led manufacturers to frequently use virgin polymers due to the difficulty of generating a correct and durable wall with the material regenerated. In reality the inner layer of the pipes, due to its characteristics, needs special attention due to the small thickness of the wall, the tensions that are created in the co-extrusion phase and the different thermal movements with the external wall. The choice of the raw material normally falls on the LDPE whose main characteristic required is elasticity and good adhesion to the external HDPE layer. If you want to use a regenerated LDPE granule, keep in mind and analyze some important production factors to be able to choose a LDPE granule of quality suitable for the purpose. When we talk about regenerated granules, it is not sufficient to verify whether the product offered to us has a “pipe” grade, as it is sometimes mistakenly sold, since the inner wall of a corrugated tube requires a granule with well-defined characteristics. First of all we have to ascertain the origin of the input of the material that constitutes the granule, starting to understand if it comes from a post-industrial supply chain and from post-consumption. These two families, we will see later, have very different characteristics that will influence the production of the pipe in different ways. Secondly, we need to verify from which product the input is made to understand the history of the material being recycled and the possible problems it has encountered in its recycling life. The third thing is to verify the technical values, then the melt index, the DSC and the density of the material that will make us understand exactly how the granule we will use for the inner wall of the corrugated tube is made. The fourth thing is to know the production process of the granule proposed in particular how the selection of the waste is done, the washing and the extrusion to have more data that help us to choose the most suitable product. The last thing, very important for the granule that comes from post-consumption is to understand the degree of humidity present in the product at the time of purchase as a high value will affect the quality of the wall if no appropriate measures are taken. It is obvious that the points listed above are not completely exhaustive in the technical analysis of a granule, but I can say that for the application we are talking about today, they are a good starting point considering that they are data that are not difficult to find. If we want to go into the above points, we will start by talking about the input families that can be used for the production of the inner wall of the corrugated tube. We have seen that it is possible to produce a granule with material coming from separate collection or from industrial waste. The post-consumer supply chain makes it possible to have a quantitative source much greater than that coming from industrial waste and therefore it would seem the best way to satisfy production requirements, but the technical characteristics that the production of the internal LDPE wall of a pipe requires corrugated puts stakes to its use. By its very nature, the LD that comes from separate collection, despite a good selection and washing, presents a percentage of foreign materials (PVC, poly-coupled, PP, etc. ..) that behave in contrast to what we expect from the point qualitative view. The wastes that come instead from the production of LDPE articles are normally virgin or off grade materials, which by their nature are composed of mono-plastics and therefore do not contain impurities. There is usually no need to wash them and they have very specific technical characteristics. There are also LDPE Compounds made on the market using post-consumer and post-industrial portions, combining a selection of materials suitable for the production of the internal wall. If the verification of the origin of the post-industrial input does not involve great commitment, for the other two categories more attention must be paid. For post-consumption it is advisable to privilege material such as the film but which has not come into contact with domestic separate waste collection, for example garbage bags or food packaging, which carry pollutants that are difficult to completely eliminate. Another advisable source is the irrigation pipes which however need very accurate washing cycles as they contain a fraction of sand that compromises the quality if not completely removed. For the production of mixed post-consumer / post-industrial compounds, films from industrial packaging are normally used which have a collection chain separate from household waste, maintaining higher quality characteristics. As far as the quality control of the product granule is concerned, there are some essential tests I would say. The calculation of the MFI tells us if the material is suitable for the extrusion operation of our wall, this value should be between 0.5 and 1 at 190 ’/ 2.16 Kg. The second test is the DSC which gives us the radiography of our granule, an essential test especially if you want to use a post-consumer source. This test tells us how much LDPE in % is contained in the recipe and how many and which other components are present. The SDC, in particular, tells us if a granule can be suitable to create thin, homogeneous and smooth walls. Once the DSC test is done, it is easier to guess the result of the density value which is influenced, with respect to the standard value of the LDPE, by materials other than the primary one. A good rule for the evaluation of the quality of the granule to be chosen would be to know the history of the recycling that led to the birth of the same. After discussing the choice of input it is a good rule to know the recycling method that the supplier adopts. In particular, the type of washing significantly influences the presence of pollutants with high density in the waste, therefore, if the operation is carried out in short tanks or / and with a transit speed of the same high, or with a high concentration of pollutants in the wash water due to its low turnover, the probability of having a high accumulation of gas or rigid parts inside the granule is very likely. The second thing to check is the quality of filtration which is very much influenced by the quality of the washing. We could say that an increase in attention during washing can correspond to a lower performance requirement of filtering systems. In reality, correct washing in terms of tank dimensions, input transit speed and water quality are not topics that are very popular among recyclers as everything translates into higher production costs and sometimes granule prices from post-consumption are definitely compressed due also to the presence on the market of a low quality offer at low prices. In any case, if you want to make a good granule for the inner wall of the flexible corrugated pipe, these precautions should be respected including the correct filtering operation that would foresee the use of continuous or scraping plants with progressive filters up to 50 microns. As a last indication in terms of raw material I suggest an attention to the degree of humidity present in the LDPE big bag that is purchased because the presence of this involves a micro deformation of the surface film that makes up the wall of our pipe and a greater difficulty in terms of extruder speed. The excessive humidity creates that orange peel effect on the walls which is a kind of unsightly and non-functional roughness. However, the consequences of humidity, moreover normally solvable during the extrusion of the pipe, is not to be confused with the negative result produced by an accumulation of gas inside the granule, for which there are few weapons available.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Was Marx’s Ecological Socialism Wrong?
Was Marx’s Ecological Socialism Wrong?
Saturday, 7th november 2020 | History

There is a recurring mention of the current nature of certain Marxist theories in the light of the precarious environmental conditions of the earth At a time when the suffering of the environment and the diminishing balance between the elements of nature, as we have always known them, are putting man in difficulty and his survival, we are starting to talk about social ecology again. In this period and in the recent past, because of the compromised environmental situation,the growth of the economic inequalities that create more and more poor and ecological migrants and consumerism taken to the extreme, in which the goods are perhaps worth more than the work of man, the return to reading of classical philosophy and great thinkers, such as Plato, Gandhi and Karl Marx have made us find precise references to the relationship between man and nature. Marx begins to speak of this, drawing on a precise situation that occurred between 1830 and 1870, a period in which both In Europe and North America there was a widespread loss of fertility in cultivated soils. To underline the seriousness of the situation is the fact that from 1835 the first ships of wheat began to arrive in England to rescue the sick European agriculture, arriving to import in 1847 as many as 220,000 tons. The alarm created by this situation does not escape a shrewd observer like Marx, who develops a theory on the capitalist exploitation of agriculture, based on the impoverishment of soils without worrying about their regeneration and their productive balance against future generations. Citing a passage from the chapter “Genesis of the capitalist land annuity” that is part of the third book of the Capital Marx says: ‘Large land ownership reduces the agricultural population to a minimum, at an continuously decreasing percentage, and contrasts it with an industrial population that is constantly growing and concentrated in large cities; in this way creates conditions that cause an unbridgeable fracture in the complex balance of social metabolism prescribed by the natural laws of life. It thus creates the conditions that cause the waste of soil energy, a waste that trade transfers far beyond the borders of the country considered. Large industry and large industrial agriculture are acting in the same direction. Originally they are distinguished because the industry devastates and spoils above all the workforce and therefore the natural strength of the human being, while agriculture more directly ruins the natural strength of the earth, but then, as it develops, they end up giving way: the industrial system in the countryside ends up debilitating workers too, and industry and commerce, for their part, provide agriculture with the means to exploit the land.” Marx also mentions the lack of circularity of the economy,comparing the low fertility of the countryside with the poisoning of rivers perpetrated in the big cities. In fact, he writes: “In London, for example, manure produced by four and a half million people was not better to do than to use it to poison the Thames at a huge cost.” ‘The residues from the natural physiological processes of human beings could, like those of industrial production and consumption, be reintroduced into the production cycle, closing the metabolic cycle.’ Marx speaks several times about a new relationship between nature and man,where agriculture could not undergo an industrial and capitalist approach based on immediate profit, so as to debilitate the land without worrying about creating a proper harmony with it. In his writings we find a quote about: “The fact that, for the cultivation of the different soil products, the fluctuations in market prices, which lead to a continuous change in those crops, and the very spirit of capitalist production, centered on the most immediate profit, are at odds with agriculture, which must manage production taking into account the whole of the permanent living conditions of the human generations that follow.” The modern aspect of sustainability is often found when Marx stresses that the earth cannot belong to the contemporary man who allows himself to make intensive exploitation for his benefit, but must think of future generations. This aspect is discussed below: “A development that responds to the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own.” For Marx, it is necessary for the earth to be “treated consciously and rationally as a perpetual property of the community, an inalienable condition of existence and reproduction of the series of successive generations.” Although Marx has received sustained criticism who argued his disinterest in the value of nature, himself repeatedly expressed the concept that true wealth consists of the values of use, which characterize production in general, beyond its capitalist form, therefore nature, which contributes to the production of values of use, is as much a source of wealth as work.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Music as an Environmental Commitment and Social Testimony
Music as an Environmental Commitment and Social Testimony
Friday, 6th november 2020 | History

Musicians, music and musical philanthropy in recent history. We can be young or old, right or left, musical or anarchist of sounds, classic or rock, cold or participatory, optimistic or pessimistic but, if we hear the word Woodstock I think there are few people who ask: what is it? Because the commitment of the musicians to social causes began right from that concert, in August 1969 , in the American town of Bethel where about 400.00 young people gathered for three days, some say up to 1 million, recalled by 32 musicians who would perform in rotation. They were the idols of the new generations: Joan Beaz, Santana, The Who, Neil Young, Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix just to name a few who, through an oceanic concert, wanted to protest against racial segregation, the war in Vietnam and against the capitalist system American. Woodstock was certainly a historic watershed, but also a social one where nothing, from the point of view of musical communication, was as before and where people divided among those who were for or against the Woodstock system. Those who saw in this mobilization the means to break the rigid moral patterns of the time, using a new means of musical communication, making Hippy culture openly triumph, despite some excesses, and on the other side those who saw in these noisy gatherings of young people a moral decay of society. But by now the seed had been thrown into fertile soil, so on 13 July 1985 another world event was organized, the Live Aid , with the creation of two stages, one in Philadelphia and the other in London, connected live worldwide through television. It was an opportunity to raise funds for Ethiopia which was hit by a terrible famine. The quality of the artists who performed was of the highest level: Queen, with Freddie Mercury hypnotizing the audience , U2, David Bowie, Led Zeppelin, Tina Turner, Madonna, Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones and many others. The concert was seen on television by over one and a half billion people , raising 70 million dollars, demonstrating that music had in effect become a media phenomenon that could move consciences and have a social weight to consider. Also in this case there were controversies, between those who appreciated the new disruptive force of an expression that came from the people, and those who saw in these events a narcissistic showcase of the artists. Controversy after a portion of the funds destined for Ethiopia was stolen by Mengistu Haile Mariam. The Live Aid model repeated itself in other concerts between 1996 and 2001 for the cause of Tibet’s independence. Social problems over the years and beneficial concerts multiplied, remember the concert in 2001 ” a Tribute to Heros ” which wanted to remember the fallen of the Twin Towers in New York , where the singers performed on a bare stage, adorned only with candles in memory of the victims. We can also remember the concert organized by George Clooney “Hope for Haiti” following the devastating earthquake that hit the island and broadcast by MTV. Not only did the Rock flow in the veins of the singers who over the years have turned into musical philanthropists, but also top-level characters such as Pavarotti, who organized various “Pavarotti and Friends” , ventured . Over the years Pavarotti brought together many famous people for various initiatives: support for Bosnian children, the fight against thalassemia, Afghan populations and many others. Today, where the problem of climate change is very topical, musicians want to testify to their concern and support for the environmental cause. For example, Coldplay decided to stop all live concerts until a solution could be found to play with impact 0. Other singers such as Michael Stipe, ex REM , has released a new song ” Drive To The Ocean ” online, the proceeds of which will go to the association ” Pathway To Paris “, an association that brings together several artists who are fighting to spread the agreement on the reduction of CO2 emissions decided in Paris. It is not possible to mention all the environmental initiatives that musicians are supporting today, and it is for this impossibility given by the numbers that makes us understand the musical movement is always at the forefront alongside the causes that people care about.Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - First Course for Experts in Circular Economy for Industry
First Course for Experts in Circular Economy for Industry
Friday, 6th november 2020 | rNEWS

Interest in the circular economy is no longer expressed only in the dreams or good intentions of environmentalists or ordinary citizens, but has now become an industrial need to be pursued in order to respond to market demands. The stringent European legislation on polluting emissions and the need to produce in a sustainable way have increased the demand for new specialized professionals in the world of work. As La Repubblica reports in this article, the world of work is in turmoil for these important transformations. Green and sustainability have ever greater numbers: over 3 million employees. And now Experts in Circular Economy are being trained for industry Sustainability, circular economy, green. They are no longer trends or fashions, but new economic and social paradigms. On their growth, which will be pushed even more by large community investments, various aspects of society will be shaped, starting with training. Meanwhile, the numbers of the Symbola Foundation report: Italians working in the green are 3.1 million, 432 thousand companies that have invested in the last 5 years green economy, green employment growth of 3.4% from 2017 to 2018. According to the numbers contained in a LinkedIn survey, Italy is one of the best countries for a career in 'green jobs', with Milan 7th place worldwide for the concentration of sustainability professionals. Europe has seen a 13% increase in the number of sustainability professionals over the past year, up 7.5%, higher than to the global average. Demand for sustainability-related jobs also grew by 49% of the jobs available on LinkedIn for sustainability-related roles in Europe. As regards work in the circular economy, Italy is second only to Germany, with 517,000 employed against 659,000. The people who are employed in the 'circular' sectors in our country are 2.06% of the total, a value higher than the EU average 28 which is 1.7% (source: National report on the circular economy in Italy, produced by Circular Economy Network). In such a scenario, the world of education is setting itself the theme of creating professional figures that are consistent with market trends. Especially in the application of the concepts of the circular economy to the world of industry. & Nbsp;he first advanced technical training course for circular economy experts for industry , promoted by ART-ER (the Emilia-Romagna Consortium, with the aim of promoting sustainable growth in the region) as part of the European IFTS Circular Society project. The world of professional training is increasingly oriented towards sustainability but the particularity of this course, unique in Italy, is the creation of a new professional figure, that of Technician for Sustainability and Circular Economy of Industrial Processes with the release of a Certificate of Superior Technical Specialization. A figure increasingly requested by the world of work.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Trends in the European Labor Market 2020-2021
Trends in the European Labor Market 2020-2021
Thursday, 5th november 2020 | rNEWS

Work, in the period of Covid-19, has changed our habits, both for those looking for a job for those who need to hire. Social distancing must be married to the need to continue producing, in all sectors, an economy that is safer for health but at the same time equally efficient. This Jobsora article analyzes the characteristic aspects of the world of work in the pandemic era. It's a new world order and the way we live is changing faster than we ever could have imagined. Who could have predicted that the businesses that survive in the first quarter of 2020 will only be those with activities that can be carried out remotely? This is a change that we have never seen coming and for which many companies were not prepared. But the change is here and it is right for companies to learn to adapt to the new trend. The tides have changed rapidly in the job market and while some opportunities are disappearing, others are emerging. Now, it's all about the question of value. Those who are less valuable to their companies are losing their jobs. Some roles are vacant and need competent people to fill them. These, among other trends, are what we will look at in this article, as the world is working hard to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. Europe in the last month has become the epicenter of the CoronaVirus pandemic, with countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Spain, among others suffering high death rates. This led to a lockdown that changed the job market as we know it. There is a reduction in the need for physical work and more for intellectual work. This simply says one thing: the future we have been waiting for is here. Effect of the blockade on the European labor market In a recent report, several million jobs are at risk if the lockdown continues for months. In fact, the study was specific in reporting that about one fifth of all workers are threatened. And this can only be curbed if the blockade in Great Britain and other European countries is phased out in some very important areas. This indicates that some sectors of the economy that are not considered essential elements may hit rock bottom. The good news, however, is that many people are adapting their skills to take on new roles. While there is a drastic job loss across multiple wholesale, retail, hotel, restaurant and pub businesses, the world's digital infrastructure is promoting remote jobs. However, despite these changes in the way people work, the economy is still taking a hit. This is simply telling the importance of the job market. Your work is important for the growth and sustenance of the country. The collapse of the labor market is synonymous with the collapse of the economy and this requires a real-time evolution of the functioning of the labor market. For countries that are primarily labor market driven, the blockade has led the state to intervene to ease the pressure on families. But there is only a limit to how long it can persist. The effect is currently detrimental to the job market, which places an emphasis on drastic change in the future of work. It cannot be said that the section of the labor market that is performing efficiently in this period is the remote section of the jobs. The world has changed, a new way of living and business is emerging, start-ups are popping up and companies are working remotely. The labor market is rapidly changing and many do not seem to recognize this fact. This is a change and you, as a job seeker, need to be ready. Reality of the works during the COVID-19 pandemic The way we work has changed forever. Those who are not ready for this change will be left behind, except they will learn to adapt to the change. This change is happening in real time and very few are noticing it. Remote working is what holds different companies together. While this change hasn't been easy so far, we continue to learn how to make things better. People remake their plans to adjust to the new conditions they have to work with. At first it was a difficult thing to overcome. However, time has helped the workers to adapt. The truth is that the skill required to get a job right now is different from what was expected. Now to be on the side of the income you need the basics of a computer, an internet connection, smart devices, etc. You need soft skills, programming knowledge, writing knowledge. Most of these factors were unnecessary in the pre-Covid world. One thing, however, is certain, the Covid world and the post-Covid world require these skills. The workflow of companies has been facilitated by the presence of e-mails, video conferencing platforms, chat rooms, among others. Several companies are resigning themselves to the fact that they will not resume work after the COVID-19 pandemic ends. If companies can work entirely remotely right now, there's no need to rent or have physical meeting space. The Internet infrastructure over the year has developed to a level where it can facilitate these needs. Another big change is the fact that the 8 hour work period will be canceled. This is because workers are always online. Now this could have a downside, as it's easy to lose track of the time allotted to work. It is therefore up to the worker to set up a system that adapts to work, family time, personal time, free time, etc. The boundary must be set by the individual, as traditional working time limits are no longer there. This makes it harder for workers to maintain a good quality of life, which means it's time to learn how to balance work with the usual lifestyle. What is the future of work now? There has been a lot of speculation in recent years about what the future of work will look like, how robots and other automated systems will replace people. These speculations went beyond predicting a future of more collaborative teams, the need for emotional intelligence, among other factors describing the need for smarter humans in the workplace. All these speculations and forecasts certainly did not put the Covid-19 pandemic into perspective. A couple of months ago, no one would have believed that there could ever be an outbreak of disease that would bring the world to its knees and bring about a total blockade. While many agree that this is a revolution and that the evidence is seen in the way we are currently working and how others are planning to work post-covid, remains to be established globally; what would you need to work in the future? No matter how vague the future is right now, certain factors and elements are bound to influence how we work in the future. There will certainly be innovation and evolution in the way the Internet promotes work. The world of science fiction we've always seen on TV is bound to reach us faster than we ever imagined. The digital transformation of the world is set to be accelerated. The information will be available to anyone. This will result in faster and more flexible jobs Also, due to the increased focus on the agenda, extensive PowerPoint presentations are not needed, leading to a drastic reduction in the time spent on meeting. Intermediaries and consultants have long been an intrinsic part of the traditional way of working. However, this is about to change as we advance into the future. There will be a reduced need for project managers, nor for executive assistants, and manager roles will disappear. Rather than managers, more and more organizations will adopt "leaders". Business travel has always been an escape from office work, but this is changing, as communication between potential partners, investors and colleagues will be digital. Directly from your living room, you can contact, communicate and win the signature of investors and partners in other countries. This revolution is upon us. So far the gig economy has been going well. However, there will certainly be an increase in the number of people working from home. Companies will seek to reduce staff, in favor of hiring self-employed workers when needed. In addition to this, most full-time workers should also work from home. This is a new dawn for remote work. Conclusion The change that is happening in the world is as visible as possible, even the blind can see it. It is however pertinent that you prepare yourself for the future, no matter how uncertain you seem. You need to be familiar with digital skills and tools to survive in the upcoming future. Once you are qualified and ready to take a job, start your search for remote jobs in Europe at Jobsora.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Are you Looking for a Job but Have a CV Similar to Many Others? What to Do
Are you Looking for a Job but Have a CV Similar to Many Others? What to Do
Thursday, 5th november 2020 | General News

Are you looking for a job in the ’circular economy ? Do you want to change it? Have you already sent hundreds of resumes and are you still waiting? STOP! Try to imagine how many CVs the companies receive, how many, the personnel selection managers of the specialized firms, have to screen every day. Probably the law of large numbers will lead to the impossibility that all the CVs sent can get the attention they deserve, or perhaps they could end up directly in a basket. What to do then ? What you can do is convey your empathy , professionalism, reliability and competence to the scrutineer, something that you will not be able to do, probably, only by filling a CV with personal data. Preparing a presentation that stimulates companies to request your resume and, probably, to call you is as important as being able to be seen online, always. Using the free service rMIX (Job)  you can introduce yourself and tell what a CV cannot contain: your aspirations, your experiences, your ideas, your reliability and why they should choose you. The presentation will be anonymous, translated into 4 languages (IT, UK, ESP, F) , accompanied by a number and will remain so until your CV is requested, on that occasion we will notify you to whom we will send it. Your presentation will remain available online on the page rMIX Job as long as you want and can be made inactive with your simple email quoting the presentation number or sending the link to it. The portal is visited in 154 countries around the world by companies operating in the circular economy. Furthermore, if you want to push your CV and your presentation, you can also take advantage of the Newsletter service that will deliver your professional figure to about 6400 companies worldwide. So let's get started. Send your presentation and your CV

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Long Playing PVC Discs VS Streaming: What Environmental Impact?
Long Playing PVC Discs VS Streaming: What Environmental Impact?
Tuesday, 3rd november 2020 | Environment

La demonización de los discos de vinilo de PVC, como el plástico, es exagerada y superficial The demonization of PVC vinyl records, as plastic, is exaggerated and superficial. In the era of digitalization and musical immateriality we think that the disc , or as it was called in the past, LP , can have a negative environmental impact as it is produced with PVC, a virgin plastic derived from oil and that the music we listen to in streaming, not being reproduced by a solid object, such as a disc, has little or no impact. Nothing more wrong . The history of 33 rpm vinyl records , was born in 1948, at the end of the second world war, by ColumbiaRecords in the United States , following a technological evolution of the musical production that was governed by shellac records, the famous 78 laps , which allowed a greater listening in terms of time, reaching 30-40 minutes per side. The technical innovations concerned not only the materials used for the production of the disc , passing precisely from the wax of 78 rpm to the PVC of 33 rpm, but also through the innovations on the technology of reproducing music on the disc itself. It then passed on the technology of the 78s, which used a macro deep furrow, to the microgroove technology with the storage of sound signals by analogy. If the material that made up the 33 rpm remained fairly unchanged over the years, the quality of the engraved sound gradually increased starting from the 60s of the last century, when the quadraphonic matrix technology was introduced, recording the musical signals separately in the disc, giving the impression of being wrapped in music. Although this technology did not take off significantly due to the high cost of music reproduction systems, the LP had a formidable worldwide success , an undisputed means of listening to music until the end of the 70s when the production of cassettes began and from the years 80 that of CDs . The downward trend in vinyl record sales continued until the early 1990s when production ceased in much of the world. Today in which we live in the era of the use of products, without owning them, music is listened to in streaming, on platforms such as Spotify , Apple Music , just to name a few, in a continuous disposable activity, with enormous listening volumes . Precisely in this period of immateriality, possession of the LP as a collector’s item is returning to the fore, as if it were a painting, a precious book, a jewel, which are and will be elements that will be part of our life. This activity does not only concern the old 33 rpm records printed in the 60-80s, but also concerns the new productions, so much so that the record companies have again equipped themselves to provide a physical format to the music of their artists. But how is an LP made? Vinyl records are made through the hot molding process, using a press fed by a granulated PVC , suitably modified and called a biscuit , with which the shape and grooves from a mother mold are made. After pressing, the discs may have irregular edges, which is why they are trimmed to give the disc the appearance we all know. Does the PVC disc pollute more than streaming? We can therefore say that a PVC disc is nothing but one of the many plastic products that are made in the world and that its existence, in itself, is not a polluting element, but like all products, even non-plastic ones , must to be part of a circular economy. It makes species read authoritative test articles that define a PVC product, as such, dangerous for the environment and the health of workers , following the fumes and pollutants that the productions would make. What has been said, which follows the popular wave, with little competence on the problem of plastic, does not do much species , but it leads to a certain perplexity to think that first level newspapers, treat the problem of plastic so unprofessionally and of PVC. In any case, the LP, has a production, in quantitative terms, very limited and even more unlikely that the vinyl record will end up after listening in the dustbin, as it is an object that creates empathy with those who bought it and it will probably be preserved with great care and for a long time. However, we must also consider the impact that listening to streaming music produces every day on the environment, because the fact of not owning an object, such as a disc that could turn into waste, does not mean that the environmental impact of listening music is zero. For the willingness of billions of pieces of music on our phones, laptops or tablets involves storing music files in special facilities, which are fed by using the ‘energy that is not always renewable. If it is true that streaming a single song involves very limited energy consumption, it is also true that the availability of unlimited music has increased the listening of the songs exponentially with the relative environmental consequences . In the United States, it has been estimated that emissions, in terms of greenhouse gases, related to the music streaming sector, are around 200 million tons , according to conservative estimates and 350 million according to other estimates.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Cellulose Fiber or rPET Bottles: the New Challenge of Food Packaging
Cellulose Fiber or rPET Bottles: the New Challenge of Food Packaging
Tuesday, 3rd november 2020 | Circular economy

Glass, plastic and aluminum are raw materials that we find on our tables expressed in bottles for drinks, but today there may be a new, eco-sustainable raw material that could replace the old materials. We are talking about the cellulose fiber that comes from sustainable forest management, where trees that are felled they are replaced in greater numbers, creating a benefit on the increasing absorption of CO2 in the atmosphere. The bottle Coca-Cola is thinking about is now made of cellulose fiber with a rPET bag inside and a plastic cap, which ensure compliance with food regulations. But the future for Coca-Cola is also replacing the inner rPET bag and the plastic cap with materials that are fully compatible with the external structure in cellulose fiber, so it can be recycled like any paper, but can and must comply with all safety standards for food packaging. Coca-Cola is not the only company working on this project, in fact other well-known companies such as L'Oréal, Carlsberg, Pernot Ricard and Alpla are studying cellulose fiber packaging to find an alternative to plastic, glass and aluminum. The basis of these researches and these new projects start from the concept of giving the consumer a product that appears to have less impact on the environment and, certainly, intensive reforestation for the supply of cellulose fiber it has an excellent environmental and social impact. But we must not forget that paper or glass or plastic or aluminum packaging, at the end of their life cycle always remains a waste and, for this reason, it must be recycled and not dispersed in the environment with the false belief that being made of paper, the packaging could be abandoned wherever it suits us, as if they were recycling themselves. Photo: Paboco

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How out-of-law ships are demolished
How out-of-law ships are demolished
Monday, 2nd november 2020 | Circular economy

Circumvent the principles of the circular economy and pollute the environment for money How to pollute the environment and manipulate the principles of the circular economy by illegally demolishing ships. The scrapping of ships is an activity of great interest from the point of view of the circular economy as hundreds of thousands of tons of raw materials are recovered every year, especially steel, which is part of the production circuit safeguarding the environment and saving resources natural and pollution to produce new raw materials. Is it all that simple? Unfortunately not. Ship demolitions should be carried out in one of the 41 authorized plants around the world, where the material to be recycled is sent to authorized and specialized centers and the dangerous and polluting substances, which are present on the ships, find a correct location, preventing them from going dispersed in the environment . In reality, some shipowners, for reasons of mere profit, prefer to sell the ship they want to scrap to companies operating outside the rules of the circular economy and the environment , collecting a much more attractive price than the authorized centers. The business is more important than what is believed, if we consider that, according to the information of the NGO Shipbreaking , 674 oceanic, commercial, floating and offshore platforms, cargo, oil tankers and passengers were sold to the demolition yards in 2019 . This practice, called ” Shipwrecking “, is carried out on the beaches mainly of three countries: Banglasedh, India and Packistan , whose local companies, which deal with the demolition, pay up to 400 UDS per light ton (ltd) which corresponds to about 3-4 times more than the revenue that a shipowner can obtain by having his ship demolished in an authorized European shipyard. Where’s the profit? Those who buy ships in these countries, at a higher market price than the authorized shipyards, leverage the low labor costs , the low consideration on the health and safety of workers and the failure to respect the disposal of waste and dangerous substances in authorized centers and with correct procedures. While those who resell ships, in the face of greater profits, circumvent international laws, which require controlled disposal, making the ships change the flag during the last voyage and taking away any responsibility for the end of the vessel. For the change of flag and therefore of ownership, the demolitioners themselves take care of the whole bureaucratic process by simplifying the operations. What is the impact on the environment? On the beaches of Chattogram, Alang and Gadani and others, ships are dismantled transforming places that until recently were uncontaminated, in open-air landfills where noble materials, such as steel, are resold for lamination to local industries , while the less noble ones and the polluting or toxic agents are dispersed in the environment, such as lead, polychrolated biphenyl asbestos, mercury and radio . Bangladesh, according to the NGO Shipbreaking, is the preferred landfill for boats that have transported toxic substances, causing irreparable damage to the environment in a tidal movement area. What do international regulations say? According to the Hong Kong convention passed by the international maritime organization, there are very precise and detailed rules on the disposal of a ship at the end of its life, in addition there is the European regulation which came into force on January 1, 2019, which requires the disposal of boats only in authorized centers. Furthermore, although worker protection rules are not an aspect of maritime ship disposal regulations, they are often disregarded for completing these types of activities. In particular, the handling of toxic or dangerous substances without adequate protective equipment, the lack of medical and assistance facilities and the lack of prevention of accidents at work. What can be done? As we have seen, some shipowners do not deliver the ship to authorized disposal centers, but sell it before demolition to unauthorized companies, enjoying a simple and tested procedure that does not make it take risks. A decisive international political action could change the rules that allow the circumvention of the law in terms of last ownership and the subsequent demolition of the ship, the prohibition of disposal in unauthorized sites which must also affect, to some extent, the shipowner for whom the ship went into service. International police authorities and environmental protection authorities must continue the investigation work to prosecute those who create environmental disasters for profit, also endangering the health of workers. In the meantime, financial institutions have started to discourage investments towards companies that do not follow a circularity policy of the economy and that do not show that they have a green footprint on their business. In fact, they are defining the oil industry and have also started a withdrawal from the shipping companies, as happened in 2018 when the KLP and GPFG pension funds , lightened their portfolio on the shipping companies.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Illegal E-Waste: in the Land of the Walking Dead
Illegal E-Waste: in the Land of the Walking Dead
Monday, 2nd november 2020 | Environment

Some time ago we dealt with the problem of the landfill of electronic equipment waste in Palestine where, with methods dangerous for health and the environment, valuable raw materials are extracted for resale. Today we operate the world's largest e-waste landfill in Ghana.Computers, cell phones, televisions, electric cables, washing machines, microwave ovens, MP3 players and all those products that contain valuable metals, despite international bans on exports of electronic waste , continue to flow into Ghana at a rate of 40,000 tons per year. But how do all these products get to the Agbogbloshie landfill? All electronic equipment is sold by rich countries under the heading "used" or "to be repaired" , a wording that avoids classifying the object as a waste. Controls at the ports of departure and arrival are scarce in relation to the total number of containers that are handled every day and the port authorities cannot afford, with the control structure available, to pursue the planned increase in controls on individual shipments. So in Ghana arrives, from all over the world, an abnormal mass of exhausted electronic equipment that ends up in landfills and gives work to slaves of e-waste, people who for 2/3 dollars a day, try to recover metals from electronic equipment using extraction methods, such as fire, solvents and water. This activity creates widespread pollution of the land, air and groundwater, with terrible implications for the health of workers who remain daily exposed to the inhalation of poisonous substances that come from the combustion of waste, from the mixture with various chemical substances and from the contaminated diet they eat. In fact, around the landfill lives an army of workers who also come from other African countries, attracted by the possibility of earning a few dollars for the their livelihood. But the people who handle this waste are exposed to ischemic diseases, tumors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections, while the landfill continues his life fueled by the refuse of the modern world. Everything that cannot be recycled in the Agblogbloshie landfill is burned creating toxic clouds that have classified the place among the 10 most polluted of the world. The African continent is trying to oppose this deadly trade for its people and, through the Bamako Conference , is asking states that export this type of goods to consider any non-functioning appliance as waste and therefore not exportable. Germany has started social projects through which it supplies machines for the separation of waste, in an environmentally friendly way, paying the extracted metal to its correct value, restoring dignity and support to workers who carry the waste to be processed. But this is just a drop in the bucket.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Mango Replaces Plastic Bags with Eco-Friendly Tissue Paper
Mango Replaces Plastic Bags with Eco-Friendly Tissue Paper
Monday, 2nd november 2020 | rNEWS

A nice initiative by Mango, a company active in the fashion field that meets the needs of environmental protection by replacing the plastic bags it uses for packaging of clothing with others made of environmentally friendly tissue paper. this beautiful story is told by Maria Teresa Veneziani in an article in Corriere della Sera. The road is marked and the Covid emergency has made everyone understand that there is no more time, we need to rethink a development project. Mango, the Spanish democratic fashion chain, announces that it will eliminate the use of 160 million plastic bags per year in its supply chain. The company starts the replacement of plastic bags with paper bags in local production of folded garments. "The company continues its commitment to sustainability, one of its main strategic axes, and launches a project to replace the plastic bags in its packaging with paper bags, becoming the first major company in the textile sector in Spain to do so », Reads a press release. The goal of the brand founded in Barcelona in Spain in 1984 by two Spanish brothers of Turkish origin, Isak Andic and Nahman Andicè , is to gradually eliminate, in collaboration with its suppliers, all plastic bags used for the distribution of products along the supply chain. Tissue paper «The bags that will be used are made of tissue paper, a material consisting of natural cellulose pulp from renewable sources - ensures the company -. In fact, the paper comes from sustainably managed forests, where felling practices are certified according to the requirements of the international standards FSC® ( Forest Stewardship Council® ). This also contributes to a circular economy since paper products can be recycled on average four to six times ". The road is marked and the Covid emergency has made everyone understand that there is no more time, we need to rethink a development project. Mango, the Spanish democratic fashion chain, announces that it will eliminate the use of 160 million plastic bags per year in its supply chain. The company starts the replacement of plastic bags with paper bags in local production of folded garments. «The company continues its commitment to sustainability, one of its main strategic axes, and launches a project to replace the plastic bags in its packaging with paper bags, becoming the first large company in the textile sector in Spain to do so ”, reads a statement. The goal of the brand founded in Barcelona in Spain in 1984 by two Spanish brothers of Turkish origin, Isak Andic and Nahman Andicè, is to gradually eliminate, in collaboration with its suppliers, all plastic bags used for the distribution of products along the supply chain. Pilot test The project will initially be launched in local productions for folded garments and on the online channel, after the success of the three pilot tests carried out by company in Morocco, China and Turkey. The goal is for the new project to be applied to all garments by the end of 2021. According to Toni Ruiz, CEO Mango delegate, «This is a large-scale project, which will have a very positive impact on the environment, since thanks to its realization we will eliminate around 160 million plastic bags every year. The production of a more environmentally friendly fashion aims at the sustainable transformation of the company ". Fashion Pact The project is part of the Fashion Pact, a global coalition that aims to promote environmental sustainability in the textile and fashion sector , which the company joined in 2019. This global pact commits all signatories to work together to minimize the environmental impact of the textile industry and fashion by focusing on three pillars: tackling climate change, preserving biodiversity and protecting the oceans.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Electric airplane: the new renewable energy challenges
Electric airplane: the new renewable energy challenges
Sunday, 1st november 2020 | Renewable energies

After cars, motorcycles and electric trains something moves in the field of aeronautics – here is the electric plane – The electric plane could be the answer to the growing movement ” FlightShame ” (shame of flying) that seeks alternative ways to the plane for small and medium-haul journeys. There is no doubt that air transport is the most responsible for CO2 emissions in the field of mobility and, the growing flow of passengers that has seen no respite in recent years, does not bode well for air quality. However, we must also recognize that since 1990 the percentage of CO2 per passenger transported has decreased by 60% despite an increase in passengers equal to 330%, but overall, the increase has been 90%. (read: https://www.plasticare.biz/en/blog/aircraft-pollution-between-truth-and-lies ). Faced with a compromised environmental situation and due to the fear that airlines may lose passengers, being labeled as serial polluters, solutions are being studied that can make air transport less dependent on fossil fuels and more from renewable energies. In order to be able to fly an aircraft driven by renewable energy, it is necessary to start from its design, from scratch, since weight and aerodynamics are elements to be taken into great consideration. Therefore, there is ample space for new materials, such as carbon, and for new wing geometries that will have to be less and less impactful on air friction. Like every new project, a series of steps will be taken that will allow you to reach the desired goal by solving the problems that exist today one by one. In fact, the first objective will be to be able to use electric airplanes in short distances, up to 500 Km., And then aim for longer distances when battery technology will allow a greater reserve of energy. In the meantime, Airbus is working on the project of hybrid airplanes , which can also use bio fuels , a probably more immediate response on long distances to electric airplanes . In addition, it has formed an alliance with the American start-up Wright Elettric , for the construction of an engine for an all- electric 9-seater aircraft , after experimenting with some tandem flights. Test flights are also being conducted in Canada on short routes, with electric airplanes , which can, in the near future, connect the islands near the coast or take tourists to ski resorts. The first experimental flight covered approximately 160 kilometers (100 miles) with an engine powered by lithium batteries , without creating any kind of problem, in absolute silence and without damaging the environment.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Dimple membranes made with recycled hdpe
Dimple membranes made with recycled hdpe
Saturday, 31st october 2020 | Technical information

How to choose and produce a performing dimple membrane with a recycled HDPE granule.The function of textured ashlar Dimple membranes in recycled HDPE in the field of building waterproofing has been known for many years, although probably not everyone knows about the many opportunities for using this useful separator-protector-waterproofing element. The partition of membranes depends on: ● Geometric conformation of the dimples ● High of dimples in relation to the lower surface ● Thickness of the lower surface ● Weight per square meter ● Mechanic resistance to compression and traction ● Eventual sandwiches which can be installed during the production: ○ Fabrics not fabrics in polyester ○ Fabrics not fabrics in polypropylene ○ Fabrics not fabrics in grid polyethylene ○ Plaster-saver nets ○ Smooth sliding sheets in PE ● Utilization in building We will not dwell here on the various uses to which the membrane lends itself to technically improve the work but on aspects related to the raw materials that are used for the production of the product and the quality of the same producing the product with extrusion machines per head flat. In the past, standard dimple membranes were produced using virgin HDPE resin which gave technical constant supplies and excellent physical qualities. They were 600 grams per square meter. From the end of 90’s to 2000’s the high augmentation of product request has brought to the offer increase on market and to a consequent pressure on prices. It took producers to use the majority of the time regenerated HDPE granules for the production. Meanwhile new membranes have come to the market: they are 500/450 and 400 grams per square meter. The reduction of the weight and the use of regenerated granules could mean a mechanical performance under the expectations. In relation to first materials involved in the production, we have to keep attention on some basic questions: ● The normal input used is composed by HDPE bottles and vials. It’s taken from the separate collection in which there are PP stoppers. PP has a pejorative behavior considering the membrane’s quality. An high percentage of PP takes to the fragility of the material, especially during the resistance to anchorage and the re-interred of the foundation plan. The reduction of PP percentage is solved using separating machine-readable machineries. ● The flakes’ cleaning phase from HDPE vial is important because little rigid residues in it can not be stopped completely by the filters during extrusion phase and so they can be incorporated into granules. This could be cause the formation of holes on the product’s surface and a consequent loss of impermeability and traction resistance. Therefore a good cleaning, choice of filters and periodic change-filters can help us to have a cleaner granule. ● The utilization of mineral fillers to increase dimple’s mechanical resistance can be useful until the limit over which the product’s fragility and vitreousness begin to reduce the mechanical caracteristiques requested. Mineral fillers can change the resistance by reducing the employment of the HDPE polymer for a lower price of first materials. In relation to membrane’s use in building, we can list some fundamental factors: – For the vertical laying, such as in the waterproof cladding’s protection and for the vertical drainage’s function, it’s requested traction resistance instead of compression resistance – For the horizontal laying, such as in separator layers in floors, it’s more frequent the vertical mechanical resistance – For membrane laying with plaster-saver net for the walls’ dehumidification, it’s preeminent the quality of traction resistance of the membrane in relation to nails. – For drenant and separator layers in tunnels, it’s necessary both a good mechanical resistance and a traction one – For soundproofing membrane’s layer, the mechanical solicitation in civil building is reduced. With this list we don’t want to run out of both employments, which are innumerable, and productive aspect. With this last aspect we have also to consider the impact of membrane’s quality in relation to machinary’s parameters related to the extrusion, the cylinder’s cooling and the dimple’s form which has a relevant aspect in counting the final quality.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Recycled plastic, machines and finished products
Recycled plastic, machines and finished products
Friday, 30th october 2020 | General News

The professions that die and that are born in the recycled plastic, machinery and finished products sector The distribution of products that embrace the plastic sector , with particular reference to recycled products, plastic processing machines and also finished products made of recycled plastic , is moving quite rapidly towards unthinkable distribution channels until a few years ago.ù If we consider some items or sectors where production standardization has led to the creation of technically simple products for the buyer to evaluate and where commercial competition pushes companies to find new world markets, it can be seen how the distribution model is changing quickly. For the three families taken into consideration, the professional figure of the human resource dedicated to the sale , who is an employee or agent of little importance, had retained until a short time ago a central role in the conclusion of the product distribution operation. Together with the traditional marketing activities, which involved launching products through fairs , communication in the specialized press and on the company website , the sales man was probably the most important pawn as he defined the conclusion of the order. The professional, charismatic and seductive skills of the seller towards the customer, was the weight in terms of the importance of a company on the market, together with the quality of the products, the distribution and the seriousness of the team. The management of the sales networks , especially if structured in very large geographical areas, entails high costs, an important organization, the difficulty of finding, training and keeping capable professionals in the company and operating times which are dilated with respect to the market potential. In recent years, therefore, alternative forms of distribution of articles in which the sale had more a commercial than a technical mark have been appreciated: polymers, some machines for plastic and finished products . These commercial means are mainly web portals , generic or specialized, with an informative or purely sales character, which give the entrepreneur immediate visibility for his company and products. Depending on the types of items to be proposed and geographic areas to be covered, we find generalist portals, such as Alibaba , where everything is sold, therefore with a low specialization, but with a high distribution, up to specialist portals, such as PlastiCare , which deals exclusively with the world of recycled plastic and its related industries ( machines, molds, finished products, consultants, distributors and work ) all over the world. There are also semi-specialized portals, which deal with a sector such as that of plastic, for example, in national or regional geographical areas. Depending on the products to be distributed and the areas of interest, the entrepreneur can choose whether to go to an international generalist portal, semi-specialized in a national or regional context or a specialized one, with automatic translations of their advertisements in the languages of those who will read, in an international context . The web portals help the entrepreneur to reach an ever wider geographical area or / and a wider audience of people, with whom they can interact directly from the company by increasing contacts and reducing expenses. The larger companies normally use both distribution systems, the traditional one with the sales network in the field, more for a strengthening of the brand than for a direct commercial action, while the medium-small ones find in the web portals an unmissable opportunity to be present in many countries through the network. In this scenario that is evolving day by day, there are professionals, such as that of the agent or direct seller , who will undergo a downsizing from a quantitative or involutive point of view in hiring, to give space to new professional figures who will manage corporate communication through specialized web and social platforms. What is the distribution line for my company? Difficult to answer from this article as both the traditional distribution system and that through the web platforms have pros and cons depending on the company projects, the products to be sold, the areas to be covered, the size of the company and the capital available for marketing. For the correct choice, it is advisable to rely on those who specialize in marketing communication in the field of plastic and related products . If we look at the evolution of professional communication on the net in a detached way, we can say that the specialized, semi-specialized and highly specialized web portals are arousing the interest of customers all over the world and spending on banners, information on products, customers and sponsored communications are growing rapidly . On the professional web portals we not only find companies that need international visibility, but also giants already well established from the point of view of the brand and products that make the web channel a further form of international distribution.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Bob Patel, CEO of LyondellBasell, exhibits the company's 2020 activities
Bob Patel, CEO of LyondellBasell, exhibits the company's 2020 activities
Friday, 30th october 2020 | rNEWS

Bob Patel, CEO of LyondellBasell takes stock of the company's commercial situation with particular attention to the situation linked to the coronavirus and the problems of global mobility. As can be read from its conclusions of the 2020 activities, through the official company note, we can see a petrochemical market in good health and a particular attention to the plastic sector, as the refining sector, which produces fuels, will remain under pressure. "In the third quarter, the demand for products LyondellBasell has improved as global economic activity increases. Our year-over-year results reflect strong global volumes while margins are still rising, as a result, third quarter volumes and margins have improved for the most part of our business. Strong demand for polyethylene in North America and Asia and hurricane-related production constraints on the US Gulf Coast have led to tight markets which pushed $ 420 per ton the improvement in the prices of North American polyethylene contracts since June. The volumes in our propylene oxide and derivatives business and in our Advanced Polymer Solutions segment have improved with the increased demand for polymers used in production automotive and other durable goods markets. As expected, the reduced demand for transportation fuels continued to put pressure on our refining and oxyfuel and related products operations during the quarter, " said Bob Patel, CEO of LyondellBasell . "We have continued our disciplined growth strategy by extending our global network and reaffirming our commitments to building innovative and sustainable business models for our industry. The creation and launch of our new integrated cracker joint venture with Bora in China is another example of our proven model of a joint venture that allows us to obtain rapid returns from an efficient investment in the world's fastest growing market. In September, we released our annual sustainability report to provide more details on our company's progress and discuss our substantial and ambitious goals for the next decade, "Patel said. PERSPECTIVE "The recovery in global economies should continue to benefit the petrochemical industry. Despite the existence of both the pandemic and the recession, we expect the global demand for polyethylene will grow for the full year. China continues to have a 40% polyethylene trade deficit which supports North American exports by tightening the US domestic market . We expect the margins of North American Integrated Polyethylene to be maintained during the fourth quarter, perhaps with some seasonal moderation by the end of the year. The stubbornly slow recovery of global mobility is weighing on the demand for gasoline and jet fuel which will prolong the negative situation for our activities refining and oxyfuel and related products. Our orders show increased demand from automotive manufacturing and other durable goods markets which should continue to push further improvement for our Advanced Polymer segment Solutions ". "After several years of advancing our value-oriented growth strategy, LyondellBasell is ready to reap the rewards of our investments as our industry benefits from a economy in recovery. In October, we announced a new integrated polyethylene joint venture with Sasol in Louisiana. This partnership represents another measured approach to extend one of our core businesses and increase cash flow. Our new Hyperzone polyethylene capacity, several expansions through our joint venture network and the integration of our acquisition of A. Schulman should add to LyondellBasell's growing cash flow over the next few years. We remain committed to a quality balance sheet while focusing on financing our dividends with liquidity from operations, "Patel said.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Joule: Management Training for Aspiring Entrepreneurs
Joule: Management Training for Aspiring Entrepreneurs
Friday, 30th october 2020 | rNEWS

Joule is the new training program created by Eni to improve managerial skills in the field of circular economy and energy transition. Together to grow your ideas Joule's mission is to train and support those who want to do business, grow and make Italy grow in a sustainable way, with the aim of influencing positively on the processes of energy transition and circular economy. Joule trains aspiring and aspiring entrepreneurs, provides tools, skills and keys to reading with classroom and remote modules. Furthermore, it supports those who have already started a business and want to develop it.  Joule's Human Knowledge Program is an innovative experience, which began in October 2020 with a classroom and remote path, the Blended Program, aimed at 25 selected participants, and which continues now with full distance learning, free and open to all , Open Program. Finally, Energizer is the hybrid accelerator that supports those who have already started a sustainable startup.  The goal of the Human Knowledge Program is to accompany entrepreneurial growth through the deepening of ten macro themes pillars, challenges and concrete opportunities, a network of excellent trainers as well as entrepreneurs who make their experiences available with which to develop a community together. . Open is much more than a full distance training program, it is a learning accelerator designed for all those who want to get involved in doing business in a dynamic and engaging way: your entrepreneurial adventure can start today. More information

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Industrial Recycling Started in the 18th Century with The First Productive Activities
Industrial Recycling Started in the 18th Century with The First Productive Activities
Thursday, 29th october 2020 | History

Discoveries in the chemical field started industrial production in many fields and with them the need to reuse waste The chemical revolution, which from 1700 on the most advanced European nations, highlighted the first environmental problems created by the waste of chemical production. At that time, along with the new discoveries, the search for reuse of man-made waste began. The first industrial chemical process,in the modern sense, was invented in 1791, by the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1742-1806), for the production of sodium carbonate in two steps. Leblanc had, however, a troubled working life as his research was initially funded by the Duke of Orleans Filippo Egalité,with the hope of winning the prize put up for grabs by the French Academy of Sciences in order to start industrial production. However, in 1793 the Duke was executed and Leblanc’s patents were not recognized as valid, also receiving the confiscation of the production plant and the rejection of the desired prize. Although Napoleon returned the factory to him in 1802, without a cash prize, Leblanc did not have the economic strength to leave and in 1806 he committed a comdity. The first step in the production process of the Leblanc method was to deal with the sodium chloride with sulfuric acid, which was formed in sodium sulfate, creating a waste in the form of gaseous hydrochloric acid, which for a long time it was released into the atmosphere with serious problems to the populations that lived in the vicinity of the factories and with the destruction of the surrounding vegetation. The second step was to heat the sodium sulfate with charcoal and calcium carbonate, a mixture with which sodium carbonate and calcium sulfide, which was not soluble in water, were the solid waste of the process and was discarded by forming piles in the open air. During exposure to rain, hydrogen sulfide, harmful and smelly gas was released. Residents began notable protests against air pollution, effectively creating the first ecological protests, which prompted soda industrialists to look for solutions to the problem. On that occasion the chemical industry discovered that it was possible to recover something useful and sellable from the waste, in fact chloride acid was possible to obtain chlorine, a commodity that was understood to have its own final market and from calcium sulfide it was possible to recover sulfur, which would be sold to factories of sulfur acid. In the 19th century, when the heavy steel industry began to flourish, the inventor French Pierre Emile Martin (1824-1915) in 1865 developed an oven that could decarbonize cast iron on a large scale and could be loaded with molten cast iron but also with scrap of iron. During the nineteenth century, in fact, such scraps were accumulating as a result of the replacement of old machinery with new ones, so this waste became second raw materials, as we call them today. The 20th century saw industrial progress grow continuously and swirling, going from two world wars, a great economic-industrial crisis, the conquest of space, new technologies, widespread well-being, the cold war with the race to create atomic arsenals, the displacement for work and tourism of large masses of people through the aeronautical industry, the development of satellites and communication technologies have fuelled a new market of equipment. , also driven by the new artificial intelligence that makes us communicate through computers. All this progress has created an increasing number of wastes that in the past were superficially abandoned in landfills, on which pretty mounds strewed with trees were created, but underground there was no question of whether the buried waste continued to release their poisons. It was later realized that many hazardous wastes continued to live and interact negatively with the environment, so guidelines began on how to insulate landfills from possible leaks of toxic sewage. Any effort made to “hide” the waste seemed to have been in vain given the continuous growth of waste goods and, therefore, we began to talk about recycling and thermo destruction. If the road of burning the waste seemed comfortable and “purifying”, it was soon realized that the pollution expressed by a dangerous solid waste did not sublimate with fire, but was only transformed from solid to fumes, going to pollute the air and, cascading with the rains, the soil. The new generations of incinerators had to be brought in to solve this environmental problem and create renewable electricity in the same way. Mechanical recycling it was then the only means of recovering and reusing the waste that accumulated, but it took a long time for governments and the population to understand that we had to start with recycling and that the industry needed precise regulations to produce the least possible damage to the ecosystem. The future of recycling will be achieved by integrating mechanical, chemical processes, aided by renewable energies. Picture: Vernet, Claude Joseph – Seaport by Moonlight – 1771

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Why will the Petrochemical Industry Increase Plastic Production at the Expense of Recycling?
Why will the Petrochemical Industry Increase Plastic Production at the Expense of Recycling?
Thursday, 29th october 2020 | Circular economy

It seems incredible to be able to imagine, in a world that is drowning in plastic waste, that there are industrial companies that are still pushing today to increase the production of virgin plastic. Yet, according to data provided by Wood Mackenzie, in the next 5 years, 176 new petrochemical plants will be built worldwide, of which 80% will be in Asia. Furthermore, if we see what happens in the United States , 200 billion dollars have been invested in plastics-related projects since 2010 virgin and chemical products derived according to ACC data. In the meantime world waste is increasing, also driven by the return to the production of disposable plastic items for the hospital environment, such as masks, visors, gowns and all disposable accessories that are used in the medical field. But, if on the one hand this waste is not recyclable for hygiene reasons, on the other hand we are facing a serious crisis in the field of recycling as in many areas of the world, recyclers have seen a substantial reduction in the demand for recycled polymers due to the inability to compete with the prices of virgin polymers. This creates two destabilizing factors: • The increase in recyclable waste that are reused • The crisis in the plastics recycling sector But what is the reason that pushes petrochemicals to increase the production of virgin plastic? The global forecasts of fossil fuel consumption for automotive are seen by industry experts in sharp decline, with forecasts of heavy percentage decreases until 2050, what which has already alarmed the petrochemical sector. Furthermore, these fear the environmental concerns of the world population which has prompted many governments to ban the use of certain disposable products, such as plastic bags, which is leading, according to some studies, a reduction in oil demand of 2 million barrels per day. In this scenario of strong market reduction, the oil companies have adopted strategies that allow them to reduce losses in quantitative terms, look for new markets and support the population with a greener image of their companies. We can summarize these strategies: • Takeover of the recycled polymer market through the war on the price of raw materials • Support for campaigns for the use of plastic as a raw material that can make our lives more hygienic • Capillarization of the production and distribution of virgin raw materials in developing areas, accustoming the population to the use of plastic products for convenience and economy • Creation of a greener image through constant market information about the financial donations made to the consortium of companies called "Alliance to End of Plasitc Waste" . In reality the war, never declared, between petrochemicals and the world of recycling, with the latter now on its knees, has brought great names like Coca Cola , to declare, as reported by Reuters, that it will fail to meet the commitment to produce bottles with 50% recycled plastic by 2020 in the United Kingdom, for various reasons, one of these is the impossibility of finding on the market an increasing share of recycled plastic waste. If petrochemicals are racing to increase world plastic production, I would like to remind you that since 1950 we have produced and used approximately 6.3 billion tons of plastic and that 91% of these quantities, now waste, have never been recycled and lie in the environment, polluting our lives, according to a study published in Science in 2017. Doesn't that make us think?

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Circular economy: colombia one year after the national agreement
Circular economy: colombia one year after the national agreement
Wednesday, 28th october 2020 | Circular economy

What Colombians did to introduce the circularity of waste The circular economy has become part of the life of Colombian citizens with the aim of protecting the environment, the population and its territory. One year after the start of the project, we see the work done over a year. Colombia is the sixth country in Latin America as a territorial extension and the fourth in population, counting about 42 million inhabitants and has decided to embark on a virtuous path towards a national circular economy , involving mayors, companies, recyclers, universities and all those social forces in the area that can join this cause. The aim of this project was to push the transformation of national and agricultural production systems from a circular economy perspective and to start a path of sustainability of cities in economic, social and technological innovation terms. This strategy involved six judah lines:  Flow of civil and industrial consumables  Flow of packaging materials  Flow and use of biomass  Sources and use of energy  Water flow  Flow of building materials This great project was not brought down from above and imposed on the population and industrialists, but started with the involvement and collaboration of all the forces in the field. For this reason, the regions met with which specific agreements were made. At the same time, social work was also carried out, as local meetings were organized in which citizens were made aware of what changes would have occurred in their relationship with domestic and industrial waste and which lifestyles would have been modified to move towards an international model of circular economy. Specifically, during the first year of activity the following results were achieved:  Signing of the national pact on the circular economy signed by 50 public and private operators.  19 regional seminars on the circular economy in which 80 successful projects were presented in the country.  16 regional pacts signed with over 230 unions, NGOs, academic institutions, mayors, civil organizations and recyclers.  11,000 people trained  15 sectoral seminars to coordinate projects with different interest groups.  Creation of a new national information system on the circular economy.  First training course for public officials of the central and regional government.      Signing of an agreement with Ecopetrol on the management of hazardous waste such as mixtures and emulsions of oils, hydrocarbons mixed with other substances.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Trinseo and Tire Recycling Solution Create a New Partnership
Trinseo and Tire Recycling Solution Create a New Partnership
Wednesday, 28th october 2020 | rNEWS

Trinseo is a company that deals with the production of plastic materials, latex binders and synthetic rubbers that has 2700 employees and 17 production plants around the world, has announced, through a press release, an agreement with the Swiss company TRS for the formulation of recipes to help the most sustainable tire manufacturers. Trinseo, a global material solutions provider and manufacturer of plastics, latex binders and synthetic rubber, has reached an agreement with Tire Recycling Solutions (TRS) regarding a collaboration commercial and a stake in TRS. The closing of the agreement is expected by the end of the quarter, subject to normal closing conditions. The new agreement will see the two companies collaborate in research and development, combining their combined technological expertise to help global tire manufacturers develop more sustainable tire formulations . Trinseo and TRS share the long-term goal of developing new systems to create greater value for the production of tires that reduce the environmental footprint and create a sustainable outlet for end-of-life tires. “This collaboration is extremely important for the development of true circular solutions for the tire and technical rubber industry. As the leading supplier of synthetic rubber to the tire industry, we are committed to helping our customers achieve their sustainability goals and believe that the the most effective way to do this is through collaboration along the value chain. The partnership with TRS will provide us with high quality recycled tire raw materials to serve customers globally, "said Francesca Reverberi, Vice President, Engineered Materials and Synthetic Rubber, Trinseo. Staffan Ahlgren, CEO of TRS, commented: “TRS has already worked closely with Trinseo for several years and we are excited to enter the next phase of our partnership. TRS has developed technologies to treat end-of-life tires and provide output products with a higher circular economic value. The partnership with Trinseo is confirmation of the great steps we have taken since the company was founded seven years ago. " The investment is aligned and consistent with Trinseo's recently announced 2030 sustainability goals which outline the company's focus on tackling climate change, incorporating sustainability in its product portfolio, promoting supplier management and assuming responsibility as an employer. Launched to coincide with the company's 10th anniversary, these long-term goals are now at the heart of the company at all levels. Do you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Renewable energies: solar, wind, hydroelectric. there’s more?
Renewable energies: solar, wind, hydroelectric. there’s more?
Tuesday, 27th october 2020 | Renewable energies

At what point is research and energy exploitation and what are the potentials of renewable energy? For some years we have realized, in a definitive way, that the energy to move, illuminate our homes, operate industrial plants and support the computer network that regulates our lives, may not depend entirely on oil . The time we have lost, in all fields, to create a circular lifestyle, has had repercussions on the problem of waste , on the pollution of air and water , on the intensive exploitation of the resources of the earth that are in its bowels that on its surface. Today we are aware of having to find alternatives to oil, even if politics often lives by decision-making inertia and lobbying pressure when dealing with this topic. From the scientific point of view, progress has been made in the technologies for creating, storing and distributing electricity from the wind, solar and hydroelectric sectors. But certainly more energy is available and at low cost, if we want to completely replace fossil fuels that have a deadline of availability. Even the ocean (or the sea) is part of this possible source of energy of which little is known and whose exploitation is, for now, very marginal, but which gives excellent hopes of being able to capture the enormous amount of energy that the motions waves, currents, differences in the salt gradient and water temperatures generate. Scientists have calculated that it would be possible to derive an energy value of 2 Terawatts from the oceans, which corresponds to about the total energy consumption that the planet produces. But how is energy generated and how can it be used? We must consider, for example, that waves are the largest source of renewable energy available, with a high energy density , higher than that of the sun and wind. Furthermore, the motion that generates energy is not occasional but regular and predictable, with a widespread geographical extension. At present, there are studies carried out by the University of Turin in the past years that have led to the construction of experimental equipment, in collaboration with ENI, which consist of two gyroscopes that convert wave motion into electrical energy. On these devices it is also possible to install photovoltaic panels creating an inertial hybrid system. The characteristic of these machines, called Iswec , is to adapt to the direction of the currents and waves, to make the most of the energy they produce. In terms of nominal power, they are machines that have been designed to create around 50 Kw of energy in the presence of a wave of at least 1.5 meters. Among the many negative effects that global warming is affecting our planet, one can be considered positive. Increasing atmospheric temperatures have been found to increase wave energy. According to a study by Nature Communications, published on January 14, 2019, wave height from 1948 to today had increased by 0.4%. Iswec, is not the only experiment that man has done in an attempt to exploit the energy produced by the sea, in fact the first studies date back to the last century but they were shipwrecked because of the difficulty to operate in the marine environment, of the technologies at the height and cost then prohibitive. During the energy crisis between 1973 and 1974, these studies were resumed with the aim of finding technical and economic solutions compatible with the costs of fossil energy sources. However, it will have to wait until 2000, when the first plant came into operation, connected to a network of utilities, which generated 500 Kw but then was dismantled in 2012. Thus also the Portuguese plant, in the north of the country, came into operation in 2008, which had a capacity of 2.25 Megawatts, lasted only a few months due to numerous technical and perhaps even economic problems. Another interesting experiment in energy generation at sea was carried out in 1996 in Hawaii, building a power plant that produces the temperature difference between surface and deep waters, which can even reach 25 degrees. After years of studies and attempts, it seems that by 2050 plants could be installed in the world that would be able to generate electricity equal to 350 Terawatts / hour from tides and waves. The idea would be to place the power plants offshore, where the waves are maximum, considering that the surface of the oceans is equal to 71% of the terrestrial, so you can have energy sources spread across all continents without space limitation.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Amazon will no longer sell Disposable Plastic Items
Amazon will no longer sell Disposable Plastic Items
Tuesday, 27th october 2020 | rNEWS

In the past, in some articles, we have dealt with the problem related to the impact of waste produced by online commerce in terms of disposable packaging, especially cardboard, which this type of trade produced. We highlighted how giants of the caliber of Amazon could affect the growth of packaging waste worldwide. We must duly mention Amazon's laudable decision, as reported by Money.it, to ban products made of single-use plastic from the end of 2020. Historic turning point for Amazon: the e-commerce giant has announced that it will no longer sell disposable plastic items and objects in Italy and in some EU countries from the end of the year. From 21 December 2020 it will no longer be possible to buy disposable plastic items made with oxo-degradable plastic on Amazon: this choice will consequently make it impossible to order items such as plastic plates and cutlery, straws, food containers, cotton buds and much more.  Amazon's green turn, after the introduction of the first electric delivery vehicles, continues and the novelty will also be applied in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany, Holland and Turkey. Here's what changes and what Jeff Bezos' long-term plans are in the fight against plastic.  The list of disposable plastic objects that we use every day, and we also buy on Amazon, is long and includes a list of different items that, once thrown in the garbage (often not differentiated) have a strong impact on the ecosystem.  In fact, Amazon had long ago raised the prices for plastic plates and cutlery that could be purchased in online stores, which were sold at a higher cost than that offered in traditional supermarkets (a subtle move also useful to discourage the purchase).  Now we move on to the next step and the date of 21 December 2020 will represent an important switch not only for Amazon but also for users: Jeff Bezos pushes the accelerator on the path of the Climate Pledge, the pact drawn up by Amazon and the large multinationals to achieve the climate goals of the Paris Agreement by 2030.Do you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - HDPE Recycled Bottles: How to Manage Surface Defects
HDPE Recycled Bottles: How to Manage Surface Defects
Monday, 26th october 2020 | Technical information

How to solve aesthetic problems in the production of recycled HDPE bottles: porosity, streaks, detachment and holes.The production of bottles for detergents , for industrial and agricultural liquids, until recently were produced with virgin materials despite some shapes and colors allowed the use of a recycled HDPE granule . The media impact of plastic pollution dispersed by humans in the environment , has moved the conscience of consumers putting pressure on states, which deal with environmental legislation, but also producers of substances contained in bottles that cannot, for commercial reasons, to lose the consent of its final customers. The demand for regenerated HDPE for blow molding has had a strong surge in the last two years, surely finding, a part of the producers, not totally prepared to manage the recycled granule in their machines. It was not just a question of the type of granule that may differ slightly, from a technical point of view, from virgin raw materials to machine behavior, but problems with color shades, stress cracking and seal welding had to be addressed. , to micro holes and other minor issues. In previous articles we have addressed the genesis of recycled HDPE in bottle blowing and the correct choice of recycled raw materials, while today we see some aesthetic aspects that could occur using recycled HDPE granules at 100%. There are four aspects, from an aesthetic point of view, that can negatively affect the good production result: 1) A marked porosity called “orange peel” which is formed mainly inside the bottle but, not infrequently, is also visible on the outside. It appears as an irregular surface, with the presence of continuous micro-cavities that give a rough appearance to the surface. Normally the problems are to be found in the granule, where a possible excessive presence of surface humidity does not allow a perfect laying of the HDPE wall coming out of the mold. In this case the problem can be solved by drying the material in a silo so that it reaches such a degree of humidity that it will not negatively affect the surfaces. In general it is always a recommended operation when you want to produce using 100% regenerated material. 2) Streaks on the bottle are another aesthetic problem that occurs for different reasons, especially if an already colored granule is used. The causes may depend on a different percentage of plastic inside the HDPE granule , even in minimum percentages, between 2 and 4%, since, having the different plastic melting points , the aesthetic behavior on the wall of the bottle can be slightly different, influencing the color in the dough. It is important to note that you should not confuse the streaks of shades with the streaks of structure , which are normally created by the mold of the bottle due to wear or dirt that accumulates by working. Another reason may depend on the heat resistance of the master that is used, as it is not infrequent that at too high temperatures, both in the extrusion phase of the granule and in the blowing of the element , a phenomenon of color degradation can be created with the creation of small streaks on the walls of the bottle. 3) Perfect weldability in a bottle is extremely important as any detachment of the walls, once the bottle has cooled and filled, causes serious damage with costs to be incurred due to the loss of the packaging, the substances contained and the replacement of the material with important logistics costs. The bottle just produced normally does not present the possible defect because the exit temperature from the machine “hides” the problem a little, but once the bottle has cooled, filled and subjected to the weight of the pallets that are stacked above it, a welding defect can present itself in all its problems. The cause of this problem normally must be sought in the percentage of polypropylene that the HDPE granule can contain due to a selection of the raw materials upstream of the non-optimal granule production. A poor selection of the bottles between them, but above all from the caps that they contain, can increase the percentage of polypropylene in the granule mixture. There are commercially available machines with optical selection of the washed ground which help to substantially reduce this percentage, being able to bring it back below 1.5-2%. When buying the recycled HDPE cargo it is always a good idea to ask for a DSC test to check the composition of the granule for production. The effect of an excessive percentage of PP has as a direct consequence the prevention of an effective welding of the contact surfaces that form the bottle. In addition to working on the granule, it would be a good idea if you wanted to use 100% of the recycled raw material, slightly increase the overlap thickness of the two sides of the bottle to favor the correct welding point. 4) The presence of micro or macro holes in a bottle , directly visible through an inspection or, for smaller ones, through the air tightness test, may depend on the presence of impurities inside the granule , when the washing and the filtering of the raw material was not done in a workmanlike manner. Another reason may depend on poor cleaning of the screw of the blowing machine which can accumulate residues of degraded polymer and transport them, subsequently, to the mold. Especially if you use recipes with mineral charge, you may have the problem immediately after changing the recipe between one without charge and one containing it. The use of mixed recipes between virgin and regenerated material can mitigate some of these points but not completely solve any problems if you do not have the foresight to follow the supply chain of the recycled granule.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Environmental risks: how finance moves
Environmental risks: how finance moves
Sunday, 25th october 2020 | General News

The correlation between financial risks and environmental risks seen by international banking operators. The problems of the environment and the related environmental risks are not, today, only the prerogative of an increasingly large group of young people who demonstrate in the squares and are not only an occasion for the so-called ” green washing” , the sometimes ‘green label on products by companies, but they have entered forcefully into the muffled rooms of the finance that counts. The issue of climate has become a problem of financial risk , involving banking institutions and the international financial system, which will have to deal with a sneaky and powerful enemy. There is not a single environmental risk , but several elements that could be linked together, creating a problem of difficult financial management, such that the capital in circulation could be put in crisis. Environmental risks that attract the most attention from financial institutions can be listed in: Greenhouse gas increase Precipitation increase Drought increase The risks associated with these problems depend on their occurrence and the violence with which they occur in the geographical areas of the planet, but they translate into costs of human lives, destruction of public and private infrastructures, loss of productivity with damage to economic growth and raising of primary commodity prices. These costs will directly affect the values of the assets, with a deterioration in the ability of companies and families to honor debts and a reduction in the value of guarantees. Banks are entrusted with the task of directing financial flows towards activities that indirectly reduce the risk itself and therefore towards environmental sustainability initiatives that can mitigate the effects that cause climate change. These loans are necessary for the stability of the banks themselves. Europe would need, to update the energy networks, improve waste management, water resources, to modernize the transport and logistics network, of 270 billion euros per year , huge figures that will have to be found because there they are alternatives to the road of environmental sustainability. The main concern of banks and financial investors is the risk in the deterioration of their loans and the value of their assets in relation to climatic factors, which are not in themselves new risks, but which are becoming of such proportions that could destabilize the return financial operations. The international community from a political point of view is moving in a loose order, with different approaches between the United States, Europe, China, Russia, India , to name a few, but in the end it will be the financial institutions that will influence the choices of energy transition and environmental sustainability. At this time, however, not all banks have fully understood which is the correct path for the donation of capital on the industrial market and what impact it will have, also in terms of risk on the operations, remaining immobile on the assets in the portfolio. You can see, for example, in the United States, a country managed by an ultra-denial policy in environmental terms, that environmental movements are demonstrating against banks, such as JP Morgan, Well Fargo, Bank of America , which continue to support financially companies engaged in the extraction and refining of oil. But there are also international investment funds, such as BlackRock , the largest in the world, which quickly understood where to direct the helm of its investments and, through President Larry Find , reaffirmed its customers and the CEOs of the companies in to which the fund is positioned, which will reward businesses and projects related to sustainability. According to Find, not only governments, but also financial institutions and businesses will be overwhelmed if effective environmental measures are not taken. BlackRock is not a recommendation or advice , but a strong and unambiguous decision that could materialize through opposition on the boards of directors or distrust of managers who will not take concrete measures in terms of climate sustainability. Find sees the environmental risk directly affect the solvency of mortgages, especially those on the home, on inflation, if the prices of primary commodities should soar, on the slowdown in the growth of emerging countries and therefore cascade on the world one, caused by the reduction in production for rising temperatures.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Waste Management in the Middle Ages
Waste Management in the Middle Ages
Saturday, 24th october 2020 | History

Starting from 1200 AD the need arose to regulate the problem of domestic and productive waste in the cities Starting from the Middle Ages, the urban agglomerations that grew on the back of commercial, religious, productive or political interests, began to face the problem of waste management, in small but very populous cities. In “do it yourself” it was no longer an acceptable solution. When we talk about waste , images like plastic, paper, glass, metal of cans and food waste immediately come to mind, which make up the mix of modern packaging consumption. None of this in the Middle Ages, because, for the types of raw materials available and for the habit of using a circular economy model, which we are rediscovering only now, which aimed to reuse everything that could be reused, the waste was different. Very little was thrown into the kitchen , both as fresh raw materials and as advanced foods, which were cleverly recomposed in other forms of nutrition. Hence the characterization of the “poor cuisine” made of fresh elements that came from the countryside, which followed the seasons, with which unrefined but essential dishes are made. The raw materials available to people were mainly made of wood, ceramic, fabrics, earthenware, copper for the pots and iron for other equipment. All these types of materials, at the end of life we had to be eliminated. Furthermore, in that period, there was also the problem of the disposal of manure , which constituted a danger mainly of a sanitary type as well as of decorum. In the cities, for a certain period, products such as leather and leather were also produced which created highly polluting and foul-smelling solid and liquid waste which created great hygienic-sanitary problems, so much so that, as we will see later, it was decided to relocate these activities outside the urban centers. All this solid waste was abandoned along the roads , day after day, creating problems for the health of the resident population and of decorum for the cities that began to attract travelers for business or pilgrims for religious activities. Liquid waste from artisanal activities was disposed of directly in the ditches, rivers or fields without too much concern. From the twelfth century AD the population and craft growth of the cities gave birth to the desire to excel from the point of view of social importance and architectural beauty, putting one city in competition with another. The improvement of the aesthetic aspect of the inhabited centers had to pass also on the redevelopment of the city streets which could no longer host all sorts of sewage , waste and waste which the citizens wanted to dispose of. Thus was born in Siena , for example, the office of the ” Public Waste “, located in Piazza del Campo which, starting from 9 October 1296, began to contract the cleaning of the city areas for the duration of a year. The contract consisted not only of the cleaning of the streets with the right to retain all the waste considered in some way reusable, but also the cleaning of the market areas with the acquisition of ownership of the waste grains. In addition, the municipality entrusted the contractor with a sow with her offspring, to help him clean up what was edible for the pigs. As far as artisanal activities are concerned , the first form of regulation of the management of productive waste is found in the Constitutions of Melfi , issued in 1231 by Federico II, which constituted the first collection of health laws. In particular, it required the movement of products harmful to the population, such as the tanning of leather or the production of leather, outside the inhabited areas. In other geographical areas, such as in Freiburg , a medieval city founded in 1120 , an important center of the Germanic area, numerous canals were built in which it was strictly forbidden to dump garbage from citizens. The solid waste, produced by the houses and the craft activities, had to be sent to the collection centers established by the authorities who then disposed of them by throwing them in the Dreisam river. The system, however, did not seem to really work, as citizens, more often than not, threw waste into the various canals, avoiding the road to the collection centers.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Forestation of Metropolitan Areas: Milan does not Waste Time.
The Forestation of Metropolitan Areas: Milan does not Waste Time.
Wednesday, 21st october 2020 | Environment

Reduction of pollution, mitigation of heat waves, social objectives. That metropolitan areas are increasingly becoming a growing population aggregate, in numbers and needs, is evident in many countries where the increase in internal migration to large cities does not stop. The reasons that drive people to move are mainly economic, as the city is an environment where opportunities to find work are certainly higher than in rural areas. The massive increase in population has led in recent decades to an “urgent” and immoderate overbuilding , both from an architectural, environmental and social point of view, creating entire neighborhoods without identity and without a soul, through economic construction and with a marked urban essentiality. This way of creating “dormitory ” neighborhoods has created social and generational disintegration and a lack of integration between the built and nature. Children born in these contexts struggle to recognize an environmental alternative to buildings, paved roads and areas other than small neighborhood parks, if they exist. Furthermore, the increasing pollution caused by vehicular traffic, heating of homes and the consequences of summer heat waves create unhealthy and stressful living conditions for the population. Many city administrations have become convinced that green is the key to alleviate some problems linked to pollution and, through the increase of city forestation , the possibility of creating living conditions and a more human social life. Milan has made this its goal, with the aim of planting three million trees by 2030 and, through this operation, redevelop some areas to increase social aggregation. The planting also has the purpose of inserting in the environmental balance of the city a mitigating element of pollutants and of the persistent heat, during the summer, on the buildings less responsible for defending users from this growing phenomenon. We are mainly talking about school buildings, hospitals and centers for the elderly , who will receive the first interventions aimed at making the city environment more livable. The climate problem in cities tends to exacerbate social, economic and health inequalities, especially in the suburbs, where the quality of construction from the point of view of thermo-acoustic insulation creates situations of obvious discomfort. Furthermore , trees help in combating fine dust, heating buildings and saving on the use of air conditioners . Milan has also fielded “green” initiatives through the construction of buildings, in which green is an integral part of their structure and through the organization of events open to the entire population to live in new areas destined for a new relationship between the city population and nature.  

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Bolsonaro: Amazonia is ours not yours
Bolsonaro: Amazonia is ours not yours
Tuesday, 20th october 2020 | Environment

That the election of President Bolsonaro was bad news for environmental protection was well known but that just nine months after the election he had managed to collect an environmental disaster in the Amazon of this proportions no one could have predicted it .In his liberal policy he combines ignorance on scientific issues related to environmental resources, necessary for the survival of the Brazilians themselves, with a certain arrogance seasoned with a political far-sightedness that is questionable.  Giving Macron the colonialist following the French president's attempt to make Bolsonaro understand the obvious would seem like a theatrical skit not worthy of a statesman. The business of removing the land from the forest, through fire, to allow farmers to extend intensive pastures in order to support an activity, that of meat production, in itself among the largest polluting activities in the world, involves an incomprehensible self-destruct design that even children can easily understand. President Bolsonaro's policy obviously doesn't go that far, but he prefers to accuse environmental associations of the fires in order to advertise or complain that he doesn't have the means to contain the fire in his country.  As always, where politics does not think for the good of its citizens, it is the citizens of the world who can peacefully influence and boycott the economic interests that are at the root of these disasters.  Such as? Simply continue to prefer products in their purchases that come from food chains that have not created damage to the ecosystem.  Always remembering that the production of oxygen that comes from the Amazon covers 20% of our world needs and that the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through these fires will have an important impact on global warming, which will speed up a whole series of already very serious environmental consequences, it would be important that everyone do their part to counter the acceleration of the implosion of the human species.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Involution of the Plastic Recycling Market
The Involution of the Plastic Recycling Market
Tuesday, 20th october 2020 | Circular economy

The plastic recycling market, and its businesses, are suffering under the crossfire of friends, real or alleged and declared enemies, with the consequence that a entire sector of the circular economy risks disappearing or significantly reduced with all the environmental consequences we can imagine. Recyclers are people who are a bit counter-current, they started their business by collecting the plastic that was thrown away as waste by society, seen a bit like a dirty sector , poor and unimportant. They transformed this poor business into a mature market economically, technologically and ecologically virtuous, long before the high-sounding names of the production chain attributed the merits to it. They have endured the sterile attacks of public opinion, enamored of the messages on the abolition of plastic that rode the crusade against the polluted sea, as if it were the fault of plastic and not of those who disperse it in the environment. They continued to recycle, employ, pay taxes and clean up the planet, in silence, with stubborn belief that they were on the right track, despite everything. But when their activities took on an important dimension in the plastics market, after major investments, hard work, studies and progress, they found themselves facing obstacles that were difficult to overcome: • The price of virgin raw materials has collapsed to a point where some recycled raw materials cost more than virgin ones, resulting in the collapse in demand. • Due to the reduced profitability of the recycling sector, investments remain limited and plastic waste on the market does not always find the right place. • The costs for the recycling cycle remain high, also due to the high cost of energy, preventing a greater expansion of raw material sales. • Price competition with virgin raw materials does not give a boost to the circular economy in developing countries with negative environmental consequences. • A widespread political lack of support for the recycling of plastics that requires the use of ever-increasing recycled plastic in products where it can be used. • A lack of economic support for the recycling sector that allows it to sustain itself and carry out the social and environmental work to which citizens are entitled. But solving these problems does not exhaust the tasks to arrive at the application of the circularity of plastic waste, if it does not go further on chemical recycling, for that percentage of plastic non-recyclable, on the creation of 100% recyclable packaging and on renewable energy that must be available to industry at low cost.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How to combine glass powder and pet powder in a raw material
How to combine glass powder and pet powder in a raw material
Monday, 19th october 2020 | Circular economy

Reuse of waste glass powder in a circular economy perspective. Glass dust is a waste that is generated in the production chain of glass recycling which, due to its quantity and to the low application field in recipes that can generate finished products, creates a problem of disposal and reuse. Among the various experiments that have been made over the years, perhaps that of the use as an inert material in mortar and concrete mixtures has found an outlet that allows the realization of curbs, containment bulkheads also thanks to a good chemical inertia and low porosity of the compound. Another field of use to mention are the cement mixtures suitable for the creation of artificial furnishing stones. They are also carried out tests, at the Department of Engineering of the University of Bologna, on polymer mortars with glass powder and fractions of cullet, with different granulometry, by using as a binder a polyester resin. The tests were performed by sampling recipes consisting of sand and resin in polyester and from recipes composed of poor or scrap glass and polyester resin. The comparison of the results of the bending and compression tests on the specimens emphasized that the polymeric mortars composed of glass waste have a compressive strength greater than 10% and a bending strength of 22% compared to samples composed of polymeric mortars and sand. Glass powder is also used in the field of ceramics, in bricks in brick and in glass-foams as an inert element of the dough in place of natural aggregates with a saving in terms of consumption of natural resources. The characteristics of glass scrap, from the point of view of chemical stability, fire-retardant qualities and mechanical strength, allows its use as a stabilizer in the recipes for protecting dangerous elements such as eternity, incinerator fly ashes, in powders of fume abatement, in the slag of steelworks, in polishing sludge , etc. in order to create an inert glassy material. But with a view to circular economy, the most important step has been taken through the creation of a mixture of waste elements in industrial processes, one of which can be defined as the waste of waste . I refer to the PET powder that accumulates during the recycling of beverage bottles or other casings. The winning idea to mix glass powder and PET powder allowing to create a new raw material that, due to its physical-chemical characteristics, is suitable to replicate, both in shape and characteristics, natural stones. Furthermore, the thermoplasticity of PET, which allows the creation of drawings, reliefs and is easily adapted to the colors, makes this compound suitable for the creation of tops for kitchens and for interior and exterior coverings. The ingenuity and the genius of the people give us a picture of how our society walks in the face of the challenges that the circular economy poses: we find people who do not yet know how to carry out the separation of waste at home , people who continue to throw rubbish into the environment , people who push the political class to invest more in recycling plastic , glass, metals, paper, wood and electronic waste and other materials , and finally there are people who are one step ahead and take care of finding solutions for waste utilization.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Denial and Environmental Racism: The American Models
Denial and Environmental Racism: The American Models
Monday, 19th october 2020 | History

History has taught us how black communities have been used to repair some environmental disasters Wars, as we know, always cause many deaths, but the tools to fight them do not always contemplate weapons. Finance and industry use less egregious and noisy tools to sometimes achieve the same loss of life. It all started in 1982, when an electrical transformer manufacturer decided to dispose of itsPCB-composed waste, which caused various forms of cancer in the population in an area of 300 km. around the company. When the scandal emerged, the state of North Carolina had to clean up the area and choose a place to place hazardous waste. The area chosen was Warren, a small African-American community, precisely because of the skin color of its inhabitants and the low standard of living, peasants probably from low schooling, which made it presume the unconditional acceptance of dangerous waste. But what is PCB? PCBs are a mixture of different isomers, insoluble in water, which are used in oils and used in large capacitors and electrical transformers, due to their high resistance to high temperatures and as electric insulators. Their toxicity was studied, due to the increase in cases of rashes, blood diseases and liver cancer, in some industrial areas where PBC was used. Despite the 1970s, this type of chemical fluid has progressively gone out of production due to high toxicity, the incident that happened in Warren, beyond the health problems found, brought out a protest movement that emphasized the use of environmental racism to solve ecology problems. Despite public outcry and the lawsuit filed, the site was only decontaminated in 2000 and the lawsuit ended in no action. In Warren County, near the landfill, they lived until 78 African-Americans, and the violation of the right to their health gave rise to the environmental justice movement, which aimed not only to combat the sources of industrial pollution and landfills, but also to aim to defend the African-American populationfrom pressure to relocate polluting productions and hazardous waste to the areas where they lived, without involving them in their choices. The movement took on political value and sought to analyze the reasons and implications that decisions to install dangerous landfills and productions would bring to the black population. In 1987, the study ToxicWaste and Race in the United States,carried out by the black progressive Church of Christ, had highlighted that race was the main factor of choice for the location of a dangerous landfill, as happened to Warren, thus talking about ecological racism. The racial issue was probably not felt within traditional environmental movements, such as the Sierra Club, the Audubon Society, the Wilderness Society, the WWF, and the Environmental Defense Fund, which, in those years, hardly tolerated proximity to black environmental movements, so much so that they often deserted their protest marches. We must not, however, think that the problem of environmental racism is confined only to the United States, but it is also expressed in Great Britain and France, where not only the colour of the skin was the derogatory fact, but the social classes and economic conditions of the residents. Greg Gibson/AP Photo

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Trash: the Movie that Tells Recycling to Children
Trash: the Movie that Tells Recycling to Children
Monday, 19th october 2020 | General News

The problem of waste, sea pollution and environmental issues are on all TVs in the world and are read every day on the net. It is not always easy to make children understand that everything possible can and must be done to preserve our planet, without frightening them and without falling into a sterile lesson in environmental education that risks not creating that empathy so dear to young people. Luca della Grotta and Francesco Dafano succeeded, through a fairy tale that touches the heart, telling in an animated and entertaining way the problems of waste that society produces, but also of sustainability and recycling. In this cartoon the protagonists are precisely the waste, in a difficult world to live in, telling themselves, with a mixture of frustration for their condition and, at the same time, hope for a better world where every waste thrown could have a second chance. Slim is a used cardboard box and Bubbles a bottle of fizzy drink, they live in a market with other marginalized friends, hiding from the Suckers, the vacuum machines of the cleaners. Despite the conditions in which they live, they hope to be able to reach the Magic Pyramid, a place where any waste can come back to life and be useful to the community. It seems that life events prevent them from fulfilling this dream, when an unforeseen fate changes their fate.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - BlackRock: 900 Million Dollar Fund Dedicated to Circular Economy
BlackRock: 900 Million Dollar Fund Dedicated to Circular Economy
Monday, 19th october 2020 | rNEWS

We have dealt with in the past, in an article , the slow but progressive interest of finance in entrepreneurial activities that take into account their environmental impact and how some financial companies, including banks, are moving to grant or withdraw loans based on the sustainability of the activity. The BalckRock fund, which sits on various corporate boards of directors, is not new to these initiatives to the point that it has decided to manage capital directly linked to the world of the circular economy, as reported in this note from ANSA. The BlackRock fund dedicated to the circular economy raised over 900 million dollars in one year. This was announced by the giant of US funds, recalling that the BlackRock Circular Economy Fund was established in October 2019 in collaboration with the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF). The Fund has identified three groups of leading companies in the circular economy, included in the investment portfolio: facilitators, or companies that provide innovative and cutting-edge solutions, designed to directly promote circularity between companies and consumers; adopters, ie companies that adopt the principles of the circular economy in order to obtain a significant positive impact on their value; beneficiaries, i.e. companies that provide alternative materials or services, which contribute to the circular economy. "It is encouraging to note the increase, year after year, in the number of companies that voluntarily publish the results of their activities in areas such as plastic pollution, product life or the use of processes of recycling and renewables, ”says Evy Hambro, BlackRock's global head of thematic and sectoral investment. "We are entering a new phase of recovery and regeneration, in which initiatives related to the circular economy, together with innovation and sustainable infrastructure, will play a priority role among investors, in light of the opportunities for generating value they offer. "said Thomas Fekete, Head of BlackRock's Sustainable Investment Strategy and Products EMEA region.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Nuclear fusion: can you talk about renewable energy?
Nuclear fusion: can you talk about renewable energy?
Sunday, 18th october 2020 | Renewable energies

The construction of the Tokamak reactor in France leaves high hopes. Tokamak is a mega nuclear reactor under construction in the south of France and precisely in Saint Paul Lez Durance based on the agreement signed in 2005 between the European Union, the United States, Switzerland, Russia, Japan, India and South Korea. the energy project of the century has already been defined as it has the objective of producing clean nuclear energy. How does nuclear fusion work? Unlike the production process until now used in atomic power plants for energy production, which is base on nuclear fission , that is energy creation through the separation of atoms, the new concept expressed by Tokamak will be based on the process of fusion of the same, creating at least 10 times the energy produced by nuclear fission. The process of nuclear fusion gives undoubted advantages for the management of radioactive waste as if we take into consideration the waste from nuclear fission, we know that for about 3000 years they remain radioactive, while those deriving from nuclear fusion already in the 12th year will have halved their radioactive effects. There is no doubt that the studies on the reuse of waste produced by future nuclear fusion plants must still be completed in order to find the way to inactivate the radioactivity within them and above all to reuse the waste material in the new production processes. Only then can we talk about renewable energy from nuclear fusion . There is however a cautious optimism about the possibility of reaching, at the end of this scientific process, a positive response in terms of the circular slag economy. When will Tokamak be operational? The construction status of the plant has seen this year the end of the primary construction works necessary to accommodate the mega reactor which is under construction and has reached about 60% of its constructive path. If the Tokamak implementation process is not impeded, ignition within the plant should take place in 2025 . It will take a few more decades before the nuclear energy produced by nuclear fusion is adopted on a large scale in the world, considering that the investment made by the team of countries in France will reach 20 billion euros at the end of the work . How did this agreement extend to different countries? It has been a long time since we talk about building the first atomic fusion power plant and Ronald Regan and Mikhail Gorbaciof had already spoken about it in 1985 during a US-USSR summit in Geneva. Both countries were studying the process of nuclear fusion but it was necessary, both for the completion of scientific studies and for the enormous investment, for other countries to participate. This led to the 2005 agreement that created an international team of interested countries, necessary to be able to carry out this ambitious energy program.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Injection defects with recycled materials: surface streaks
Injection defects with recycled materials: surface streaks
Saturday, 17th october 2020 | Technical information

What are the causes of injection defects and how can they be solved when using recycled polymers?There are aesthetic defects that could form during the injection work using regenerated granules, which are from recycled post-consumer or post-industrial origin. The post-consumption granule lends itself more, in any case, to the possible creation of aesthetic defects since the polymeric composition of the granule itself can comprise fractions of materials that are not completely homogeneous (for example PP / PE). The aesthetic deficiencies expressed in superficial streaks, also called marble streaks, normally do not cause a technical defect of the printed product, but usually an aesthetic defect which, in any case, can lead to the refusal of the product by the end customer. We have already dealt with the topic concerning the reconsideration of the aesthetic aspects of products made with a recycled granule, in the presence of small defects, with a view to increasing the circularity of plastic waste, precisely to have a correct judgment on the aesthetic expectations of products that employ recycled plastic. (read article). In the molding phase, the plastic used as raw material reaches temperatures between 175 ° and 400 °, depending on the material used, creating various transformation processes within the melt. The water is vaporized, and some low molecular weight additives and polymers could degrade producing volatile substances that will accompany the melt inside the mold. Furthermore, the molding speed could act on the polymeric molecules creating a certain percentage of plastic degradation. Due to the difference in density between the molten mass, the volatile and the degraded substances, there will be a separation between the heaviest and the lightest parts inside the mold, where the latter will arrive first towards the walls of the mold itself, then followed by the molten mass, of which they will get dirty. Therefore, any volatile and / or degraded part that will be pushed towards the mold wall by the melted recycled polymer, will create streaks or marbled parts on the walls of the finished product which may be unsightly. The causes of these defects can be summarized in: • Moisture of the material • Degradation of plastic parts due to high temperature • Excessive molding time with degradation of polymers • Counter pressure too low • Too small injection points that could degrade the raw material • Excessive wear of the spindle • Dirt near the gas ejection points in the mold or insufficient number of points In consideration of the above, to avoid or reduce these unsightly phenomena, it is necessary to take all the necessary precautions for the adjustment of the machine and mold parameters, in addition to checking, through the study of the DSC of the recycled polymer to be used, the weight of the components that could degrade.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The new professions for sustainable economy are born
The new professions for sustainable economy are born
Friday, 16th october 2020 | General News

Universities are gearing up to offer master in line with the market that seeks experts in new emerging professions in the field of sustainable and circular economy The world is evolving towards an increasingly marked attention to the environment, recycling, reuse, saving of raw materials, production with the least possible environmental impact and a new reconsideration of nature. This will generate new professions . They are not only appeals launched by the European Community , which is pushing the accelerator towards the change of the production, distribution, energy and logistic model, promptly derided by environmental denialists such as the United States or the indifferent (apparently) like China or the India and the various satellite countries. It is always the market that first grasps the requests for change that come from the base, and it is always the market that organizes itself to support the epochal changes we are experiencing, also dragging with it the political class that must legislate on the matter. Industrialists have understood that they must follow the will of people who feel the problem of climate change viscerally and who try to adopt virtuous behaviors with actions that affect consumption. Less plastic, less cars with heat engines, less use of electricity and water, less use of planes, less purchase of products that come from afar and less products made with virgin raw materials. This change in needs on the part of the world population will have a substantial impact on consumption and, therefore, also on production processes, which is why industrialists cannot think of waiting for the inertia of politics. This is demonstrated by the fact that even in the United States, the industrial fabric is not too impressed by the liberal and environmentally conscious policy that the Tramp administration flaunts to defend, against all scientific logic, by moving with initiatives that meet the needs of the population in terms of respect for the environment. For these reasons, in the next decade, new professional figures will be created which will have to govern, within companies, the production of goods and services according to a circular economy and sustainability perspective. To train experts in the sectors that will be among the most requested by the market, universities are organizing Masters, through which new technicians of the disciplines that concern waste systems, control and management of hazardous substances and business risks can be certified according to the new regulations and finally, the field of technical training on recycled plastics . The waste system expert will have specific skills in the field of collection, transport, storage and disposal in relation to environmental and production regulations.The environmental safety expert will have specific skills in hazardous substances, workers’ health in relation to their use and compliance with environmental regulations.The recycled plastics expert will have specific skills in the processing and reuse cycle of plastic waste, in the form of a new raw material, giving the sales networks specific instructions on their use in the field of molding, extrusion, blowing and thermoforming.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Versalis: Chemistry at the service of the Circular Economy
Versalis: Chemistry at the service of the Circular Economy
Thursday, 15th october 2020 | rNEWS

We are happy to welcome Giacomo Talignani's interview to Versalis CEO on rNEWS , Daniele Ferrari, in which the problems of the present and the future of the circular economy are addressed, regarding the processing and disposal of plastic waste. The article addresses the still open problems of the waste cycle: landfills, waste-to-energy, pyrolysis, disposable products and the creation of sustainable packaging. Chemistry and its processes as the key to designing a world based on greater recycling capacity, leaner and more environmentally friendly packaging and products, but also plastic recovered and made "virgin" again and new recipes for the long road to decarbonization. Products designed under the lens of circularity, the recovery of materials and the search for alternative ones, are today at the center of the mission of Versalis, Eni's chemical company. Daniele Ferrari, CEO of Versalis, talks about the importance of chemistry for today's and future sustainability. How can chemistry help recycling today and be at the heart of the circular economy? " "As producers of plastics and chemical products it is very important for us today not only to produce but also to provide new solutions that will then be used on the markets. This is why for Versalis, circularity must be 360 degrees. We move along three fundamental lines: eco design, that is to produce and think about our products also from the point of view of the end of life, maximizing resources and thinking, for example, how to make products simpler to be recycled; then the use of alternative feedstocks with the right mix of transition between fossil raw materials and renewable ones, on which we are focusing more and more in our production; and finally a particular development and attention to recycling technologies. We have a strong sense of social responsibility, with increasing attention to sustainability in the company: therefore we as the chemical industry must commit ourselves to contribute with the aim of recycling both mechanically and ch imically the products ". The plastic you deal with is a complex material to recycle. How are you going to recover it? "The rate of plastic recycling in the world is still low. In Europe, with a market of about 50 million tons of virgin plastic, more than 30% of the plastic waste collected is sent to recycling processes, over 40% is waste-to-energy and the remainder ends up in landfills, and the latter is a big problem. We need to be able to recycle more. During the pandemic linked to Covid we have realized the importance of some applications of plastic: from those used in the health sector to those of food packaging, the importance of plastic has jumped to the eyes precisely because of its versatility, because without this material it would have been difficult to do many things we have done, from the pads to the masks. It is therefore necessary to think more and more about the reuse of plastic: today in Europe mechanical recycling can satisfy the need up to a certain point. It will probably increase the percentage of mechanically recycled plastic, but it will be difficult to go further because there are mixed plastics and multi-layer materials on the markets. That's why we are developing molecular recycling to go further and achieve greater recovery possibilities. An example is what we are doing with the Hoop project, we plan to build a first plant of 6,000 tons per year in Mantua ". What does this project consist of? "In very simple words Hoop is based on the pyrolysis process to transform mixed plastics into raw materials that can give life to new" virgin "plastics, in order to have a circular economy cycle . The recovered plastic is heated in the reactor at 400-500 degrees with low pressures: essentially we break it down to be able to reuse it. Beyond the energy production to heat the reactor there are no direct emissions and this process ensures that this plastic becomes a primary good again. With molecular recycling we are less limited than mechanical recycling. In the future we hope that this cycle will also include the possibility that the energy needed for this process comes entirely from renewable sources, in order to close the cycle completely " Is it difficult to apply the concept of circularity to plastic recovery? "We are part of the Circular Plastics Alliance and have made important commitments to recycle plastics, trying to show that this material can be recovered. Plastic is not it is a problem, but bad end-of-life management is. This can be achieved with the technologies we are developing. We believe that for the future it is better to commit ourselves to better manage plastic waste, rather than eliminate this material, in a slogan better be "plastic waste free" than "plastic free". What other challenges involve plastic waste? "One of the first challenges undertaken is for example the Versalis Revive project. We create new products with virgin plastics and recycled plastics up to 75%. We manage to do both in polystyrene and in polyethylene for example to obtain products for the agricultural sector for packaging such as films and films. Then there are initiatives such as RiVending, in which we collect coffee cups and stirrers and disposable we give life to the production of expandable polystyrene for insulating sheets for condominiums or homes and protective packaging for household appliances and furniture. I believe that RiVending also demonstrates that in the great race to ban disposable plastic, one could think differently, that is on how to recycle them and detect their value without damaging an industry already under pressure. We have demonstrated in a practical way what can be done with disposables, an example of recycling that can also be applied in other situations ". An example of conversion instead comes from Crescentino (Vercelli), where you now produce disinfectant. "Yes, with the experience we have in chemistry from renewable sources at the Crescentino site in Piedmont we have adapted the production facilities to produce a range of disinfectants (called Invix, ed) using as active ingredient ethanol from vegetable raw materials. A necessary conversion for the particular and difficult time we are experiencing. We will continue to produce and expand our range of products soon. " What other transformations will be needed to ensure the energy transition? "We will need a complete transformation of our industry, but it cannot be done in a single stage. Integrating traditional chemical plants with new and technological structures that allow us to be increasingly renewable and circular is the goal. To do this we use a strategy that I would define in phases, modular, a path that chemistry is already taking and must follow to be at the forefront, stimulated by environmental sensitivity, by the New Green Deal and all the support apparatuses that will come for the change ". What role does chemistry play in this game? "Within Eni, every business does its part towards decarbonization. As a chemical part, we have the possibility to integrate and be able to make a technological contribution towards this change. We feel strongly motivated and empowered: the chemical industry touches about 95% of every industrial sector, many of the products that surround us are made thanks to chemistry and for this we know we have an important role towards the future. We hope that people also understand how much chemistry, sometimes wrongly framed or perhaps associated with pollution, actually has a decisive and precious role, as a resource, for the development of a more sustainable society ". Giacomo Talignani, the Republic rNEWS

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Tire Recycling between History and Technology
Tire Recycling between History and Technology
Wednesday, 14th october 2020 | History

Production, recovery, recycling and reuse of tires. It seems incredible but in 2019 around 3 billion tires were sold worldwide , a huge volume of raw materials used, whose final product must be recycled in compliance with the rules of the circular economy. We are used to seeing tires in our daily lives, on cars, bikes, motorbikes and on all the other means of mobility that we encounter every day, but we must also think, in a circular economy perspective, how to give a second life to tires and how to make the product we use become sustainable . To do this we should know a bit of product history, how it is made and what methods we know today for their disposal. History The history of tires can be traced back to the patent filed in London by Scotsman Robert William Thomson in 1846, well before the spread of cars, trucks, couriers and motorcycles. Those were also the years in which natural rubber entered the industrial world, ( see article ), and we tried to model it in different shapes at various temperatures, to test its consistency in hot and cold temperatures. In the United States, in the same period, Charles GoodYear , after long studies started in 1839 that dealt with the reactions between rubber with sulfur , was able to patent in 1844, a compound through which it was possible to manage the elastic deformations of rubber under the effect of temperatures. But the invention of the two researchers remained a dead letter until the inner tube was invented which could bear the weight and twisting of the moving vehicle inside the tire. The advantages of the “air” wheel were summarized in a lower force necessary for the movement of the vehicle, more silent operation, greater comfort and greater maneuverability. Despite these undoubted successes, from an industrial point of view it was not followed and the air wheel was quickly forgotten. It had to wait until 1888 when John Boyd Dunlop again patented an air tire for bicycles and the following year he applied it to the bicycle of William Hume , a mediocre cyclist, who with this revolutionary bicycle won, in Belfast, all three competitions at to which he had subscribed. The success was such that series production of these bicycles equipped with the revolutionary tire began. The studies at that time did not focus only on the tires, but also on the rims that were to contain them, on the compounds to thicken parts in which the rolling efforts were greater, on the problems related to the overheating of the warping threads and, finally, to protect the rotates by punctures. In 1912 the tires changed from light colors to black , as it was discovered that the addition of smoke black to the compound increased the wear resistance of the rubber. During these years the production of cars increased and the adoption of the air tire is attributable to the Michelin brothers , who tested it in the Paris-Brest-Paris race of 1891, who won with only 5 punctures. Rubber vulcanization process The heart of the tire production process lies in the principle of vulcanizing the raw material, which consists of heating the rubber with sulfur. The vulcanization between polyisoprene and sulfur causes a modification of the molecular structure of the polymer creating an increase in the elasticity and tensile strength of the product, reducing abrasiveness and initial tackiness. The vulcanization process is achieved through a mixture of elastomer, sulfur and other chemical additives such as accelerators, activators, reinforcers, antioxidants, inhibitors and anti-aging agents. Tire recycling As we saw earlier, in 2019 alone, around 3 billion tires were sold, which will wear out over a certain period of time, and then be replaced with other new items. This has been happening every year for years, so as to generate an immense quantity of used tires that until recently ended up in landfills or in storage centers , because their recycling was complicated due to the mix of components that the product contains. Today we have some tire recovery processes that can reduce the pressure between production and recycling. We can list three recycling processes: Mechanical shredding The process involves coarse shredding of tires with sizes around 70 or 100 mm. on each side, then going through the removal process of the metal parts, the granulation, with further cleaning and the final micronization process in which the product will be clean and divided into different particle sizes. Cryogenic process The process involves a first phase of coarse shredding of the tires with relative removal of the metal parts. Subsequently the ground is subjected to a cooling with liquid nitrogen, in order to recreate a crystalline and fragile structure that easily allows a new fine shredding. The resulting material is then treated through the pulverization process with hammer or disc mills. Electro-thermal process The process involves the first mechanical dimensional reduction of the product to then be inserted in vertical magnetic induction ovens. In these ovens the metal parts are detached from the rubber under the effect of a temperature of about 700 degrees. At the end of this operation, the rubber part is collected and sent for de-vulcanization which consists in returning the recovered element to a chemical form similar to the original elastomer, through thermochemical processes in autoclaves. What are the characteristics of the recycled raw material and what are its uses The recycled rubber granules are used for the realization of resinous-rubbery conglomerates using them in 60/70% mix, using cold molding machines. As for the powder , its use can be combined with doughs with virgin elastomer and used through die-casting processes or other types of hot pressing. However, it should be noted that the recycling of tires is still very small compared to the total harvest, which increases disposal costs, leaving the problem of their post-life management open. The main applications of granules and dust can be found in the production of draining surfaces for fields with synthetic grass, asphalts, surfaces that cushion falls in play heads, non-slip floors, acoustic insulation, accessories for urban furniture, mattresses for farms and other articles. New studies on recycling Currently, the ongoing studies, in order to try to increase the percentage of reuse of used tires, focus on the processes of decomposition of the chemical bonds that the elastomer, sulfur and additives create between them. Researchers at Mc Master University have experimentally developed a system that can cut horizontal polymer bonds by breaking the mesh that chemically holds the various components, bringing them back to their primary state.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Japanese Plastic Toys do Good Business
Japanese Plastic Toys do Good Business
Tuesday, 13rd october 2020 | General News

Bandai Namco will start a new production facility. Is the earth threatened by an alien attack? Don’t worry we have the robot “Gundam” that will defend us. Designed by Japanese designer Yoshiyuki Tomino, the plastic toy is particularly popular in Asia, giving the manufacturer, bandai Namco, regular growth in sales and production, with values approaching 150 in 10 and 15.73 million pieces sold in 2018. The company’s project is to conquer new markets such as the European and American markets and that is why it is planning a film, made together with the Hollywood film studio Legendary Entertainment,that can push sales in these two macro areas. To support this ambitious marketing project, an expansion of the multicolored plastic robots manufacturing plant in the city of Shizuoka, near Tokyo, has been planned, with an increase in production of about 40. The plant will be built on an area of 1500 square meters. 6 new injection presses will be installed at a total cost of several tens of millions of dollars. Since its debut, the Gundam robot has been sold in about 500 million units,numbers that bode well looking at the new European and American markets. At first his commercial fortune could not be seen, indeed the toy had been opposed as a bearer of a fighter’s soul but morally pacifist. In fact, at the turn of the 80s the market was pervaded by the exploits of the super heroes, invincible,who attracted children for their characteristics. Over time, a more humane configuration and technology that is more understandable and close to children’s lives has made it enormously successful.  

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https://www.arezio.it/ - HDPE: Production of Bottles with Recycled Plastic | Some Advices
HDPE: Production of Bottles with Recycled Plastic | Some Advices
Monday, 12nd october 2020 | Technical information

How to solve aesthetic problems in the production of recycled HDPE bottles. The production of detergent bottles made of recycled plastic, until recently were produced with virgin materials despite some shapes and colors allowed the use of a recycled HDPE granule . The media impact of plastic pollution dispersed by humans in the environment , has moved the conscience of consumers putting pressure on states, which deal with environmental legislation, but also producers of substances contained in bottles that cannot, for commercial reasons, to lose the consent of its final customers. The demand for regenerated HDPE for blow molding has had a strong surge in the last two years, surely finding, a part of the producers, not totally prepared to manage the recycled granule in their machines. It was not just a question of the type of granule that may differ slightly, from a technical point of view, from virgin raw materials to machine behavior, but problems with color shades, stress cracking and seal welding had to be addressed. , to micro holes and other minor issues. In previous articles we have addressed the genesis of recycled HDPE in bottle blowing and the correct choice of recycled raw materials, while today we see some aesthetic aspects that could occur using recycled HDPE granules at 100%. There are four aspects, from an aesthetic point of view, that can negatively affect the good production result: 1) A marked porosity called “orange peel” which is formed mainly inside the bottle but, not infrequently, is also visible on the outside. It appears as an irregular surface, with the presence of continuous micro-cavities that give a rough appearance to the surface. Normally the problems are to be found in the granule, where a possible excessive presence of surface humidity does not allow a perfect laying of the HDPE wall coming out of the mold. In this case the problem can be solved by drying the material in a silo so that it reaches such a degree of humidity that it will not negatively affect the surfaces. In general it is always a recommended operation when you want to produce using 100% regenerated material . 2) Streaks on the bottle are another aesthetic problem that occurs for different reasons, especially if an already colored granule is used. The causes may depend on a different percentage of plastic inside the HDPE granule , even in minimum percentages, between 2 and 4%, since, having the different plastic melting points , the aesthetic behavior on the wall of the bottle can be slightly different, influencing the color in the dough. It is important to note that you should not confuse the streaks of shades with the streaks of structure , which are normally created by the mold of the bottle due to wear or dirt that accumulates by working. Another reason may depend on the heat resistance of the master that is used, as it is not infrequent that at too high temperatures, both in the extrusion phase of the granule and in the blowing of the element , a phenomenon of color degradation can be created with the creation of small streaks on the walls of the bottle. 3) Perfect weldability in a bottle is extremely important as any detachment of the walls, once the bottle has cooled and filled, causes serious damage with costs to be incurred due to the loss of the packaging, the substances contained and the replacement of the material with important logistics costs. The bottle just produced normally does not present the possible defect because the exit temperature from the machine “hides” the problem a little, but once the bottle has cooled, filled and subjected to the weight of the pallets that are stacked above it, a welding defect can present itself in all its problems. The cause of this problem normally must be sought in the percentage of polypropylene that the HDPE granule can contain due to a selection of the raw materials upstream of the non-optimal granule production. A poor selection of the bottles between them, but above all from the caps that they contain, can increase the percentage of polypropylene in the granule mixture. There are commercially available machines with optical selection of the washed ground which help to substantially reduce this percentage, being able to bring it back below 1.5-2%. When buying the recycled HDPE cargo it is always a good idea to ask for a DSC test to check the composition of the granule for production. The effect of an excessive percentage of PP has as a direct consequence the prevention of an effective welding of the contact surfaces that form the bottle. In addition to working on the granule, it would be a good idea if you wanted to use 100% of the recycled raw material, slightly increase the overlap thickness of the two sides of the bottle to favor the correct welding point. 4) The presence of micro or macro holes in a bottle , directly visible through an inspection or, for smaller ones, through the air tightness test, may depend on the presence of impurities inside the granule , when the washing and the filtering of the raw material was not done in a workmanlike manner. Another reason may depend on poor cleaning of the screw of the blowing machine which can accumulate residues of degraded polymer and transport them, subsequently, to the mold. Especially if you use recipes with mineral charge, you may have the problem immediately after changing the recipe between one without charge and one containing it. The use of mixed recipes between virgin and regenerated material can mitigate some of these points but not completely solve any problems if you do not have the foresight to follow the supply chain of the recycled granule.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The European Consortium of Long life Batteries is Born
The European Consortium of Long life Batteries is Born
Sunday, 11st october 2020 | Renewable energies

Batteries, a key sector supported today by the European Community. To support electric mobility in the European Community, by facilitating the most important companies in the sector to continue investing in research and development, Brussels has decided to inject liquidity into a strategic market, such as that of long-lasting batteries, for the future. With a common investment of 3.2 billion euros dedicated to improving the diffusion and technical qualities of long-lasting batteries , the European Community wants to give further impetus to the transition from a mobility linked to oil to one linked to electricity. The project, which sees the joint participation of Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Finland, Poland and Sweden , will involve 17 companies from these countries. The companies involved, explains Marrethe Vestager , European commissioner for competition and executive vice-president for the project “Europe ready for the digital age” , will involve, in turn, about 70 other subjects, who come from public and small and medium research laboratories companies. In the forecasts of the European Commissioner, this appropriation by the countries participating in the project will probably be the driving force for further private investments estimated at around 5 billion euros . The European production of long-life batteries, produced through the use of lithium-ion cells , currently covers only 1% of world production , therefore, this new financial and technical impulse has the aim of bringing European production of these batteries at around 20-25% of what will be produced in the world. According to Bcg , the turnover forecast for the sector for the year 2027 will be around 45 billion euros , so it is clear how important it is not to fall behind. The completion of the European Community project is scheduled for 2031.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - From Recycling to Product Reuse
From Recycling to Product Reuse
Saturday, 10th october 2020 | Circular economy

How to change mentality to create a world without waste We are going beyond the obstacle when speaking not of recycling , a subject not yet assimilated by many, but of re – use of plastic products. Utopia? Perhaps, but before making the future we must design it and then we see how we could get to have no more waste to recycle. The situation today is far from the above, in fact, the consumption of virgin raw materials continues to increase and it is estimated that in 2020 we will use 30% more than ten years ago. Although we continue to talk about the circular and recycling economy , we have not yet been able to find solutions to reverse this situation and, as time passes, we continue to complicate our lives. To talk about the future we must take for granted the principle that all manufactured products must be recyclable , which unfortunately is still far from the future, due to the continuous industrial and political resistance that contribute to this slowdown. But supposing we have been so good at achieving the high recycling standards needed to find a balance between production and disposal , we need to think about how to reduce, to the point of eliminating the problem of waste production. If we want to talk about plastic we can think of the main characteristic of this raw material which is durability , in fact we buy a detergent, a cassette, a fork, a bottle that can be useful for decades and instead we throw them after use. How long do they last in our hands ? From 15 days for the detergent bottle to a few minutes for the fork or spoon or the fruit box. Have we ever thought of washing these products and reusing them? The bottle can be refilled thousands of times, the box can be used in the cellar, in the car or to buy more fruit and vegetables without taking another one, the spoon and the fork can be washed and reused. These are just a few examples that allow us to avoid generating new waste , to save energy for recycling and transport, to avoid pollution if the materials are not recycled, to save virgin raw materials that cause the extraction and processing of oil. But the problem can also be seen for more complex objects, such as a washing machine, an iron, a machine, the lawn mower, the table where we eat or the bed where we sleep. How do we really make the management of a product that should become waste new? Simply do not own it , but use it for the time we need and then return it to the supplier who will be required to overhaul it, repair it, update it, integrate it, guarantee it and then put a product back on the market that suits our needs. There are companies that have embraced this line, such as Apple, Levi’s and others that, taking up the used object, do not create further waste, but manage elements that they can use again in production. Is the road still far away? Frankly I would say yes, because if we look at the circularity rate in Europe which is 11.7% against a world figure of 9%, we find low values, but still slow growth, having also to consider that the market increase of the circularity would correspond to the increase in employment which, based on data from the European Commission, could reach 700,000 units. Europe imports 90% of oil, two-thirds of the metals used for production, 70% of the natural gas used to run the factories. If we actually increase circularity , we would find the way to dissociate growth and production with the extraction of fuel metals and all the natural raw materials we use daily. This also means reducing waste, emissions into the atmosphere, the use of landfills, the use of water and pollutants associated with these activities.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - ENEL: Production of Hydrogen from Wind Power Plants in Chile
ENEL: Production of Hydrogen from Wind Power Plants in Chile
Friday, 9th october 2020 | rNEWS

Chile will have its first plant for the production of Hydrogen through an electrolyser powered by wind energy. Although today the production of hydrogen, through renewable energies is not yet competitive in terms of cost Kw, compared to the production with natural gas or coal, there is no doubt that the progressive decrease of costs of the production of electricity from renewable sources, in the coming years, will allow the opening of a very interesting market in terms of the location of totally green energy production. As can be read from Enel's report on the hydrogen production plant in Chile, through the use of wind energy, the decarbonization of industrial and civil systems also goes down this road. Enel Green Power Chile (EGP Chile), a subsidiary of Enel Chile, plans to participate with the Chilean electricity company AME and future ENAP partners, Siemens Energy and Porsche, to install a pilot plant for the production of green hydrogen through an electrolyser powered by wind energy in Cabo Negro, north of Punta Arenas, in the Magallanes region, subject to approval by local authorities and the finalization of the financing structure. The plant is scheduled to go into operation in 2022, making it the first project of its kind to produce hydrogen in Chile, as well as one of the most large in Latin America. The announcement took place during an event attended by the Chilean Minister of Energy Juan Carlos Jobet. Salvatore Bernabei, recently appointed global CEO of Enel Green Power and head of Enel's Global Power Generation business line, said: “Green hydrogen can truly play an important role in the energy transition by supporting the decarbonisation of sectors whose emissions are more difficult. to be demolished, and in which the electrification of end uses is not a simple solution. Enel focuses on this type of hydrogen, which is produced using electrolysers, powered 100% by renewable electricity. This project, which is a milestone for the Group globally, can put our vision into practice; specifically, a plant like this can allow us to analyze the best technological solutions to efficiently produce hydrogen by exploiting the wealth of resources and solid infrastructure of the Magallanes region. As we are doing in Chile, we will continue to look for other countries around the world where it is possible to launch similar initiatives ". A project in Patagonia In a country with extraordinary natural resources, Patagonia stands out for having some of the best dry land wind conditions in the world thanks to its proximity to Antarctica, such as demonstrates a study on wind resources conducted by EGP Chile over the past two years. These unique characteristics allow Patagonia to have a constant production of wind energy, which is a key element in enabling the region to position itself as a development pole for green hydrogen. In particular, the Magallanes region needs to diversify its energy mix that was historically based on oil and gas, leveraging existing infrastructure to accelerate decarbonisation through green hydrogen generated by wind energy. Green hydrogen in Chile Chile is establishing itself as one of the countries with the greatest potential for the production and export of green hydrogen in the world. According to the Chilean Ministry of Energy, thanks to low-cost green hydrogen, by 2050, it will be possible to reduce the country's accumulated CO2 level by up to 20%. The International Energy Agency estimates that Chile is capable of producing 160 million tons of green hydrogen per year, doubling the current demand for hydrogen and, according to Bloomberg projections, the price of green hydrogen will be competitive with diesel in less than 10 years or so. Enel in Chile is the largest electricity company by installed capacity with over 7,200 MW of which over 4,700 MW of renewable energy, specifically: over 3,500 MW of energy hydroelectric power, over 600 MW of wind energy, approximately 500 MW of solar energy and approximately 40 MW of geothermal energy. The Group also operates in the distribution sector through Enel Distribución Chile, which serves approximately 2 million customers, and in the business of advanced energy solutions through Enel X Chile. Enel Green Power, within the Enel Group, is dedicated to the development and management of renewables around the world, with a presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania. World leader in the renewable energy sector, with a managed capacity of over 46.4 GW and a generation mix that includes wind energy, the solar energy, geothermal energy and hydroelectric energy, Enel Green Power is at the forefront of integrating innovative technologies into renewable plants.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - ENI: New Contract in England for the Treatment of CO2
ENI: New Contract in England for the Treatment of CO2
Thursday, 8th october 2020 | rNEWS

Eni has given the news, through a press release, of the assignment of a license to build the CO2 storage project in north-west England. The capture and storage of CO2 makes it possible to increase the work of decarbonising the planet and reusing the sources deemed exhausted for new fuels. The British Oil and Gas Authority (OGA) announced that it has awarded Eni the license for the construction of the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage project. The storage license concerns an area located in the portion of Liverpool Bay in the East Irish Sea, where Eni plans to reuse the exhausted hydrocarbon fields - specifically the Hamilton, North Hamilton and Lennox fields - and to reconvert the related permanent storage facilities for captured CO2 in North West England and North Wales. Thanks to this license, Eni intends to both contribute to the decarbonisation needs of North West England and North Wales, and actively collaborate with industrial companies for the capture and transport of CO2 from existing plants and future hydrogen production sites. This will be used as a transition fuel for heating, electricity and transport as part of the UK's 'zero emissions' target by 2050. For Eni, the project will have positive effects for local communities through the creation of new job opportunities and support for the economic development of the region, as well as tracing a concrete path towards the energy transition and the decarbonisation of economic activities. Andy Samuel, CEO of OGA, said: “The OGA is very pleased to license what we trust will be a very successful project. The work on Energy Integration that we have conducted shows that the combination of various energy systems, including the capture of carbon dioxide and the production of hydrogen, can give a significant contribution to the "zero emissions" target pursued by the United Kingdom. HyNet is an exciting example of energy integration taking place, which includes the reuse of existing infrastructure and depleted fields for the storage of significant quantities of carbon dioxide, and the generation of hydrogen for multiple innovative applications ". Claudio Descalzi, Eni's Chief Executive Officer, commented: "I am very satisfied and proud for the award of the license for the storage of carbon dioxide in the United Kingdom, the first license of this kind for Eni. This is a project of vital importance for Eni and represents a fundamental milestone for the UK's "zero emissions" objectives, as well as being an essential pillar of strategy for the energy transition and decarbonization in which Eni is strongly committed ". More Information

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Plastic Fishing Nets: a Long Unresolved History
Plastic Fishing Nets: a Long Unresolved History
Thursday, 8th october 2020 | Environment

Fishing nets are built in Nylon, Polypropylene, Polyethylene, Polyester and other materials that make the structures economical and tough, but which pose a serious environmental problem if abandoned in the sea. This phenomenon very often depends on accidental situations in which fishing vessels lose their nets or parts of them, for various reasons, one of which is perturbations or difficult sea conditions. The problem of pollution of fishing equipment lost at sea was already reported in 2009 by an FAO report when there was still no talk of plastic pollution in the seas. According to the 2020 report of ECA Europe the abandonment and dispersion of plastic in the environment damage terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Each year, between 4.8 and 12.7 million tons of plastic waste is released into the ocean. The proportions of terrestrial and marine plastic waste vary from region to region. According to a recent study, fishing nets also make up 46% of the Great Pacific garbage patch. In Europe, about 85% of marine litter found on beaches is plastic. About 43% of this marine litter is made up of single-use plastics and 27% of fishing gear. In another report written by Greenpeace in November 2019 it was estimated that 640,000 tons of abandoned or lost fishing gear entered the ocean each year, equivalent in weight to over 50,000 double-decker buses. In total, they make up about 10% of the plastic waste in our oceans, trapping and killing marine life. The report was written while Greenpeace's ship, Arctic Sunrise, was examining Monte Vema, a biodiverse undersea mountain in the Atlantic, 1,000 kilometers off the coast of South Africa, where you can still find the remains of the once active fishing industry. Speaking of the expedition to Mount Vema, Thilo Maack of Greenpeace's Protect the Oceans campaign said: "Long after their abandonment, fishing gear continues to kill, maim marine life and pollute also remote ecosystems such as the submarine mountain of Monte Vema. We saw a fantastic underwater world full of life and color here. It is absolutely sad to see destructive fishing gear in such a remote place as this. "Even the Tristan Lobster, an iconic species of Monte Vema, which has been on the verge of extinction twice, is now showing signs of population recovery, thanks to the current ban on bottom fishing . This shows how the oceans have an extraordinary ability to regenerate. The "Ghost Gear" report shows that 6% of all nets used, 9% of all traps and 29% of all longlines (lines of several kilometers) remain polluting the sea . Not only does old fishing litter continue to kill marine life, it also severely damages underwater habitats. Seamounts are particularly hard hit as they are often heavily exploited due to the variety of wildlife that live around them. Greenpeace calls for stronger action to be taken against deadly phantom equipment, including agreeing to a strong UN Global Ocean Treaty that could protect at least 30% of the world's oceans by 2030, making it off-limits for harmful human activities, including industrial fishing. While according to a report by FAO , already in 2009 the danger of abandoning nets at sea was denounced, however highlighting that most of the fishing equipment is not deliberately abandoned but is lost during storms, carried away by strong currents, or is the result of so-called 'tackle conflicts', for example, when fishing with nets in areas where traps have already been placed on the bottom where new nets can run aground. The main damages caused by abandoned or lost networks are: • the continuous capture of fish - known as "ghost fishing" - and other animals such as turtles, seabirds and marine mammals, which become trapped and die; • the alteration of the ecosystems of the seabed; • the creation of risks for navigation in terms of possible accidents at sea and damage to boats. Tram nets, pots and fish traps contribute to "ghost fishing", while large fishing nets tend to trap other marine organisms and bottom trawls damage underwater ecosystems. Ghost fishing In the past, poorly managed fishing nets drifted by the current were singled out as the main culprits, but banning them in many areas in 1992 reduced their contribution to ghost fishing. Today it is the trammel nets placed on the seabed that are most often recognized as the main problem. The lower end of these nets is anchored to the seabed, while at the top there are floats, so as to form a vertical underwater wall of nets that can extend from 600 to 10 000 meters in length. If a trammel net is abandoned or lost, it can continue fishing on its own for months - sometimes years - indiscriminately killing fish and other animals. Fish traps and pots are another major cause of ghost fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay in the United States, it is estimated that around 150,000 crab traps are lost each year, out of a total of 500,000. On the Caribbean island of Guadalupe alone, around 20,000 of all traps set each year are lost in each hurricane season, a loss rate of 50%. Like trammel nets, these traps can continue to fish on their own for extended periods of time. Photo: FAO

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Caldara Plast: the Future of Plastic between Sustainability and Certifications
Caldara Plast: the Future of Plastic between Sustainability and Certifications
Wednesday, 7th october 2020 | rNEWS

For several years Caldara Plast has been on the market as a leader in the field of recovery and regeneration of plastic materials. It is one of the few companies that combines in the same company both the part relating to the recovery of industrial waste deriving from processes including molding, thermoforming, extrusion and blow molding, and the production of compounds formulated on specific customer needs starting almost always from the product to be herself regenerated. Caldara Plast has always been at the forefront of environmental issues, having in its DNA a strong ability to enhance on the market a product that is increasingly becoming the first choice of companies that care about the environment. & Nbsp; A philosophy that fits perfectly with that of the Plastic Second Life brand just obtained by the Lombard company that goes to enhance what Caldara Plast has been doing for years, namely giving value to waste plastic by putting it back on the market as a regenerated compound ready for new uses. From an environmental point of view, Caldara Plast's work is commendable as it allows a considerable saving of virgin materials as well as CO2 emissions. The brand recently obtained guarantees the end customer the complete traceability of the materials produced starting from the valorisation of plastic waste and is a guarantee of quality. & Nbsp; Caldara 2nd Life “Caldara 2nd Life” is the new company brand that identifies the certified ecological compounds made in the Caldara Plast plants deriving from plastic materials from pre-consumer industrial waste. At the moment, the materials ABS, PC PC / ABS, PS declined in the PSV Mixeco version (30% minimum and maximum 59.9% recycled plastic) and PSV industrial waste (from 60 to 100% recycled plastic) are part of this line . "How will we evolve in the future?" - says Massimiliano Caldara - “We will continue on the path of certifications to have increasingly reliable and guaranteed products for our customers not only from the point of view of the material but also of environmental and social sustainability. We will also continue along the path of research into organic products with the start-up "Planet Bioplastics" that we have with some professors from the University of Pisa. Still in the field of training, we have finalized the partnership with the "Higher Technical Institute Foundation for the new technologies of life" which will allow us to collaborate with a leading reality in the field of post-diploma training recognized by the Ministry of Education and that will allow us to bring our experience between school desks and tomorrow to have professionals trained for the plastic sector ". Caldara Plast's optimism is necessary in a post-lockdown period in which many companies are still suffering the repercussions of this forced stop. Not to lose heart is also useful to keep morale high throughout the sector and an incentive to take advantage of this relative calm to improve, innovate and enter the market even more competitive and performing. & Nbsp; The test bench will be the two main trade fairs in the sector, Mecspe 2020 in October and Plast 2021 in May. Caldara Plast will be present at both (except cancellations) to get to know and make itself known and to give a positive signal that the Italian company, even among the many difficulties of the moment, always finds a way to move forward. & Nbsp; The road to recovery is getting greener. More Information

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Total and Qair United to Develop an Offshore Wind Farm
Total and Qair United to Develop an Offshore Wind Farm
Wednesday, 7th october 2020 | Renewable energies

Total acquires 20% pilot project of the Eolmed floating wind farm, located in the Mediterranean.Wind energy is one of the many renewable sources that we can equip ourselves with for the decarbonization of the plant, together with water, solar, wave motion and atomic fusion energy. They have always been there, even for the construction of these systems, various forms of opposition, the classic NIMBY phenomenon (Not in My Back Yard), which has somewhat slowed the development of this alternative source. In effects, the choice to create offshore wind farms not only has the advantage of being able to take advantage of more regular and intense currents, compared to those that pass on land, but certainly mitigates the aesthetic impact of a large plant to be inserted in an inhabited context. Total , as recently announced in a press release, it is continuing the development of this technology through acquisitions of specialized companies in the sector.In fact it becomes a shareholder of 20% in the pilot project of the park Eolmed floating wind farm, located in the Mediterranean, off the coast of Gruissan and near Port-La-Nouvelle (Occitan region). Attributed to July 2016, this 30 megawatt (MW) project will accelerate the development of floating wind technology. Together with Qair, the long-standing developer and majority shareholder of the project, and to its local partners, Total brings its experience in the design, implementation and exploitation of offshore installations throughout their life cycle. Total thus continues to strengthen its position in the emerging floating offshore wind sector, in which it aims to be one of the world leaders. Today the Group is present in South Korea with a portfolio of 2 gigawatts and in the United Kingdom with the 100 MW Erebus project, which has just been assigned the exclusive development rights for its area. & Nbsp; Julien Pouget, Total's Director of Renewables, said: “This announcement once again demonstrates the Group's ambition and willingness to innovate in the field of renewable energy. Floating offshore wind is a very promising segment to which Total brings in particular its extensive experience in offshore projects.  Together with our partner Qair, we have the resources to address the technological and financial challenges that will determine our future success. I am delighted that Total can contribute to the emergence of this new sector in France. " “The Eolmed project is at the heart of the Occitanie region's strategy for the development of renewable energy, actively supported by local partners. It also demonstrates Qair's ambition to become a major player in floating offshore wind power in Europe.  By joining forces with a renowned French industrial partner for this innovative project developed by our teams since 2016, Qair is strengthening its technical expertise for the implementation of the Eolmed project and for future floating wind projects. ”Adds Louis Blanchard, CEO of Qair. Total, renewables and electricity As part of its ambition to hit net zero by 2050, Total is building a portfolio of businesses in the electricity sector, particularly renewable, which could represent up to 40% of its sales by 2050. By the end of 2020, Total's gross power worldwide generating capacity will be around 12 gigawatts, including around 7 gigawatts of renewable energy. With the goal of reaching 35 GW of renewable generation capacity by 2025, Total will continue to expand its business to become one of the world leaders in renewable energy. Photo: Qair

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Ferdinand II of Bourbon: 3 May 1832 The separate collection of waste was born
Ferdinand II of Bourbon: 3 May 1832 The separate collection of waste was born
Tuesday, 6th october 2020 | History

Separate collection - The 19th century was a period of great social and health changes. Over the centuries, starting from the Neolithic, the problem of waste and sanitary conditions of the population were not taken seriously and were not seen as an important problem.  As for man-made waste in the pre-industrial era, where the population concentration in urban agglomerations was not high, these did not constitute an obstacle as everything that was reusable was recovered for both human and animal activities.  Food waste, wood and iron were recovered, even sometimes excrement, which was carefully collected, dried and reused or sold as fertilizer.  It certainly cannot be said that the cities or villages were clean or hygienically free from diseases deriving from the spread of bacteria and viruses, but it can be said that the scarce human presence due to the occupied territory maintained a balance between the health problems given by poor hygiene public (and personal) and unused waste, respect the livability of urban agglomerations.  Things changed suddenly and dramatically during the 1800s when the massive urbanization of cities and the advent of the industrial revolution began, which attracted poor people who moved from the countryside to the cities to look for work.  For example, London in the first 30 years of the nineteenth century doubled its population by touching one and a half million people and reached two and a half million in the following twenty years. This disproportionate growth in people who normally lived in poor sanitation and crumbling housing created a chain of dramatic public health events.  In 1832, a cholera epidemic broke out in London and also in Paris which caused tens of thousands of deaths.  While not knowing the causes of death of the population, the problem was attributed to the great stench of open landfills, including roads and rivers, which received all the human and industrial waste that man was disposed of.  The first post-epidemic interventions focused on this waste, more for a question of social decorum than of true health awareness, in fact the scientific knowledge of cholera only occurred in 1883 by the German scientist Robert Koch who identified its existence, although it would seem that as early as 1854 the Italian Fabrizio Pacini had isolated the bacterium.  The first sewers were built, an attempt was made to connect entire neighborhoods that used cesspools and the industrial sewage was channeled into the new sewers. Not everything happened as simply as told, in fact, the problems were enormous and at first the results were poor, as the water conveyed ended up in the rivers anyway and the problems arose again downstream of the cities.  It had to wait until the end of the century when studies on microbiology began to find effective solutions also in the field of water purification, together with the improvement of the personal hygiene of the population as well as the first vaccinations.  As for solid, non-recoverable waste, which was normally deposited outside the home, the growth of the population in the new urban agglomerations led to new problems.  Although most of the goods that were sold did not have any wrapping or rarely in sheets of paper and anything that could be recycled was taken seriously, the unsorted garbage still began to accumulate. The colonies of mice lived in close contact with the populations of the poorest neighborhoods, attracted by the waste thrown freely on the city territory, creating further health problems.  It was also a matter of decorum that, first, Ferdinand II of Bourbon, king of the kingdom of the two Sicilies, issued on March 3, 1832, a law that regulated the management of urban waste, providing for strict rules on their abandonment and requiring the same for the material that made them up.  The royal decree was not to be taken lightly because there were also prison sentences for offenders. It also set up landfills where people had to bring their own waste and rules for cleaning the areas outside the homes.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Jim Robo CEO of Nextera Tells the Markent about the Company's Projects
Jim Robo CEO of Nextera Tells the Markent about the Company's Projects
Tuesday, 6th october 2020 | rNEWS

Jim Robo, the CEO of NEXTera, an American company specializing in renewable energy, has written a letter to shareholders, customers and the market, in which all the position and faith in the work that the company does every day in the field of production of clean energy, a spur to the industrial world, politics and the market, towards new challenges made of economic and income sustainability for the company but also for the world in which we live. Looking ahead without regret and respecting sustainable business, customers, shareholders and employees.2020 has been a year of unprecedented disruption. We have faced a worldwide pandemic coupled with major economic dislocations. We have witnessed injustice and unrest. We have experienced significant shifts in the ways we work and in the ways we live. The events in 2020 also have reinforced the vital importance of the work we do. Our company and our industry are the very definition of critical infrastructure and essential employees. Electricity powers our health care system, enables first responders to help those in need, allows businesses to stay open or reopen, facilitates online learning and is critical as our communities recover from all the challenges that 2020 has brought. So in the midst of these extraordinary times, we remain as committed as ever to our long-term strategy This strategy starts with a vision: We want to be the largest, most profitable clean energy provider in the world with the best skills and capabilities across the industry. This vision is informed by our values: We are committed to excellence; we do the right thing; we treat people with respect. This vision and these values inspire us every day. Our strategy also includes a focus on the importance of environmental, social and governance (ESG) impacts that have been a part of everything we do for more than 25 years. We are passionate about generating clean, renewable energy, while protecting the environment and giving back to the community. Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) and Gulf Power aim to be the most reliable and best operating utility companies in the country, while rapidly growing clean energy. NextEra Energy Resources is focused on building a diversified clean energy company with an emphasis on growing the world’s leading wind, solar and storage portfolio. Across the enterprise, we are delivering outstanding value for our customers, supporting our communities and empowering our teams, all while generating significant shareholder value and doing good for the environment. Capital investment is central to executing our strategy. Over the past decade, we have invested nearly $90 billion in clean energy infrastructure, making us the largest U.S. infrastructure investor in the energy industry and one of the largest capital investors across any industry in the U.S. over this period. By investing in smart infrastructure and innovative clean energy solutions, we are helping to build a sustainable energy future that is affordable, reliable and clean. Our capital investments also will help us meet our goal of reducing our carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rate 67% by 2025 from a 2005 baseline. We believe that no company in any industry has done more to reduce carbon emissions and to confront climate change than NextEra Energy. Our strategy also reflects our belief that an energy company can be clean and low cost at the same time. Our investments at FPL have resulted in best-inclass customer value with typical bills that are about 30% below the national average, record reliability and a CO2 emissions profile that is nearly 30% better than the national average. While Gulf Power has only been a part of the NextEra Energy family since January 2019, our investments in several clean energy projects have helped improve its emissions profile and our strategic focus has resulted in a record 20% improvement in reliability and a 20% reduction in O&M costs per retail megawatt-hour (MWh).   NextEra Energy Resources has become the world’s largest generator of renewable energy from the wind and sun, as well as a world leader in battery storage not only because our customers and their stakeholders want cleaner emissions, but also because they see that renewables and storage can reduce their costs. By investing in clean energy and lowering costs for our customers, our strategy also has generated significant benefits for shareholders, customers and the environment. Over the past 15 years, NextEra Energy has had a terrific track record of consistently growing adjusted earnings per share, with a compound annual growth rate over this period of nearly 8.5%. These consistent returns have resulted in NextEra Energy outperforming both the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Utilities indices in terms of total shareholder return on a one-, three-, five-, seven- and 10-year basis. Over the past 15 years, we have outperformed all of the other companies in the S&P Utilities Index and 85% of the companies in the S&P 500, while more than tripling the total shareholder return of both indices. As a result, we have grown from an average-sized utility by market capitalization 15 years ago to the largest utility company in the world today. Our strategy is executed by the best team in our industry, a team that is building a diverse and inclusive culture. We believe that diverse teams deliver superior business results, partly because they can better appreciate the needs of the communities we serve, but mostly because they challenge old ways of doing things and generate innovative solutions to our energy challenges. Together, we see an unprecedented opportunity to shape how energy is produced and delivered on this continent. We aim to be in the vanguard as we advance toward a fully sustainable energy era. We intend to continue to disrupt and transform our own industry and to deliver on all of our commitments to our stakeholders. We live and work amid historic challenges. Many of us have experienced these challenges in a very personal way. Yet I believe our company will look back on 2020 as a year in which we met those challenges and emerged from them stronger than ever. I believe that we will be even better positioned to help everyone recover and rebuild. More InfoPhoto: Nextera

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Political Battle in the Japanese Government that Wants to Re-Ignite the Nuclear Reactors.
The Political Battle in the Japanese Government that Wants to Re-Ignite the Nuclear Reactors.
Monday, 5th october 2020 | Renewable energies

Nuclear reactors – It took 8 years since the Fukushima disaster to lose memory of the consequences of the triple nuclear explosion What is going on within the Japanese government regarding the country’s energy policy? After the earthquake which occurred on March 11, 2011 in the area of the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which blocked the operation of three reactors and the subsequent Tsunami which put the cooling system dedicated to controlling the temperatures of the plants out of use, a triple uncontrolled atomic explosion occurred. We all know the consequences and above all know 150,000 citizens who lived around the plant who had to leave their land contaminated by radiation. The immediate decision of the Tokyo government was to stop all 54 nuclear reactors present on Japanese territory and start a rethinking of national energy policy. During these 8 years the government, in the area affected by the explosion, has started projects for the creation of 11 wind farms, for a total expenditure of 2.75 billion dollars, which would produce about 600 MW, against a production of about 4700 MW from the plant’s reactors. There are also plans to build new biomass, solar and geothermal power plants that can reduce dependence on nuclear and coal. These projects are part of the government’s goal of bringing the percentage of energy produced from renewable sources from 17.4% to around 22-24% by 2030, but at the same time, leveraging the fact that Japan is the third the world’s largest importer of coal , the re-ignition of nuclear reactors , according to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, would enforce the country’s CO2 emissions targets. The environment minister, Shinjiro Koizumi , does not agree with Abe at all and claims that the Fukushima plant still has an infinite number of problems to solve in order to allow people to return to neighboring villages. So, according to Koizumi, it would be unlikely to impose on the country the decision to reignite the old nuclear reactors. But what problems still exist in Fukushima? First of all , about 1 million tons of radiation- contaminated water is still stored , used in the shutdown operations of damaged reactors. Although the waters have been treated, to remove most of the radionuclides , today there is no technology that can remove tritium from the water. According to the technicians, the only way to solve the problem would be to dilute it and then pour it back into the ocean . This, however, beyond the obvious environmental and social implications , would require, according to the head of the committee that studies the dismantling of Fukushima, Hiroshi Miyano, not less than 17 years. Obviously fishermen and neighboring countries in Japan are on a war footing because they fear fish contamination and further economic disaster for the sector. Then there are the problems of contamination of groundwater lapping the buildings of the nuclear power plant damaged by the explosions, on which the government intervened with the construction of a frozen containment wall, costing 260 million dollars which has mitigated the phenomenon but not it blocked. Finally, there is a serious problem for contaminated soil which, for years, has been removed with the aim of reducing the value of radiation in evacuated areas, but which has created an accumulation of millions of tons of material that nobody wants. It is estimated that around 14 million tons of contaminated soil will have to be removed by 2021 and, according to the agreements that the local prefecture has made with the government, this mountain of material will have to be moved away from the disaster-affected area, but nobody knows where take it. In the meantime, the works are going on with about 1600 truck trips per day , having already transported about 2.3 million tons , which corresponds to about 15% of the total material to be removed and stored at the temporary site. The government would like to convey a safety image to the population , having already indicated some decontaminated areas as safe, but, according to Greenpeace , these areas would have too high a radiation value that would not allow a safe return of people. In light of this situation it is truly surprising how Prime Minister Abe can think of reigniting nuclear reactors in a country, between the earthquake-prone earthquake and the Tsunami.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Snetor acquires 100% of Gazechim France
Snetor acquires 100% of Gazechim France
Monday, 5th october 2020 | General News

The communication signed by the CEO of the Snetor group. Emmanuel Aubourg, who announced to the market the double acquisition of companies operating in the field of polymers in Europe. We are pleased to confirm, in as a privileged partner, the Snetor Group's acquisition of Gazechim Plastics on 27 July 2020. This operation comes just one week after the Snetor Group's acquisition of 70% of Tecnopol Spa in Italy and Spain.  Shared values and a common vision The Snetor Group and Gazechim Plastics are two family-owned companies with the same corporate culture and shared values in which the human dimension and relationships based on trust are at the heart of decisions and organizations. Strongly linked to close ties with our partners, we also share the same ambitions: to create value for our customers and suppliers and to become a key player in the distribution of plastics in Europe. From this operation a group was born that will now represent a perimeter of companies that employ almost 300 employees for a consolidated turnover of 1.2 billion euros, present in Europe, Africa, the United States and Latin America. To date, Gazechim Plastics operates on the European continent through 7 branches covering the following areas: France, Italy, United Kingdom, Benelux, Iberica, Romania and Norden. A key player in Europe With these 2 operations, Snetor becomes a pan-European player able to offer a global solution to all its partners through different distribution channels depending on the country and to pursue its strategy of proximity and commitment to of its customers and suppliers wherever they are. Proud and attentive to the lasting relationships we have with you, our teams will continue to collaborate with you on our clients' projects, with the same professionalism and level of rigor and quality of service. Do you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Decarbonization according to AlcelorMittal
Decarbonization according to AlcelorMittal
Monday, 5th october 2020 | rNEWS

Decarbonisation, the circularity of production activities and the search for a form of business that can combine development, profitability and sustainability has been addressed on the Arezio / PlastiCare blog many times, more often addressing the issues of the circular economy with a focus on recycled plastic. With this article, written by ArcelorMittal, we want to underline the companies' commitment to a more sustainable and circular production also in the field of metals. ArcelorMittal announces a group-wide commitment to be carbon neutral by 2050, building on the commitment hired in 2019 for its European effort to reduce emissions by 30% by 2030 and be carbon neutral by 2050. Commenting on the net zero target by 2050, before addressing the challenge of decarbonising the steel industry today at the Financial Times Commodities Conference, Aditya Mittal, President and CFO, said: “If the world is to reach net zero by 2050, all parts of the economy in all regions of the world will need to contribute. As the world's leading steel company, we believe we have a responsibility to lead efforts to decarbonise the steelmaking process, which today has a significant carbon footprint. “Steel will remain a vital material for our world and in fact it is the most circular material of all. Our challenge is to be able to produce steel using clean energy technologies on a commercial scale, while remaining competitive in the global steel industry. “We are working on various pilot technologies that have excellent potential. In Hamburg, where we own and operate the only DRI-EAF plant in Europe, we will test not only the ability of hydrogen to reduce iron ore and form DRI, but we will also test that carbon-free DRI in the EAF in real steel - manufacturing process. “Hydrogen has great potential but, given the significant transition costs, we also believe in working on solutions for the traditional integrated path. This essentially follows the path of bioenergy, carbon capture, utilization and storage, which, as stressed by both the IPCC and the IEA, will be key to achieving net zero by 2050. What's also interesting about this path is that it has the potential to not only deliver carbon-neutral steel, but also other products that will help the chemical industry produce carbon-neutral plastics. “Crucial to making the goal a reality will be the policy of allowing steel to remain competitive during decarbonisation, particularly as each region of the world moves at a different pace. We intend to actively engage with governments to chart a way forward that will enable the steel industry to make significant progress through a carefully designed policy that protects against carbon leakage. " ArcelorMittal has identified two low-emission steelmaking routes, both of which have the potential to lead to zero-emission steelmaking: • The Hydrogen-DRI pathway, which uses hydrogen as a reducing agent. A demonstration plant in Hamburg, where ArcelorMittal owns the only operational DRI-EAF plant in Europe, is currently planned with a targeted start in 2023. • The Smart Carbon path is focused on modifying the blast furnace path to create carbon neutral steel production through the use of circular carbon - in the form of sustainable biomass or carbon-containing waste streams - and carbon capture and use (CCU) and storage (CCS). ArcelorMittal is well advanced in building several commercial-scale projects to test and demonstrate a range of Smart Carbon technologies. The start-up target for key projects is expected in 2022. While both roads have the potential to deliver carbon-neutral steel by 2050, we believe Smart Carbon can deliver sooner and make a significant contribution to reducing CO2 emissions this decade, while it is unlikely that industrial scale production from the Hydrogen-DRI route may be significant before 2030 due to the current high costs. The Company has also previously outlined the steps in the policy it deems necessary for zero-emission steel production to become a reality, which includes: 1. A global level playing field that avoids the risk of carbon leakage through mechanisms such as green border adjustment 2. Access to abundant and affordable clean energy 3. Policies to support the development of the necessary clean energy infrastructure 4. Access to sustainable finance for low-carbon steelmaking e 5. Policies that accelerate the transition to a circular economy. ArcelorMittal will provide further details in support of its 2050 net zero target in its second climate action report, which is expected to be published by the end of 2020. ArcelorMittal is a member of Energy Transitions Commission (ETC) and is an active member of ETC's ongoing Net Zero Steel Initiative in partnership with the World Economic Forum. ArcelorMittal is also actively engaged with the Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTI) to define a viable SBT for the steel industry taking into account the two distinct routes in operation today. More info Photo: ArcelorMittal

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https://www.arezio.it/ - LyondellBasell: A Renewed Commitment to Sustainable Manufacturing
LyondellBasell: A Renewed Commitment to Sustainable Manufacturing
Saturday, 3rd october 2020 | rNEWS

Same as Total , Eni and for RadiciGroup , whose plans for a sustainable industrial business have been illustrated in the pages of this blog, LiondellBasell, through its press office, communicates to customers and to the market its projects for a production that respects the circular economy and sustainability. LyondellBasell, one of the largest plastics companies, Chemicals and Refining of the World, today released its annual sustainability report with the goal of influencing positive change and focuses on three areas of transformation including plastic waste, climate change and thriving societies. LyondellBasell announced one of the industry's most ambitious goals to produce and market two million tonnes of recycled, renewable-based polymers annually by 2030. The report shows LyondellBasell's strategy and ambitions for the next decade. "LyondellBasell has embarked on a multi-year journey to promote the circular economy and we have made great strides in mechanical and advanced recycling, as well as producing renewable-based products," said Jim Seward, Senior Vice President Research and development, technology and sustainability. "Our goals underline what we see possible in the next decade and our sustainability ambitions require us to adapt our business models. If seen through the lens of technology and innovation, our track record demonstrates our ability to foster new collaborations and partnerships for the benefit of society. " The key elements of LyondellBasell's Sustainability Report involve action on several fronts. The company's ambition is to: Produce and market two million tons of recycled and renewable polymers every year, increase its investments in plastic recovery and recycling and accelerate solutions to end plastic waste.Reduce its CO2 emissions by 15% per ton of product produced compared to 2015 levels by 2030.Promote diversity, inclusion and equity in the workplace by accelerating initiatives, such as creating diversity and inclusion (D&I) in our employee programs, by implementing the D&I officer position and involving a cross-section of leaders to serve as the D&I Council.Join industry peers from the American Chemistry Council and Plastics Europe to ensure 100% plastic packaging is reused, recycled or recovered by 2040. In addition, the company continues to increase recycling and work collaboratively along the value chain, as evidenced by the instrumental role of LyondellBasell CEO Bob Patel in the launch of the Alliance to End Plastic Waste and the continued involvement as an official of the organization. LyondellBasell is also developing advanced recycling with its MoReTec technology, has expanded its mechanical recycling product offering and color offerings through its 50/50 joint venture, Quality Circular Polymers (QCP ), improved plastic design to increase recyclability, and partnered with brand owners to increase product recyclability. Finally, the company made the first parallel production of polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) based on renewable raw materials on a commercial scale. LyondellBasell's Sustainability Report is available on the company's website at https://www.lyondellbasell.com/en / sustainability /. Photography: Lyondellbasell

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https://www.arezio.it/ - New Snetor partnership with Tecnopol for the Italian market
New Snetor partnership with Tecnopol for the Italian market
Friday, 2nd october 2020 | rNEWS

Snetor, the French group active in the world distribution of plastics, has recently signed a partnership with the Italian company Tecnopol, active in the distribution, trade and compounding of thermoplastic polymers, based in Turin, specializing among others in the medical, automotive, furniture and packaging fields. Tecnopol, with a turnover of 60 million euros in 2019, has signed an agreement with Snetor, which provides for the acquisition of up to 70% of Tecnopol's distribution activities, giving life to the Tecnopol Snetor group.  The remaining 30% of the capital will remain in the hands of the previous Tecnopol owners (Giancarlo Rizzi and Alberto Borio) who will continue to hold the roles of Managing Directors and management of the Italian reality to give continuity and growth to the company.  Furthermore, the agreement envisages to combine the activities of Snetor Iberica and Tecnopol by creating a new entity that distributed on the Spanish market 60% controlled by Snetor and 40% by Tecnopol.  Tecnopol's compounding activity, through Omikron, remains out of the agreement between the companies but Tecnopol Snetor will deal with the distribution of its products.  Snetor, a company with over 35 years of history and more than one billion euros in annual turnover, present in the American, European and African continent with 19 of its own offices, will strengthen its distribution presence in Europe through this partnership, entering directly into the Italian market, according to of importance in Europe. Do you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - What is Happening to the Arctic Forests Due to Pollution?
What is Happening to the Arctic Forests Due to Pollution?
Friday, 2nd october 2020 | rNEWS

We have discussed in previous articles the devastating action of man on the exploitation of Amazon forest and on the exploitation of timber in forests of Romania but now we find it interesting to propose an article published in Science which informs about the situation of Russian arctic forests due to pollution caused by human industrial activities. Rampant air pollution in northern Siberia is blocking sunlight and slowing the growth of boreal forests, suggests new research Largest study on tree rings in Norilsk , the most polluted city in Russia and the northernmost city in the world, found that air pollution from local mines and smelters is alme not partly responsible for a phenomenon known as "Arctic darkening". Similar to `` global dimming '', this more regional effect occurs when tiny particles - from air pollution, volcanic eruptions and dust - collect in the atmosphere, where they absorb or partially disperse energy solar, interfering with the availability of light, evaporation and hydrology. the terrain. Long-term observations and satellite measurements have shown that the amount of solar radiation reaching the Arctic surface has decreased since the middle of the century, but it was unclear whether this was due to human pollution in the region . Today, after nearly a century of heavy and unregulated mining, the death of trees near Norilsk has extended up to 100 kilometers, but this is one of the first studies to link that dwindling forest with reduced sunlight. "Although the problem of sulfur emissions and forest dieback has been successfully addressed in much of Europe, for Siberia we have not been able to see what the impact has been, to a great extent. partly due to a lack of long-term monitoring data, "says Ulf Büntgen, an environmental systems analyst at the University of Cambridge. Yet this region is one of the most heavily polluted in the world. Then, by reading thousands of living and dead coniferous tree rings surrounding the city of Norilsk, researchers tried to piece together what happened to this once pristine forest. Using wood and soil chemistry, they mapped the extent of Norilsk's uncontrolled environmental devastation over the course of nine decades. "We can see that trees near Norilsk started dying massively in the 1960s due to rising pollution levels," says Büntgen. Using solar radiation reaching the surface as a proxy for air pollution, the team's models provide "strong evidence" that Arctic darkening has substantially reduced tree growth since the 1970s. Today, the authors say, even the boreal forests in Eurasia and northern North America have largely become a "landfill for large concentrations of anthropogenic air pollutants", and hence the effects of darkening Arctic could be felt much more broadly outside the Norilsk region studied here. Unfortunately, due to large-scale circulation patterns, we know that pollutants tend to accumulate in the Arctic atmosphere, which means that ecosystems to the north can be particularly vulnerable to global pollution as a whole. . Even knowing this, the authors were not prepared for the scale of the problem they had discovered. "What surprised us is how widespread the effects of industrial pollution are: the extent of the damage shows how vulnerable and sensitive the boreal forest is," says Büntgen. "Given the ecological importance of this biome, pollution levels in the northern high latitudes could have a huge impact on the entire global carbon cycle." Nor is pollution the only threat to these precious ecosystems, sometimes described as "lungs" for our planet. It appears that climate change is also altering the diversity of boreal forests, as more intense and frequent fires are wiping out huge swaths of Siberia every year, contributing to further regional air pollution. While some models of global warming suggest that tree growth will increase with climate change, new research highlights that air pollution could overcome this, meaning trees in the Arctic north will grow more slowly and weaker than before. Further research should examine how air pollution could lead to a reduction in solar radiation by absorbing solar radiation directly or indirectly through its effects on clouds. Given the importance of these boreal forests as a carbon sink and how vulnerable they appear to be, the authors ask for more information on the long-term effects of industrial emissions on the world's northernmost forests. "This study appears particularly timely in light of the unprecedented release in Norilsk of more than 20,000 tons of diesel in 2020," they write, "an environmental disaster that underscores the threat of Norilsk's industrial sector under rapid Arctic warming and thawing of permafrost, and also underlines the ecological vulnerability of the high northern latitudes. " Carly Cassella, Science Machine translation from English. We apologize for any linguistic inaccuracies.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - India: the freeze of the country revises the Himalaya
India: the freeze of the country revises the Himalaya
Thursday, 1st october 2020 | Environment

Besieged by pollution, Indian cities live immersed in a permanent haze A little enviable record of pollution is held by India which, due to its large population, from urban gatherings and from a sublime environmental policy, is counted among the countries that produce the greatest air pollution in the world. Perhaps it is a fact of culture that the environmental problem is not widely felt in the country, so that the sources of pollution are part of the daily life of the population.  The use of charcoal for cooking, the crazy traffic made up of means of transport that do not have systems for the reduction of polluting emissions, the habit of burning garbage especially plastic , coal-fired power plants that support the production of electricity , the incineration of stubble in the countryside to prepare new crops and atmospheric emissions from factories. At this moment, China , considered the country that produced the most pollution in the world, is gearing up to deal with a problem that has also become social, public health, leaving India with a sad record. Pollution deaths increased from 740,000 deaths in 1990 to 1,100,000 in 2015 , covering the fourth leading cause of death in India, with a growing progression that never ends, as, for now, an overall project to reduce the polluting sources not seen yet. Despite the launch of the Ncap project , which envisages the reduction of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in metropolitan areas, the results are currently not visible and assessable. In the meantime, the Coronavirus has arrived , which has imposed the lockdown for a few weeks by closing factories, blocking air flights, road traffic, subways, thus giving the country an environmental respite. Following these total restrictions, a drastic reduction in fine dust and other pollutants usually present in Indian skies occurred within two weeks, making new aspects of nature discovered. In some areas of the country, hundreds of kilometers away, we returned to admire the Himalayan chain which, according to the inhabitants of Panjab, had not been seen for 20 years. The children had a marvelous view of a mountain range which they only knew existed in the books.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Circular economy and bio building: rice waste
Circular economy and bio building: rice waste
Thursday, 1st october 2020 | Circular economy

How to reconsider waste vegetable products for green building in a circular economy perspective. Was the egg or the hen born first? A witty joke that could easily be applied to the combination of green building – circular economy . In fact, we can say that the two fields feed on each other, making the waste and scraps market available to the construction products industry, for the creation of increasingly green products. In fact, in the past there is a vast documentation that describes how man had always tried to improve the health and livability of his homes , making the best use of what nature made available to him, both from an environmental and raw materials he could count on. The slow evolution of construction processes and materials , over the centuries, has seen a slow but steady improvement in the housing performance of the buildings built, especially when bricks, glass, rudimentary thermal insulation, sewage systems and many others were used innovations. But the real turning point occurred during the nineteenth century , when the great availability of energy from fossil sources , coinciding with technological progress, created a new form of architecture, also understood as materials, based heavily on the future development of industrial power and production in series of building elements. This transformism led to a progressive departure from the centrality of the environment and nature in construction works and its projects. Around the 70s of the last century, doubts about the sustainability of the materials used and the wild cementing method that eroded the soil, polluted the environment and wasted energy resources also began to grow in the construction sector. The process that led to a new awareness between construction and the environment manifested itself, slowly, through different roads: the oil crises caused the increase in the cost to heat the houses, pushing the creation of the first thermal insulators, urban pollution led to the study of new forms of exploitation of domestic energy, the growth of a new environmental awareness questioned a series of materials that are difficult to recycle. The idea of a new circularity in the use of the buildings and the materials that compose them, revolutionized the system from the design stages, in which concepts such as green building and circular economy of waste were inserted. Today, this new course revolves around the environmental impact of the building , through the tool of the eco-budget, which must consider all the phases of the structure’s life, that is, it means analyzing the impact of the building in the phase before its construction, during the life of the building and after its existence, understood as the recovery of the materials that made it up. Using the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology, adapted, not to individual products, but to an entire building, we want to make an overall assessment of the project respecting the following parameters: Compatibility: which consists in evaluating the work in the environmental context from an economic point of view, intended as less general waste over time. Well-being: understood as the integration of man in balance with nature and its resources. Recycling and reuse: intended as the search for a construction, even of a dry type, in which the elements could be easily dismantled and reused at the end of the cycle. From these concepts new forms of research are born that want to retrace the circularity of the materials to be used, to create others suitable for buildings, trying to minimize the withdrawal of raw materials from the environment. In this context, the materials, understood as raw materials, that come from the waste of rice processing , reused as eco-compatible components, aimed at the creation of new construction elements, move. By discarding the rice , we can identify the part that wraps it, called chaff or husk , which results after processing, by stripping (mechanical cleaning action of the rice grain) of the product collected in the field, whose refusal affects from 17 to 23 % by weight. The husk has a very hard and light consistency , with a density of about 135-140 Kg./m3 and has excellent characteristics expressed in the immutrescibility and attack by insects. Since the nutrient supply of the product is very low (3.3% protein and 1.1% fat) it is not generally used as animal feed. In the field of furniture, rice husk is used, in compound with resins, to create an artificial wood , suitable for the construction of docks, piers and outdoor urban furniture by virtue of the high waterproof properties, resistance to the sun, rain , salt and snow. In the field of housing construction, rice husk is used in some production processes:  Lightened screeds with strong thermo-acoustic insulation qualities  Plaster and finishing mortars through a mix of rice husk, siliceous aggregates and clay  Outdoor paints composed of lime milk and rice husk  Indoor and outdoor wall panels for thermo-acoustic insulation, made up of rice husk, magnesium oxide and soy starch with the function of binder. The products composed of rice husk, straw and lime are light, tough, with thermal and acoustic and breathable characteristics.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - ENI: Harnessing the Energy that Comes from the Sea
ENI: Harnessing the Energy that Comes from the Sea
Thursday, 1st october 2020 | rNEWS

We have already been involved in several articles on the great potential that the sea could give us in the form of energy produced by the wave motion. We are still in the study phase on how to permanently exploit this completely clean and inexhaustible resource. For this reason, ENI, an international hydrocarbon company and the University of Tornino have joined together to accelerate these studies. The energy of sea represents the largest renewable energy source in the world: it is estimated that the waves could develop a power along the terrestrial coasts on a global level equal to 2 TeraWatts, about 18 trillion kilowatt hours per year, or almost the annual need for electricity of the planet. Furthermore, wave energy is predictable, more modulated than other renewable sources and more continuous. Enhancing this high-potential energy source is the purpose of the joint research laboratory created by the Polytechnic of Turin and Eni MORE - Marine Offshore Renewable Energy Lab - inaugurated today in the presence of the Minister of University and Research, Gaetano Manfredi, of the President of Eni , Lucia Calvosa, Eni's CEO, Claudio Descalzi, and the Rector of the Polytechnic Guido Saracco.  The MORE Laboratory further concretizes the collaboration between the Polytechnic of Turin and Eni, ratified last January with the renewal of a partnership agreement, which provides for the establishment and joint work of researchers from Eni and the University in the laboratory, with the goal of contributing to a further growth of know-how in this matter of great interest both to Eni and to the University and to a rapid industrial implementation of technologies for the exploitation of marine energy resources. The Laboratory will allow to broaden the joint field of action to the study of all marine energy sources, investigating not only wave motion but also offshore wind and solar power, ocean and tidal currents and the saline gradient.  The MORE Lab is based at the Politecnico, with the use of research infrastructures of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and also sees integration with the following Eni structures: the Marine Virtual Lab, at the HPC5 supercomputing center in Ferrera Erbognone and the offshore test area in Ravenna, where the pre-prototype phase of the wave converter ISWEC (Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter) is being evaluated, the first plant in the world for hybrid and distributed electricity generation from wave motion and photovoltaic; a technology born from the research laboratories of the Politecnico and developed by the spin-off of the University Wave for Energy, selected, optimized and industrialized by Eni and in operation since March 2019 in the Ravenna offshore. ISWEC has demonstrated high reliability and ability to adapt to different sea conditions, thanks to its active control and regulation system. In fact, during the period of operation, the maximum nominal value of installed power of 50 kW was exceeded.  In addition, the Laboratory will also network with the test site of the Politecnico in Pantelleria, where other aspects of the same technology are tested in an ecosystem, that of the island, which aims at energy autonomy and at zeroing the landscape impact.  About 50 researchers will be involved in MORE Lab research, including permanent staff and PhD students / undergraduates of the Polytechnic, with whom Eni will interface, with its own professionalism, for a rapid growth of specific know-how and for the industrial finalization of technologies . The Center will have at its disposal a naval test tank and state-of-the-art laboratories for the development and dry test of prototypes and a high-performance computing center. The Laboratory will also make use of a specific chair on "Energy from the Sea", which will aim to train engineers specialized in the design, implementation and use of new technologies that will be developed in the laboratory.  Eni CEO Claudio Descalzi commented: "Eni's commitment to the development of technologies that will play a key role in the decarbonization process becomes increasingly concrete thanks to the research work conducted together with the Polytechnic of Turin in the MORE Labs that will allow us to optimize technologies to make them increasingly efficient, competitive and accelerate the industrialization process of marine energies ". "In a sector such as renewable energy and sustainability, the development of innovative solutions created in close collaboration with the industrial world - therefore ready to be used on the market - is very central to our University", commented the Rector of the Polytechnic Guido Saracco. "The research and innovation laboratories and projects developed with Eni in the MORE Labs will be crucial in the coming years to significantly contribute to finding solutions to achieve the decarbonisation and emission reduction targets that Europe is is given ". from eni.comDo you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Ds Smith: Leader in the Packaging Sector presents
Ds Smith: Leader in the Packaging Sector presents
Wednesday, 30th september 2020 | rNEWS

As reported by Adn Kronos, Ds Smith, a leading company in the multi-sector packaging sector has launched an initiative called "for the present and the future" in which it is concretely committed to taking decisive steps towards sustainability of its production chain. Let's see which ones. Ds Smith , a sustainable packaging company, today launches its new sustainability strategy, "For the present and for the future", which outlines commitments and goals for the next decade. Ds Smith will continue to focus on transitioning to a circular economy by partnering with customers, communities, governments and opinion leaders to foster recycling and regenerate natural systems, and will continue to focus on reducing CO2 while protecting biodiversity and reducing water consumption. "It is essential that our drive to redefine packaging continues to place circularity at the center of our business, as solution providers that meet the new needs of a constantly evolving world - says Miles Roberts, CEO of DS Smith - La new strategy allows us to go beyond our solid circular business model, allowing us to provide more sustainable solutions to our customers and society at large, replacing plastics, reducing CO2 emissions from our supply chain and providing alternative recycling solutions " . The strategy defines four fundamental pillars, together with a constant commitment to reduce CO2 emissions by 30% compared to 2015 and to protect the forests and biodiversity in which it operates. Closing the cycle through better design, by 2023 it will produce 100% recyclable or reusable packaging and its goal is the recycling or reuse of all is its packaging by 2030. Protect natural resources by harnessing every fiber: by 2025, it will optimize the use of fiber for individual supply chains in 100% of its new packaging solutions and by 2030 it aims to optimize every fiber for all supply chains. Reduce waste and pollution through circular solutions: by 2025, it will eliminate 1 billion pieces of plastic from supermarket shelves, remove 250,000 trucks from the road and work with partners to find solutions for difficult packaging to recycle. Meanwhile, by 2030, it aims to use packaging and recycling to make the circular economy possible, replacing plastics, reducing customers' carbon emissions and eliminating consumer packaging waste. Offer tools for people to lead the transition to a circular economy: by 2025 it will involve 100% of its staff in the circular economy, and by 2030 it will involve 5 million people in adoption of adequate lifestyles. "For the present and for the future", explains Wouter van Tol, Head of Sustainability, Community and Government Affairs, "positions Ds Smith at the forefront of the packaging sector and defines a clear roadmap for address immediate challenges, while working to meet the needs of the next generation, creating solutions in line with circular economy principles. By adopting a comprehensive system approach, we have a tremendous opportunity to accomplish significant progress with respect to our environmental, social and governance responsibilities ". Following measurable progress towards its nine long-term sustainability goals, the 'For now and for the future' sustainability strategy was introduced as part of a vision and strategic review to achieve the title of leading supplier of sustainable packaging. Last year, DS Smith achieved a number of sustainability milestones, including an 11% reduction in emissions in 2019 compared to 2015 on a consistent basis and 100% involvement in the programs of the community throughout its site employing more than 50 people. It produced over 17 billion boxes in 2019/20 and is Europe's largest paper and cardboard recycler, handling 6 million tonnes per year and recycling more than it consumes. Ds Smith is one of 16 strategic partners of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the recognized global authority on the circular economy. By Adn Kronos Photo: Ds Smith Do you want to publish an article for free? Send the text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Radici Group organizes two Informative Webinars
Radici Group organizes two Informative Webinars
Tuesday, 29th september 2020 | rNEWS

Radici Group announces two dates in which two webinars will be organized which will aim to update customers on company news regarding polyamide. RadiciGroup High Performance Polymers - a multinational company active in the development and production of polymers for engineering use - presents its latest innovations during two webinars, in collaboration with the UL Prospector digital platform. During the first session (14 October), RadiciGroup experts will focus on innovative solutions for e-mobility, high-temperature polyamides and the design of advanced structural components. The webinar scheduled for October 28 will be dedicated to Sustainability, with an overview of the grades of polyamide containing post-industrial recycled raw materials. Furthermore, particular attention will be paid to the new trends and challenges posed by the electric / electronic market. Click here for more information and to register for webinars (in English): Webinar 14 October 9.00 a.m. EDT (3.00 pm CEST) Innovative polymers solutions in a fast evolving market - Part one https://knowledge.ulprospector.com/10931/pe-webinar-innovative-polymers-solutions-in-a-fast-evolving-market-part-one / Webinar 28 October 9.00 a.m. EDT (2.00 pm CET) Innovative polymers solutions in a fast evolving market - Part two https://knowledge.ulprospector.com/10992/pe-webinar-innovative-polymers-solutions-in-a-fast-evolving-market-part -two / If you wish to submit an article for publication click here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - TOTAL's Work on Biodiversity
TOTAL's Work on Biodiversity
Tuesday, 29th september 2020 | rNEWS

The new press release from the French group Total contains the effort that the company claims to make to create a business with the lowest possible environmental impact and respectful of environmental laws. Against the backdrop of the United Nations General Assembly, Total, which has just been recognized as a Global Compact Lead by the United Nations, is committed to biodiversity by extending its ambition into four areas main: 1. Voluntary Exclusion Zones : Total undertakes, in recognition of the universal value of UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites, not to conduct any exploration or extraction of oil or gas in these areas. Total also undertakes not to conduct any oil exploration in the Arctic sea ice. 2. New projects : Biodiversity action plans will be developed for any new site located in an area of interest for biodiversity, i.e. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) protected areas from I to IV and the areas of Ramsar. Furthermore, the Group is committed to implementing measures to produce a net positive impact on biodiversity for each new project located in an IUCN I or II or Ramsar area. 3. Existing sites : On each environmentally significant existing site (exploration and production sites, refineries, petrochemical sites, gas-fired power plants) that is ISO 14001 certified, a plan will be implemented action on biodiversity. Total will report its distribution to various interested parties. When a site disrupts its operation, Total also commits to considering the development of a dedicated area rich in biodiversity (e.g. rare species habitat, biodiversity sanctuaries, etc.) as one of the options for its rehabilitation. 4. Promoting Biodiversity : As part of the Total Foundation's Climate, Coastal and Oceans program, Total will support biodiversity awareness programs, youth education and research actions. Total is also committed to sharing biodiversity data collected as part of our environmental studies for the Group's projects with the scientific community and the general public. "The planet's rich biodiversity is threatened. Total's inclusion of biodiversity dates back to some time ago, but the current degradation of the environment is a reality that requires all of us to make a important change, collectively and individually. For this reason, Total is taking a step back to increase its biodiversity ambitions and commitments, and this will contribute to the Group's ambition to become the largest energy manager, "he announced. Patrick Pouyanné, President and CEO of Total. Total had adopted a biodiversity policy by 2005, in order to realize the global recognition of these issues by the Group. In 2016, the Group undertook to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations, including those related to biodiversity. In 2018 Total signed the act4nature initiative led by the French entrepreneurial association Association Française des Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE). Total contacts Media relations: +33 1 47 44 46 99 l presse@total.com l @TotalPress Investor Relations: +44 (0) 207 719 7962 l ir@total.com Image: by TOTAL If you wish to submit an article for publication click here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - TOTAL acquires the Electric Charging Points of Blue Point London
TOTAL acquires the Electric Charging Points of Blue Point London
Tuesday, 29th september 2020 | rNEWS

Blue Point London was sold to the French company TOTAL as stated by Total itself in the last disclosure of the group. The diversification of the hydrocarbon extraction and transformation company in the field of renewable energy and sustainability continues. Total has signed the acquisition of "Blue Point London" from the Bolloré Group. With this transaction, Total acquires the management and operation of Source London, the largest electric vehicle charging network in the city, which includes more than 1,600 on-road charging points. Launched in 2010, the current Source London network was developed in partnership with the London Boroughs and currently accounts for more than half of the charging points in operation in the capital. Source London's growth prospects are supported by the City of London's ambition to be a carbon-neutral city by 2050, specifically with the aim of increasing the number of charging points within five years.  Total is also committed to supplying this charging network with electricity 100% guaranteed from renewable sources, which will be supplied by its subsidiary Total Gas & amp; Power Limited. Already active in the installation and operation of charging point networks in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam (Netherlands) and in the Brussels-Capital region (Belgium), this acquisition in the United Kingdom strengthens Total's position as a key player in electric mobility in Europe. The Group thus continues its development in major European cities, in line with its ambition to operate more than 150,000 charging points for electric vehicles by 2025.  "By combining these existing infrastructures today with Total's know-how in terms of installation, operation and management of public electric vehicle charging networks, we are starting a new phase, supporting the expansion of electric mobility in London." said Alexis Vovk, President, Marketing & amp; Services from Total. "In collaboration with our partners and local authorities, we will be able to meet both the strong growth in demand for on-road charging points and the needs for new user mobility solutions Londoners ". & nbsp; This transfer of business will have no impact on existing users of the Source London service. This transaction is expected to close by the end of the year.  About Total in the UK  Total is present throughout the UK energy value chain. It has been present in the country for over 50 years and employs over 2,000 people.  Upstream, Total is one of the country's leading oil and gas operators, with equity production of 189,000 boe / day in 2019. It comes mainly from offshore fields operated in three main areas: the Alwyn / Dunbar area in the North Sea north, the Elgin / Franklin and Culzean areas in the central North Sea and Laggan-Tormore hub in West Shetland.  Total has also entered the UK's offshore wind renewable energy market, with Erebus off the coast of Wales and Seagreen off the coast of Scotland.  Downstream, Total is one of the UK's largest suppliers of gas and electricity to businesses and the public sector. The Group is also present in the marketing of petroleum products including lubricants, aviation fuel, bitumen and special fluids.  TOTAL Contacts: Media Relations: +33 1 47 44 46 99 l presse@total.com l @ TotalPress  Investor Relations: +44 (0) 207 719 7962 l ir@total.com If you wish to submit an article for publication click here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Plastic Tax and Stock Exchange Quotes
The Plastic Tax and Stock Exchange Quotes
Tuesday, 29th september 2020 | rNEWS

The Plastix Tax which will come into force in Europe in the course of 2021 could create a virtuous circle of the stock market listings of companies that deal with waste recovery and sorting, but a question for the other companies in the plastic. Let's see what the FOL editorial team suggests. Back to top the plastic tax argument that had long held court last fall. The Italian plastic tax will start in January 2021 provides for the payment of 45 cents for every kilo of plastic disposable products sold. Economy Minister Roberto Gualtieri last July pointed out in a hearing in the Chamber of Deputies that the 2021 Budget Law will work in order to avoid duplication and excessive burdens for companies, i.e. in order to avoid double taxation between the Italian and European plastic tax (also starting from January 2021). The latest press indications speak of the possibility of widening the scope of the plastic tax also to wholesalers. As reported by Il Sole 24 Ore, the government is in fact working on the hypothesis of widening the scope of application of the plastic tax to wholesalers as well. The hypothesis of including the operators of large-scale distribution warehouses is also being studied. The newspaper headed by Confindustria explains how in the next financial maneuver or in a related tax decree, a balance of the tax structure consistent with the market will be sought, the univocal definition of the products on which to apply it and the reduction of procedures and administrative burdens. The titles of Piazza Affari that look interested Developments also watched with interest by some players of Piazza Affari. The application of the plastic tax is in fact a positive driver for investments in waste treatment and recycling plants. Particularly exposed Hera (25% Ebitda) which, with the acquisition of Aliplast, has been producing plastics and recycled products for some years. "The products of this segment will be increasingly used - remark the Equita SIM experts - precisely because of the introduction of specific taxation which in the next few years will be further exacerbated by European directives (in Europe taxation of 0.8 euro is already foreseen for Kg) ". The Italian government will also have to issue a specific directive on the strategy in the circular economy in the coming months "from which we expect a boost to investments in waste treatment plants" , adds Equita which indicates a significant exposure also for A2A (24% Ebitda) and IREN (18% Ebitda). Less exposed Acea (5% Ebitda). Article from the editorial staff of FOL You want to publish an article for free? Send your text and a photo here.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - When Capital is Color Blind to Green Investing
When Capital is Color Blind to Green Investing
Monday, 28th september 2020 | Environment

We would now seem to have entered a phase of sure interest towards the green economy, of innovative startups that deal with eco-sustainable agriculture, of discoveries for the reduction of atmospheric pollution, of seas and soils, of a mobility with a low carbon footprint ... but is that right?  Despite the European Commission chaired by Ursula von der Leyen, it has traced a clear and unambiguous path on a development model more compatible with the needs of the earth and, despite being on the other side of the ocean, the president of the United States, Donald Trump, is rowing in the opposite direction by even withdrawing his country from the Paris climate agreement, the business world is holding the helm straight in deciding how and where to invest the money available. In fact, beyond the state proclamations and people's opinion movements, money moves in the interest of profit which, at times, can be crossed with the interests of politics and opinion public and sometimes not. It cannot be said that social business exists, as money is invested today with ever shorter time horizons than in years, decades or the last century. Thanks to the computerization of economic systems, investors bet on activities that are hoped to have very high returns in a very short time. An example can be seen by observing the performance of some technological stocks and services related to the web, such as Google, Apple, Amazon, Tesla, just to name a few, which have increased their value during the period of the explosion of Covid in a completely surprising way, in an extremely limited space of time, with double-digit percentage growth values. This is unlikely to happen in a traditional economy, and it is increasingly common to see how world capitals turn to businesses with exponential growth in short periods. How is it possible to attract investments in green projects that must change or solve the production, consumption or mobility anomalies that afflict our planet, whose projects take years or decades to implement? Any investor is interested in bringing drinking water to some metropolises, such as Mumbai, where the return on investment would be assured but in the face of the construction of a water network whose times would obviously be long? It would seem not, in fact every day hundreds of trucks bring water to the city, emitting tons of CO2, but there is no capital to modernize the water network and reduce air pollution. This is just one example of the paradox of finance, which affects the maintenance of inefficient and polluting systems, despite having the resources and means to solve environmental problems. Automatic translation. We apologize for any inaccuracies. Original article in Italian.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - E-waste: the recycling of survival
E-waste: the recycling of survival
Friday, 25th september 2020 | Circular economy

When dangerous work is done by the poor. Computers, refrigerators, televisions, mobile phones, batteries, cables, microwave ovens, air conditioners and screens , these are the electronic waste from which precious metals are obtained to be resold. But to undo these objects economically and without environmental constraints, a clandestine economy has been created made up of people on the threshold of survival who for little money go from desperation to a dangerous everyday life. There are many sites scattered around the world, from those closest to Europe, such as Palestine to the most distant, such as the outskirts of large African or South East Asian cities. The common thread of these traffics have common motives, they create small-but numerous illegal dumps – which escape the bland control of the local authorities (in some cases the controls do not really exist), in which these objects coming from the modern consumerism are poured coming dismantled to recover what is valuable inside. The working methods are archaic and create a very high rate of pollution due to the dispersion in the ground of the acid of the batteries , of the sewage deriving from the incineration of the plastic cables that surround the copper strands , from the air pollution due to of these fumes which, day after day, obscure the skies in which the families of workers live. But what is inside a mobile phone? – ABS 30% – 15% copper – 8% epoxy resins – 3% iron – Silicone 10% – Pottery 16% – Other 18% The poor populations living in this underground economy suffer from the increase in tumors , the high rate of lead in the blood, the poisoning of crops due to lands now compromised by chemical agents spilled daily. The controls by the authorities in many cases are non-existent because the poverty of some areas of our planet seems to justify a corrupt and softening economy, where immediate survival is set up with respect to the medium-term effects of pollution on people and on the environment in which they live. The theory of being able to “eat today” would seem to be a placebo for all ills, without considering that the techniques and systems for a correct recycling of e-waste obviously exist but the market prefers to make a lower recycling price on the shoulders of the poor people, without further prospects and above all silent.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - How customers view your company: Battleship or small boat?
How customers view your company: Battleship or small boat?
Monday, 14th september 2020 | General News

In small and medium-sized companies, where the role of the owner or manager in charge of management is the focus of the business, it can be easy to have a not entirely precise vision of how the company is seen by the market. Observing your company from the inside, every day, in its entirety or through the activities of the various company branches, you can create impressions on the work, on the potential, on the service, on the relationships with customers and suppliers, on the degree of appreciation of activities and loyalty over time, which could be biased and not entirely objective. When major problems arise in one of these areas, the management sets in motion a whole series of proven actions that are aimed at resolving the dispute or the obvious dissatisfaction that has arisen. But the actions that could improve, every day, the importance of the brand, increase sales, position the company on new markets, increase customer satisfaction, increase the trust of suppliers, when critical issues are not revealed, are more difficult to intercept and understand from the inside. It is difficult to realize the level of satisfaction that the market has of the various business sectors, as procedures for quantifying customer and supplier satisfaction are rarely put into practice, perhaps for fear of receiving criticism. It is therefore of fundamental importance the collaboration with a consultant, specialized in the reference market of the company, who has the purpose of studying the work flow from an external position, which allows him, knowing the dynamics of the market from the two parties (suppliers and customers), to independently understand what could be improved within the company. An analysis of the various company sectors allows us to understand the degree of internal communication, the quality of the services offered with respect to customer expectations towards the company, the existence and effectiveness or otherwise of external communication and the ability to solve problems , which are generated by working constructively. Consulting on these aspects allows the entrepreneur to acquire notions and proposals for improvement, from a point of view not influenced by the daily rhythm of work and the habit of executing standard business procedures, but tries to bring a critical assessment of the value of the company on the market. The worst thing is to think that you are a battleship and be labeled as a small boat, without knowing it.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Oil, methane, hydrogen: past-present-future
Oil, methane, hydrogen: past-present-future
Friday, 11st september 2020 | Renewable energies

Oil, methane and hydrogen: How are we facing the energy transition from fossil sources?Looking around it seems that nothing is changing, we go to the distributor to fill our cars with gasoline or diesel , we see some methane cars circulating, a few frankly, some rare electric cars. There are still cities that use diesel for heating and hot water , many factories that have industrial processes fueled by fossil fuels and road transport devours diesel fuel like a flood. Sea transport and air traffic depend on oil derivatives and have a significant impact on air pollution. There are power plants that produce electricity that still run on coal and despite everything, there is a lot of talk about renewable energy but, in everyday life, we struggle to see them expressed. In reality, the de-carbonization process in some areas of the world has started, with the conversion from fossil to renewable sources, a process that will take time and will require investment. In the past there was only oil , which provided, once refined, all the energy we needed. It pollutes, yes, we have always known it, but we have always pretended nothing, indeed, even today there are those who claim that climate change does not depend also on oil . The danger we feared, by pronouncing the word “Petroleum”, was that sooner or later it could end, thus having to give up our comforts. Then methane came, not that we had called him to our bedside for an environmental issue, but because it was cheaper and therefore he was immediately nice to us. The experts, introduced to the oil sector , did not like these great sympathies and to avoid an important transfer of customers, which would have undermined the margins of the oil industry, they claimed that the gas reserves were very limited compared to the oil ones, therefore the market of gas saw a surge in prices so as to secure the oil business. Today things have recovered, as the protection of the environment is on the agenda of any citizen, so things are seen in a less unilateral way. The gas reserves estimated in 2006 in 25 years of availability today have reached 200 years, bringing the price of gas, for example in the United States, to a value ten times lower than that of 2006. Compared to oil, natural gas today it costs about half, making purchases attractive. The move away from oil is also materializing with the increase in the production of bio-methane, which will give a big hand, both in environmental terms and in the management of municipal waste , very important, helping the energy conversion. In this perspective, the energy source to make road and sea transport work can be gradually replaced by gas with considerable CO2 savings. As for electricity production plants or waste-to-energy plants that will be able to enjoy the use of natural gas or bio-gas for their operation by reducing the carbon footprint. And what is the future? The future today is called Hydrogen , an element known for many years but for political, economic and technical reasons it has never seen a happy sunrise. The hopes that this energy element will be used on a large scale in the next 10 years is supported by the fact that renewable energies will lower the price of hydrogen production, as well as the industrialization of the production of electrolysers, which are used to obtain hydrogen from the electricity by breaking down the water will help this process. Hydrogen can be used in heavy transport, in the residential sector, in heating and in some industrial activities. The marriage between hydrogen and energy produced from renewable sources will be the keystone for its diffusion, in fact new plants must be designed that are able to transform, for example the energy of the sun, into electricity specifically dedicated to this production. Italy is thinking with interest of the area of North Africa as a preferred source for the production of dedicated solar energy, while Holland thinks of the North Sea for the use of wind energy. There is a great fervor behind the scenes, soon, we hope, the show can also begin for consumers

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Art with the discarding of waste
Art with the discarding of waste
Monday, 7th september 2020 | Circular economy

Zehra Dogan an artist who with “nothing” has created an expressive, involving and therapeutic art For an artist and for his art, materials in the form of colors, pencils, canvases, sheets, materials to be molded and equipment for working them, are the obvious means of expressing oneself through one’s talent. But Zehra Dogan , a Kurdish artist of Turkish nationality, did not have the obvious means of the artists, but he had the art of creating art , with anything that could leave a mark on the newspaper, on the fabric of broken shirts, on sheets to throw, on packaging cartons and on many other worn and lifeless things, suitable for landfills . If he did not have the traditional supports to express himself, he did not even have the traditional means to draw or paint, no pencils, brushes, charcoals, colors, thinners, spatulas and all that an artist needs to create his own art. But how did Zehra Dogan out of nowhere create his art, which is a medicine for the minds of those who look at his works? The disruptive expressive desire, in conditions of imprisonment in Turkish prisons, allowed the artist to create works using his own hair, the remains of tea, turmeric, fruit skins, cigarette ash, menstruation, funds of the coffee, lemon and many other things he found in the junk waste. Many of Zehra’s works concern women , all women who live in conditions of little freedom, little independence and little consideration, bringing a positive feminism to the center of attention, through the attempt to enhance the figure of the woman in the family and in the society, on an equal, but different, level with respect to man. The overcoming of sexism in daily life, in art, in the media and in work, lives it through artistic and journalistic commitment with the prospect of giving voice to women who do not have it. Born in Diyarbakir, Turkey, in 1989 , she attended the art and design faculty of Dicle, obtaining her diploma, finding herself expressing the concepts of her feminism through art and journalism, with the intent to help improve conditions of women in a male-dominated society. After the 2-year and 9-month sentence ended in 2019, Zehira leaves Turkey and moves to London where she exhibits at the Tate Modern. He is also exhibiting 60 works at the Santa Giulia museum in Brescia (IT), produced during his imprisonment, entitled the exhibition “We will also have better days”.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Odors in recycled polymers: how to cope with the problem?
Odors in recycled polymers: how to cope with the problem?
Friday, 4th september 2020 | Technical information

The enhancement of recycled polymers also passes through the solution of the problem of odors. In a circular economy perspective, the recycled polymers that come from post-consumption, therefore from the domestic separate collection, must be valorized, also managing to solve the problem of odors. The need to make greater use of recycled polymers that come from post-consumption has now become a primary issue for the recycling of plastics. As reported in the article published on the plastic and circular economy portal  two fundamental conditions must occur: Remodeling of the aesthetic expectations of finished products made of recycled plastic Reduction or cancellation of the smells that products made with post-consumer input bring with them after production.In the first case it is important to be able to produce more products with recycled plastics , especially those made today with virgin plastics only for aesthetic reasons that could be defined as negligible, thus increasing the consumption of plastic waste. In the second case, the problem of odor still strongly affects the purchase of recycled granules, especially in those countries where the problem of environmental protection is less felt. If we want to give an example, a bottle of detergent produced with a recycled HDPE , after production, maintains a quota of smell (perfume?) Of detergent that comes from the processing of the bottles of the separate collection, in which the fragrances of the liquids previously contained also remain after washing. As you can see, it is not a disabling problem for those who will have to refill the recycled bottle with perfumed liquids, but it is and has always been a topic discussed by polymer buyers. Although things from this point of view are slowly changing, where there are major complications are those products made with PP or PP / PE or LDPE whose raw material has contained food residues, detergents, cosmetics or where the regeneration process has critical issues . The factors that contribute most to the creation of odors are represented by:  Food residues, which create microbiological processes  Cosmetic residues that present difficulties in cleaning during washing  Surfactants that are incorporated into plastics  Contaminations in the washing water of plastic waste  Contaminations caused by the degradation of polymers during the production of granules. To date, a full and definitive solution to the problem, to be applied in the large-scale production of recycled polymers, does not seem to exist yet, in fact, various paths are being followed to try to mitigate and, in the future, resolve the presence of these odors. Coverage of odors There are numerous products on the market, in the form of masterbach, which are used in the extrusion or injection phase of the products, containing various fragrances that help to mitigate a pungent odor like some polymer productions can be. The fragrances are numerous: vanilla, pine, strawberry, orange, lemon, lavender and many others. Mechanical processes There are plants for the production of recycled granules which, during the processing of plastic waste and the production of the granule itself, substantially reduce the sources that generate unpleasant odors. These systems are based on a triple combination of filtration, degassing and suction of volatile parts in order to improve the problem. Scientific research At the same time, research is making progress to try to identify, in a scientific and unequivocal way, the source of the odors of the compounds coming from the separate collection. The German Fraunhofer Institute for Process and Engineering and Packaging ( IVV ) is studying how to improve the recycling processes of post-consumer waste. The work focuses, with an olfactometric and analytical approach, on the study and cataloging of the smells present in post-consumer plastics, evaluating their intensity and origin, identifying the materials that produce them through a chemical analysis. The data collected from these scientific catalogings will help researchers find suitable processes for solving problems caused by microbiological decay, aging of the plastic, chemical results of thermal processes and residues from mechanical processing of plastic that cause unpleasant odors.Analytical control of odors in the laboratory Today, however, we have the possibility, through a laboratory instrumentation, which combines the activity of a gas chromatograph (GC) and an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to have a precise picture on the intensity and nature of the odors that come from the waste from recycle either from the flake or granule produced by post consumer plastics. This tool helps us to identify the annoying components from the odorous point of view in the incoming waste, but also on the raw material produced or on the final products made with recycled plastic, so as to establish corrective actions or, with the customer, an analytical range and not questionable, the level of odors in the products and accepted by the parties.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - Circular economy: waste doesn’t exist – long life waste
Circular economy: waste doesn’t exist – long life waste
Thursday, 3rd september 2020 | Circular economy

We remove the word rejection from the vocabulary of the circular economy It is not an exercise in academic vocabulary, what would like the word Waste to disappear from the vocabulary to be replaced by – Resource – but a provocation that helps us understand how, in a period in which the words – Circular Economy and Waste – take on a ‘importance in general communication, we do a little confusion and difficulty understanding its true terms and implications. The circular model that is so much talked about, is not only to try to do our best, as citizens, to have a life that is more respectful of the environment, therefore reduce packaging, reduce the use of plastic, rationalize the travel by means of vehicles with heat engines, regulate heating or air conditioning to avoid waste, rationalize the use of water, encourage companies to make purchases while respecting the environment and disadvantage those who do not. We could mention many other virtuous behaviors to keep, but we must not forget that the circular economy is achieved through continuous cultural growth that can help our planet. We must not be satisfied with small daily gestures, which are also very important, but we must look, with an open mind , at how to improve our life as “circular ” citizens , because the ideas of many can help the production and distribution system. In the circular economy chain there are still neglected and unexpressed areas, due to communication deficits, a managerial structure and a part of consumers who have not really understood the importance of the topics covered, an incorrect scale of values in which money plays an important role in everyone’s choices. We find these areas in many production and distribution sectors on which we should work better to give a more concrete result to the common project of an economy and a life less impacting on the environment. The first thing to do is to declassify the word waste and reclassify it as a resource . The bottle of water that we throw away is not a waste, to take a trivial example, it is the resource that will allow companies to produce, again, other bottles, clothing, padding for sofas, articles for packaging without affecting natural resources. The second thing is the production of articles with materials that can be 100% recycled, it can no longer happen that the placing on the market of a product, a packaging for example, does not take into account the recyclability parameters and can constitute, for the collectivity, a refusal that is not a resource. The third thing, in the age of super fast internet, is circular cross communication , which means that the production waste of a sector that cannot be reused again within it, can become a resource for other sectors. The web platforms are also used to communicate, in fact, transversally, real-time information that can solve immediate and concrete problems. Each industrial sector is burdened by a part of processing waste which, despite careful analysis, cannot be reused within it, but must be made available to other sectors, so as to be able to discover the potential of the product-waste that it can be used in different fields, so as to create a transversal circular economy. To give some examples, certainly not exhaustive, we can mention: The waste from the paper sector could be valued in the plastic sector Coal combustion waste could be used in the ceramics field The scars of stone processing and demolition in the construction sector Glass waste in furniture and concrete The sludges of some industrial processes can be used in various sectors. The discharges of composite plastics can become powder for compounds The scraps of some non-recyclable plastic waste to be used in the bitumen sector There are many other examples of sectors that already exchange waste-resources , but the problem that the numbers are decidedly low and many of the products described and others not mentioned, today, still end up in landfills and, sometimes, even for lack of communication, which creates new opportunities and a new circular model.

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https://www.arezio.it/ - The Difference Between Communicating and Being Heard in the Age of Circular Economy
The Difference Between Communicating and Being Heard in the Age of Circular Economy
Thursday, 3rd september 2020 | General News

Overwhelmed by the multiple Media we find it hard to see if the market listens to us.The advent of Covid in 2020 has given a further acceleration to the use of IT means to communicate with the market and to create business transactions, resulting in a substantial reduction in human contact at the base of historical relationships between companies and customers. We are therefore faced with an epochal turning point, consumed in a really short period of time, which has changed the foundations on which business relations and corporate communication were based. Those who produce or distribute goods and services, especially in the circular economy, were strongly engaged in the field to inform the users that their company had the right to stay in the virtuous groove of the green economy. This activity is still in its infancy for many companies, where, sometimes, some entrepreneurs have not really focused on how to communicate to the market the green potential of their company, despite the circular economy being the driving aspect of the market. With the advent of covid all traditional communication patterns have been skipped, leaving a great deal of room for online communication, which must have special characteristics in a decidedly overcrowded world. Potential customers expect, as an acquired data, that the services or products they purchase comply with the principles of the circular economy, so they do not expect the company to prove whether or not it belongs to this green line, but expect confirmations and reassurances that the goods or services sold marry every day, this philosophy and that they can generate novelty and improvements from an environmental point of view. To do this, companies that were not yet in the wake of a green economy will have to adapt quickly to the new market and, in general, companies will have to equip themselves with “social” communication systems promoted and managed by consultants specialized in the circular economy. The difference that makes, today, a generalist communication, which could be applied to a detergent or a shoe indistinctly, compared to a communication specialized in recycling and circular economy, lies in the fact that the communication action made by specialists in the sector, allows to impress, in sales, a trust and a confidence towards the customer towards the company that otherwise would be difficult to achieve. This is done through the involvement of the customer or potential such, in the technical processes that relate to the circular economy supply chain related to the company, giving him peace of mind and confidence regarding the good “green” production path of the item that the customer will buy. Confidence and security generate brand attachment and a greater speed of diffusion of products or services driven by customers themselves, creating a virtuous flywheel. The specialization in the field of those who are in charge of corporate communication helps to increase the chances of being heard, critically and actively, in an information market that, due to the swirling pace of news publishing, does not make it easy to listen to the user.

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